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The Giant Former Federal Commissioner Of Work, Alhaji Femi Okunnu
May 19, 2017

Alhaji Femi Okunnu, 84, former Federal Commissioner for Works and Housing and a true-blood Lagosian spoke extensively on the source and origin of Lagosians at [email protected] HE SAID:

There is no no-man’s land. There are always some people who are original settlers. In the case of Lagos, it’s a misnomer to say Lagos is a no-man’s land. It’s rubbish. Absolute rubbish! Lagos was peopled by the Aworis and Awori land spread from Badagry through to Ota. They settled mostly in Ikeja, a division of Lagos. The Idejo chiefs, the white cap chiefs, who are the land owning chiefs, are basically Aworis and some of them are now Obas. I’m talking about the Oniru, The Olumegbon, Aromire, Oluwa, Ojora, Oloto and a couple others.

After them, waves of immigrants, from today’s Niger State, started trooping in. I’m talking of the Tapas, the Nupes. I have Nupe blood. My father’s mother was a daughter of a Nupe man, Umoru from Idunsagbe in Lagos Island. Mind you, I’m talking of my great, great, grand-father; so you can imagine how long we’re talking about and how far our history dates back in Lagos. The Oshodi family of Lagos were originally Tapa. My wife is an Oshodi; Oyekan Oshodi. The Chief Imam of Lagos and all his great grand fathers were Tapa, owing to their vast knowledge in the Quran. Now, you would not say they are not original Lagosians because we’re talking of a history that dates back well over three hundred years.

Later we had another batch of immigrants over a period of time – those who had been taken into slavery in the North and South America and the West Indies but who had been freed following the abolition of slave trade about 170 years ago. Some of them also came in from Freetown, Sierra Leone. That’s where we have the Saro, Eko connection. They settled in the Olowogbowo area.

Then we had the Binis from Benin (present Edo State). They invaded Lagos and settled in the best part of what we now call Isale-Eko. Oba Ado and all successive kings of Lagos are of Benin. You won’t say they are not Lagosians because we are talking of hundreds of years ago.

Yes, I was coming there. The Brazilian Quarters were made up of another set of returnees: the Agustos, the Dasilva, Marinho, Pereira and their descendants, who returned from Brazil and other parts of South America. So when you talk of indigenes of Lagos. These are the people who arrived Lagos Island and environment over two hundred years ago. So there is no controversy over the indigenes of Lagos. It is complete ignorance.

The Binis took over the reign of Lagos by conquest. The Aworis were there before them. They were the original settlers. Iga Idunganran itself was a gift to Oba Ado by Oloye Aromire, a white cap chief. He owned the land that the palace occupies till today. That is why till today, we have sections of Isale-Eko with Bini connections. When you hear of Idumota, Idunsagbe, Idunmaigbo, Idun-tafa; the word idun had bini origin. And then we had some chiefs who came with King Ado. That is another wide area. But suffice to say that Obanikoro, was a medicine chief who came with King Ado; so is Ashogbon. In Bini, it is Asogbon. There is also Bajulaye, who originally was Bazuaye. So the Bini connection is very deep. As a matter of fact, the corpses of all the obas, from King Ado through to Oba Adele I, who died at about 1834, were all taken to Benin for burial. . . . .

# THE NATION 14 05 2017Benin

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Vital Hidden Things About Google You Don’t Know, despite The Fact That You Are A Net Literate

×× Track your Package

If you perform an electronic purchase via eBay or other websites, and you keep on tracking your item via certain websites, then this feature is for you. Now, there is no need to enter your tracking number in the website of the sender or websites such as UPS or Fedex. You can track your package by simply entering the tracking number in the Google search engine and leave the rest to Google to provide you with all the details you seek.

××Barrel roll trick

This is a funny trick done by the Google search engine, which many people are not familiar with. When you enter in the search box of Google the phrase “do a barrel roll”, your Google page will roll around in the screen which is related to some classic games when the chapter ends or winning a certain stage.


×× Klingon as Google Search Engine

This is a hidden feature for Star Trek fans. If you’re a dedicated trekky, then you can experience the Klingon language in Google’s Klingon Search which will add a nice Klingon touch to your search engine, and you may also enjoy using the Klingon translator and dictionary.


×× BeatBox with Google Translate


If you wish to enjoy some singing by Google Translator, then this feature may set free for your creativity. If you put a chain of random letters in Google translator, then you may notice that the “Listen” button in Google translator has changed into “BeatBox”, which means that Google translator will sound the written letters as beatbox. You may try it with this sample made before, and enjoy the beatbox in Google translator. Just copy paste it “pv kkk pkkk pvpvpv ppkk pddd bschk bschk pv zk pv bschk pv pv pv bschk bschk bschk kkkkkkkkkk bschk bsch”

×× Track Your Flight


Do you wish to track a certain flight, by simply using your computer or mobile device and Google? Flight Tracking is another useful feature provided by Google, as you can enter  airline name and the flight number into Google’s search engine and you get results which will provide you with the details of the flight such as the departure and arrival time  other details. This will help you to get the information about any flight, without the need to follow it through other means, such as with the airline itself.

×× Recreation of your gmail

One of the features of Gmail is that it does not recognize dots in its system, so this gives you the ability to create many email addresses by simply adding dots anywhere you want. And also, any email sent to [email protected] and [email protected] will have to end in the same email mailbox, since Gmail does not consider dots as characters; therefore the two emails are treated as the same.

×× Searching Using ~ Tilde ~

You may have used or will use the Google search engine to look for certain terms. However, if you use tilde with the search term, Google will include the related terms or similar words that you were not aware of or perhaps forgot. This feature will definitely help you to have more productive searing results and to find exactly what you are looking for.

×× Google as an Alternative Way.

If you try to visit certain websites at school, university or at your office, and you are stopped from visiting these websites because you are blocked to visit them in these places, you can simply go through an alternative way using Google. Google can be used as a proxy which will allow you to access the page you want and read the material. You can search Google for “how to use Google as a proxy” and find the suitable case for you

×× Games with youtube

No one would feel bored if his/her Smartphone is around. Still, if you are bored and you do not have a Smartphone, you can spend some time with this nice trick. Simply go to YouTube, search for any video, click on it and then type 1980. This will trigger a nice classic game, in which you need to protect your video from the missiles. This game can help you spend some time if you’re feeling bored

×× Efficient Email use

If you use the Gmail more often and communication is part of your job, then this feature may seem simple, but it may also be very effective one. If you have received an email and you want to comment only on a certain part of it, you can highlight the desired section of the text before you click on reply, then by clicking on reply; you include the highlighted text in your reply as a quote and leave the rest of the text out of it.

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The Term CONFUSION, Causes And What It Causes

What is confusion? “to pour together;” “to mingle together;” “to confuse”) is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.


The term “acute mental confusion” is often used interchangeably with

delirium ,in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and the

Medical Subject Headings publications to describe the pathology . These refer to the loss of orientation, or the ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location and personal identity. Mental confusion is sometimes accompanied by disordered

consciousness (the loss of linear thinking) and memory loss (the ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new material).

Let’s see if we can figure out what’s causing your confusion.

Confusion may result from drug side effects or from a relatively sudden brain dysfunction. Acute confusion is often called delirium (or “acute confusional state”),  although delirium often includes a much broader array of disorders than simple confusion. These disorders include the inability to focus attention; various impairments in awareness; and temporal or spatial dis-orientation. Mental confusion can result from chronic organic brain pathologies, such as dementia, as well.



Aluminium Toxicity



Brain Damage

Brain Tumor

Brief Psychotic Disorder







Brain Injury

Heat Stroke




Jet Lag

Kidney Failure

Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

Lassa Fever

Lewy Body Dementia


Lyme Disease


Postpartum Depression

Reye’s Syndrome

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)


Seizure (Epilepsy)

Shock (Medical)

Sick Building Syndrome

Sleep Apnea


Yellow Fever

STDs in Men

Streptococcal Infections

Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke)

Acute Porphyria

West Nile Virus[

Alcoholism= What Is Alcoholism?

Alcoholism is also known as alcohol dependence and alcohol use disorder. It occurs when you drink so much that your body eventually becomes dependent on or addicted to alcohol. When this happens, alcohol becomes the most important thing in your life.

People with alcohol dependence will continue to drink even when drinking causes negative consequences, like losing a job. They may know that their alcohol use negatively affects their lives, but it’s often not enough to make them stop drinking.

Some people may drink alcohol to the point that it causes problems, but they’re not physically dependent on alcohol. This is sometimes referred to as alcohol abuse.

CONCUSSION What is a concussion?

A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). It can occur after an impact to your head or after a whiplash-type injury that causes your head and brain to shake quickly back and forth. A concussion results in an altered mental state that may include becoming unconscious.

Anyone can become injured during a fall, car accident, or any other daily activity. If you participate in impact sports such as football or boxing, you have an increased risk of getting a concussion. Concussions are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause serious symptoms that require medical treatment.

A concussion is different from a contusion. A concussion specifically affects your brain, but contusions are bruises. Contusions can occur on your head, but they aren’t typically serious and tend to resolve within several days..

Description of Confusing Cause and Effect

Confusing Cause and Effect is a fallacy that has the following general form:

1. A and B regularly occur together.

2. Therefore A is the cause of B.

This fallacy requires that there is not, in fact, a common cause that actually causes both A and B.

This fallacy is committed when a person assumes that one event must cause another just because the events occur together. More formally, this fallacy involves drawing the conclusion that A is the cause of B simply because A and B are in regular conjunction (and there is not a common cause that is actually the cause of A and B). The mistake being made is that the causal conclusion is being drawn without adequate justification.

In some cases it will be evident that the fallacy is being committed. For example, a person might claim that an illness was caused by a person getting a fever. In this case, it would be quite clear that the fever was caused by illness and not the other way around. In other cases, the fallacy is not always evident. One factor that makes causal reasoning quite difficult is that it is not always evident what is the cause and what is the effect. For example, a problem child might be the cause of the parents being short tempered or the short temper of the parents might be the cause of the child being problematic. The difficulty is increased by the fact that some situations might involve feedback. For example, the parents’ temper might cause the child to become problematic and the child’s behavior could worsen the parents’ temper. In such cases it could be rather difficult to sort out what caused what in the first place.

In order to determine that the fallacy has been committed, it must be shown that the causal conclusion has not been adequately supported and that the person committing the fallacy has confused the actual cause with the effect. Showing that the fallacy has been committed will typically involve determining the actual cause and the actual effect. In some cases, as noted above, this can be quite easy. In other cases it will be difficult. In some cases, it might be almost impossible. Another thing that makes causal reasoning difficult is that people often have very different conceptions of cause and, in some cases, the issues are clouded by emotions and ideologies. For example, people often claim violence on TV and in movies must be censored because it causes people to like violence. Other people claim that there is violence on TV and in movies because people like violence. In this case, it is not obvious what the cause really is and the issue is clouded by the fact that emotions often run high on this issue.

While causal reasoning can be difficult, many errors can be avoided with due care and careful testing procedures. This is due to the fact that the fallacy arises because the conclusion is drawn without due care. One way to avoid the fallacy is to pay careful attention to the temporal sequence of events. Since (outside of Star Trek), effects do not generally precede their causes, if A occurs after B, then A cannot be the cause of B. However, these methods go beyond the scope of this program.

All causal fallacies involve an error in causal reasoning. However, this fallacy differs from the other causal fallacies in terms of the error in reasoning being made. In the case of a Post Hoc fallacy, the error is that a person is accepting that A is the cause of B simply because A occurs before B. In the case of the Fallacy of Ignoring a Common Cause A is taken to be the cause of B when there is, in fact, a third factor that is the cause of both A and B.

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The Great Fascinating Facts About Dollar

we all know the U.S. dollar as an iconic currency that is recognizable to people around the world.


××The Civil War

Leading up to the Civil War, private banks around the country issued their own paper currencies.

With 10,000 or so of these currencies in circulation as the war broke out, governments soon found it very cumbersome to try and pay debts with many different types of notes. As a result, the $10 Demand Note was the first official paper currency issued in 1861 by the government to help finance the war.

The North began paying debts with a fiat currency called the “greenback”, while Confederate states issued their own paper currency as well. The latter was worthless by the time the Confederacy lost the war.

The Counterfeiting Problem

Around this time, counterfeiting was a widespread problem with greenbacks and all the private notes that were circulating. More than 1/3 of bills were fake at this time.

Sophisticated counterfeit operations were happening in British Canada, and some bank engravers would even moonlight as counterfeiters, using the same plates and dyes they had from their day job.

To deal with the problem, the Secret Service was formed in 1865.

The Modern Dollar

Counterfeiting measures have come a long way since the late 19th century. Today, it’s estimated that less than 0.01% of notes are fake

×× Birth of the Dollar

The failure of the Continental Currency must have been top of mind during the writing of the Constitution. A clause was even added, under Article 1, Section 10, to make sure such a failure would never happen again. It was written that states were not permitted to “coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; [or] make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts.”

And so, the Coinage Act of 1792 created the U.S. dollar as a standard unit of currency. The U.S. Mint was authorized to oversee coinage, and the Act also established a penalty of death for debasing coinage issued by the Mint.

The Almighty Buck

In the 19th Century, a new slang term emerged for the dollar.

Especially in the Great Lakes area, different amounts of money were equated with animal skins. One particular reference showed that in Ohio in 1851, the skin of a muskrat was worth $0.25, and that of a doe was worth $0.50. Meanwhile, the skin of a buck was equal to the “almighty dollar” – and hence, the word “buck” became synonymous with the U.S. dollar.

×× Before the Dollar

For the early colonists, currency was a bit of a free-for-all.

Officially, cash was denominated in pounds, shillings, and pence, but in reality things were a different story. Cash was often scarce, and colonists needed to be innovative to fulfill transactions. At various points in time, they used tobacco, beaver skins, and wampum in the place of money. Some colonies even tried to issue their own fiat currencies – many of which went bust.

As it turned out, the Spanish dollar was often the most abundant form of cash – and this is what led to U.S. currency eventually being denominated in dollars.

×× The Revolution

During the American Revolution in 1775, the Continental Congress issued a money known as the Continental Currency to try and fund the war. The government printed too many, and the value of a Continental diminished rapidly.

Just five years later, after runaway inflation, the Continental was worth 2.5% of its face value. Benjamin Franklin rightly noted that the depreciation of the Continental had, in fact, acted as a tax to pay for the war. Holders of the currency – everyday people – were punished by losing massive amounts of buying power. Interestingly, this is where we get the phrase “Not worth a Continental

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Good Parenthood Contribute Positively To The Teen Life.

A Primary School teacher asked her pupils to write

an essay on ”A wish you want from God?” At the

end of the day, the teacher collected all the essays

given by her pupils. She took them to her house,

sat down and started marking.

While marking the essays, she sees a strange essay

written by one of her pupils. That essay made her

very emotional. Her husband came and sat beside

her and saw her crying. The husband asked her,

“What happened?” “What’s making you cry”

She answered “Read this. It is one of my pupil’s


“Oh God, Make me a Television. I want to live like

the TV in my house.

In my house, the TV is very valuable. All of my

family members sit around it. They are very

interested in it. When the TV is talking, my parents

listen to it very happily.

They don’t shout at the TV. They don’t quarrel with

the TV. They don’t slap the TV. So I want to

become a TV.

The TV is the centre of attraction in my house. I

want to receive the same special care that the TV

receives from my parents. Even when it is not

working, the TV has a lot of value.

When my dad and mom come home, they

immediately sit in front of the TV, switch it on and

spend hours watching it. The TV is stealing the

time of my dad and my mom. If I become a TV,

then they will spend their time with me.

While watching the TV, my parents laugh a lot and

they smile many times. But I want my parents to

laugh and smile with me also. So please God make

me a TV.

And last but not the least, if I become a TV, surely I

can make my parents happy and entertain them.

Lord I won’t ask you for anything more. I just want

to live like a TV. Please turn me into a TV.

The husband completed reading the essay. He said

“My God, poor kid. He feels lonely. He did not

receive enough love and care from his parents. His

parents are horrible.”

The eyes of the primary School teacher filled with

tears. She looked at her husband and said, “Our son

wrote this essay.”

What do you think of this piece?

May our children never desire to be WhatsApp

Phones or TV

Pope Francis wrote: why do we sleep in church but

stay awake in bars until sunrise? Why is it so hard

to talk to God but so easy to chat? Why is it so

easy to ignore a Godly text message. And forward the funny or the nasty ones? , why is that we spend more times with our phones but less with our books.

It all good to be righteous and let live an examplary life,

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Some Crazy Facts About Eyes
May 17, 2017

×× Your retinas actually perceive the outside world as upside-down – your brain flips the image for you.

If you want to see the world as your retinas do, try a pair of prism glasses . Just don’t, you know, walk near sheer drops or operate heavy machinery while wearing them.

×× In addition to being upside-down, images arrive at your retina split in half and distorted.

Each half of your brain receives one half of the image, and then they scramble the images together to compose the whole picture you’re used to seeing.

×× Your peripheral vision is very low-resolution and is almost in black-and-white.


You don’t realise it because your eyes move to “fill in” the peripheral detail before you notice the difference.

×× Your retinas cannot detect the colour red.

Although your retinas have red, green and blue colour receptors, the “red” receptor only detects yellow-green, and the “green” receptor detects blue-green. Your brain combines these signals and turns them into red.

×× Got blue eyes? You share an ancestor with all other blue-eyed people across the world.

×× And if you have brown eyes, you’re old school.


All humans originally had brown eyes. Blue eyes appeared as a mutation about 6,000 years ago.

×× “20/20 vision” doesn’t equal perfect vision. It just means you can see 20 feet in front of you as well as the average person can.

×× If you’re shortsighted, your eyeball is longer than normal. If you’re farsighted, it’s shorter than average.

×× If you’re blind, but were born with sight, you probably still see images in your dreams.


××. On average, you blink 17 times a minute.

That’s 14,280 times in a 14-hour day, and 5.2 million times a year.

×× Your eye is constantly making tiny jerking movements called “microsaccades” to stop objects from fading from your vision.


××A process called Troxler’s phenomenon causes static objects in your gaze to disappear if you stare at them for too long . Microsaccades stop this from happening.


××  your eye can distinguish between 50,000 shades of grey.

×× Your eyes are almost the same size as they were when you were born. And newborn babies can see clearly up to 15 inches away.

Which is, handily, generally where their mothers’ faces are when they’re breastfeeding.

××Your tears have different compositions based on whether something’s irritating your eye, or you’re crying, or yawning.

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Some Hidden Things About The Universe
May 17, 2017

××he Universe Is Old (Really Old)

he universe began with the Big ang, and is estimated to be pproximately 13.7 billion years old

plus or minus 130 million years).

stronomers calculated this figure by easuring the composition of matter nd energy density in the universe, hich enabled them to determine ow fast the universe expanded in he past. As a result, researchers ould turn back the hands of time nd pinpoint when the Big Bang ccurred. The time in between that xplosion and now makes up the age f the universe

×× he Universe Is Getting Bigger

n the 1920s, astronomer Edwin ubble made the revolutionary iscovery that the universe is not tatic, but rather is expanding. But, it as long thought that the gravity of atter in the universe would slow his expansion or even cause it to ontract.

n 1998, the Hubble Space Telescope tudied very distant supernovas and ound that, a long time ago, the niverse was expanding more slowly han it is today. This puzzling iscovery suggested that an nexplicable force, called dark energy, s driving the accelerating expansion f the universe. [ Full Story ]

hile dark energy is thought to be he strange force that is pulling the osmos apart at ever-increasing peeds, it remains one of the reatest mysteries in science ecause its detection remains lusive to scientists.

×× he Universe’s Growth Spurt Is ccelerating

ysterious dark energy is not only hought to be driving the expansion f the universe, it appears to be ulling the cosmos apart at ever-ncreasing speeds. In 1998, two eams of astronomers announced hat not only is the universe xpanding, but it is accelerating as ell. According to the researchers, he farther a galaxy is from Earth, the aster it is moving away.

he universe’s acceleration also onfirms Albert Einstein’s theory of eneral relativity, and lately, cientists have revived Einstein’s osmological constant to explain the trange dark energy that seems to be ounteracting gravity and causing he universe to expand at an ccelerating pace. [Full Story]

hree scientists won the 2011 Nobel rize in Physics for their 1998 iscovery that the expansion of the niverse was accelerating.

×× he Universe Is Filled With Invisible tuff

he universe is overwhelmingly made p of things that cannot be seen. In ct, the stars, planets and galaxies hat can be detected make up only 4 ercent of the universe, according to stronomers. The other 96 percent is ade up of substances that cannot e seen or easily comprehended.

hese elusive substances, called ark energy and dark matter, have ot been detected, but astronomers ase their existence on the ravitational influence that both exert n normal matter, the parts of the niverse that can be seen

×× he Universe Could Be Flat

he shape of the universe is fluenced by the struggle between he pull of gravity (based on the ensity of the matter in the universe) nd the rate of expansion. If the ensity of the universe exceeds a ertain critical value, then the niverse is “closed,” like the surface f a sphere. This implies that the niverse is not infinite but has no nd. In this case, the universe will ventually stop expanding and start ollapsing in on itself, in an event nown as the “Big Crunch.”

f the density of the universe is less han the critical density value, then he shape of the universe is “open,” ke the surface of a saddle. In this ase, the universe has no bounds nd will continue to expand forever

he Universe Has Echoes of Its Birth

he cosmic microwave background

made up of light echoes left over om the Big Bang that created the niverse 13.7 billion years ago. This lic of the Big Bang explosion hangs round the universe as a pocked veil f radiation.

he European Space Agency’s lanck mission mapped the entire ky in microwave light to reveal new lues about how the universe began. lanck’s observations are the most recise views of the cosmic icrowave background ever btained. Scientists are hoping to se data from the mission to settle ome of the most debated questions

cosmology, such as what appened immediately after the niverse was form seen

×× here May Be More Universes

he idea that we live in a multiverse,

which our universe is one of many, omes from a theory called eternal flation, which suggests that shortly fter the Big Bang, space-time xpanded at different rates in different laces. According to the theory, this ave rise to bubble universes that ould function with their own eparate laws of physics.

he concept is controversial and had een purely hypothetical until recent tudies searched for physical arkers of the multiverse theory in e cosmic microwave background, hich is a relic of the Big Bang that ervades our universe. [Full Story]

esearchers searched the best vailable observations of the cosmic icrowave background for signs of ubble universe collisions, but didn’t nd anything conclusive. If two niverses had collided, the searchers say, it would have left a ircular pattern behind in the cosmic icrowave background

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Some Fascinating Facts About Human Bones
May 17, 2017

××Weirdest Disease of the Human Bone: Disappearing Human Bone Disease:


The clinical terms for this disease is massive osteolysis. It’s more commonly known as

Gorham’s disease . Regenerating bone after a fracture is overtaken by the process of absorbing bone and the bone is broken down into almost nothing. The bone just kind of disappears, as the name suggests. What’s perhaps most mysterious is that a number of cases of Gorham’s have ended in spontaneous remission . The disease itself disappear

×× Broke the Most Bones over a Lifetime: Evel Knievel


Evel Knievel (USA, b. Robert Craig Knievel), the pioneer of motorcycle long jumping exhibitions, had suffered 433 bone fractures by end of 1975. In the winter of 1976 he was seriously injured during a televised attempt to jump a tank full of sharks at the Chicago Amphitheater. He decided to retire from major performances as a result.

×× Smallest Bone in the Human Body: Stirrup Bone


The smallest bone in the human body is the stirrup bone, the stapes, one of the 3 bones that make up your middle ear; measuring 2-3 millimeters. It is shaped like a “U.” It is the innermost bone that receives sound vibrations and passes them along to the cochlea to eventually be interpreted by the brain.

××. Biggest (and Strongest) Bone in the Human Body: Femur


The femur is the strongest bone in the human body. It extends from the hip to the knee. It can resist a force of up to 1,800 to 2,500 pounds. Only events of a large amount of force can cause it to break, such as by a car accident or a fall from an extreme height, taking months to heal.

×× Body Part with the Most Bones: The Hands


The hands have the most bones — 27 in each hand.The hands and feet together make up more than half the bones in the human body. There are 206 bones in the human body; 106 of these are in the hands and feet (27 in each hand and 26 in each foot).

×× Most Commonly Broken Bone:

The Ankle!

Even more common than breaking a toes is spraining or breaking your ankle. It happens almost everywhere: on the field of play, on a hiking trail or trying not to trip over children’s toys. There is a difference between a sprained and broken ankle. Ankle fractures and sprains are both often accompanied by tendon damage.

×× Most Fragile Bone in the Body:

The Toe Bones


The small toe bones break the easier and most often. Almost everyone has broken a toe, even a small one, in their life. And there’s really you can do about it, but let it heal.

×× Most Common Form of Bone Surgery: Arthroscopic Surgery


Arthroscopic procedures on the knee increased 49% between 1996 and 2006. Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure by which the internal structure of a joint is examined for diagnosis and/or treatment using a tube-like viewing instrument called an arthroscope. Arthroscopy can be helpful in the diagnosis and treatment of many noninflammatory, inflammatory, and infectious types of arthritis as well as various injuries within the joint.

××Most Common Bone Disease: Osteoporosis


Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease, which is characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone structure. Osteoporosis can be prevented, as well as diagnosed and treated. Low bone mass is when bones lose the minerals that make them strong, especially calcium, which makes them weak and fracture easily.

×× Most Common Forms of Bone Cancer: Osteosarcoma


These are some of the most common types of bone cancer:

Osteosarcoma start in bone cells and found most often in the knee and upper arm. It is diagnosed most often in teens and young adults.

Ewing’s sarcoma is seen in younger people between the ages of 5 and 20. It most commonly occurs in people’s ribs, pelvis, leg, and upper arm.

Chondrosarcoma occurs most often in people between 40 and 70. The hip, pelvis, leg, arm, and shoulder are common sites of this cancer, which begins in cartilage cells.

Although almost always found in bone, multiple myeloma is not a primary bone cancer. It is a bone marrow cancer. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones.


At birth the human skeleton is made up of around 300 bones. By adulthood, some bones have fused together to end up with 206 bones.

Human bones grow continually from birth till our mid 20’s. Our skeleton’s bone mass is at its maximum density around the age of 30.

If broken our bones will re-grow and repair themselves. Often doctors will place a cast on splint to make sure these bones repair straight and true.

The axial skeleton part of the human skeleton has 80 bones. It includes the vertebral column, the rib cage and the skull and helps us maintain our upright posture, by spreading the weight in the head, and upper areas down to the lower areas near the hips.

The appendicular skeletal section of our skeleton has 126 bones. It includes the pectoral (shoulder) girdles, the pelvic girdle and the bones of the lower and upper limbs. Its function is for movement of the body and to protect some organs.

The human skeletal system has six major functions including the production of blood cells, for support, for movement, for protection, for storage of ions and endocrine regulation.

The longest bone in the human body is the thigh bone called the femur.

The smallest bone found in the human body is located in the middle ear. The staples (or stirrup) bone is only 2.8 millimetres (0.11 inches) long.

Like our skin , the human body’s bones are also constantly worn down and re-made, to the point where every 7 years we essentially have a new bone.

The area of our body with the most bones is the hand, fingers and wrist where there are 54 bones.

Our teeth form part of the skeletal system, but are not counted as bones.

There a just a few differences between human male and female skeletons. The female skeleton is generally slightly smaller and the pelvis bones differ in shape, size and angle in order to assist with child birth.

The majority of human bones have a dense, strong outer layer, followed by a spongy part full of air for lightness, while the middle contains a soft, flexible, tissue substance called bone marrow.

Bone marrow makes up 4% of a human body mass. It produces red blood cells which carry oxygen all over the body. Marrow is also produces lymphocytes, key components of the lymphatic system, which support the body’s immune system.

Calcium is very important for our bones and helps keep them strong and healthy.

The areas where our bones meet are called joints. The joints in our cranium have no movement while our hip joints allow for a wide range of movement.

Bones are held in place at joints by muscles and also tissues called ligaments. Another type of tissue called cartilage covers each bone joint surface area to prevent the bones rubbing.

The medical branch of learning about the human skeletal system is called Orthopedics.

There are a number of skeletal disorders, osteoporosis is a bone disease that increases the chance of fractures, scoliosis is a curvature of the spine, while arthritis is an inflammatory disease that damages joints.

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Some Facts About Human Kidney You Never Know
May 15, 2017

××In case of new born human babies, the kidney to body weight ratio is 3 times the kidney to body weight ratio in adults.

×× In case of adults, kidneys form only 0.5% of the entire body weight.

××The blood flow in kidneys is higher than the blood flow in heart, liver and brain.

××Kidneys measure around 4.5 inches in length.

××Kidneys are no bigger than a standard computer mouse or a cell phone.

××Each individual kidney weighs around 4-6 ounces.

××Exactly half of one single kidney is capable of doing the job that is performed by two kidneys together.

××Each individual kidney consists of at least 1 million and up to 2 million nephrons. Nephrons are nothing but very tiny filters that are capable of filtering blood and eliminating the waste materials.

××In a single hour, kidneys receive around 120 pints of blood.

××Though the kidneys weigh on 0.5% of the entire body weight, they actually receive more arterial blood compared to other organs in body. Almost 25% of the blood pumped by the heart goes to the kidneys.

××When dehydration sets in, kidneys stop producing enough urine until hydration is restored and blood volume increases.

×× if the blood pressure in kidneys fall, they start sending out signals to the rest of the body. As a result of these signals, the blood vessels throughout the body become smaller to increase the pressure. This ensures that blood reaches every part of the body.

×× If the oxygen content of the blood falls, the kidneys can sense that as well. Once the kidneys sense a lack of oxygen, they create a hormone which triggers increased production of red blood cells. RBCs are responsible for carrying oxygen. As RBC count increases, the oxygen content of the blood also increases.

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××Kidneys pump around 400 gallons of recycled blood every day.

×× Kidneys filter and return around 200 quarts of fluid into the bloodstream each day. Nearly 2 quarts are lost in form of urine while the remaining 198 quarts are recovered.

××Kidneys are connected to bladder with the help of two tubes known as ureters. It is the bladder where the urine is stored. The urine that we excrete is stored anywhere between 1 and 8 hours. Interesting fact is that we don’t urinate until the bladder is half full. Once the half of the bladder is full, signals are sent to the brain which in turn tells us that it is time to urinate.

××Yet another interesting fact about kidneys is that they are capable of activating vitamin D in our body. This vitamin is usually produced by special skin cells when they are exposed to sunlight. If the skin fails, the job passes on to the livers. If the liver fails, the job finally goes to the kidneys.

××Some children are born with only one kidney. For them, the single kidney eventually grows to the extent where its weight is equal to the combined weight of two kidneys.

×× Excessive antacids and milk can cause kidney stones.

××Pancreas are stimulated by sugar to produce insulin that keeps sugar levels at check. If the sugar level in body increases, excess insulin is produced. This forces the body to excrete extra calcium through urine, which is yet another cause of kidney stones.

×× Once a person reaches the age of 40, the number of functional nephrons present in each kidney start falling at a rate of 1% a year.

××Despite the decline in the number of functional nephrons in kidneys after the age of 40, the kidneys continue to function normally because the nephrons have a tendency of enlarging once the demise begins.

××Throughout the day, the kidneys filter and produce around 1000 to 2000 milliliters of urine. So in general we excrete around 1.5 liter urine on an average in a single day.

××Malfunctioning kidneys can lead to the development of anemia. Studies reveal that most anemic patients usually suffer from some kind of kidney disease.

×× Kidney disease can never be reversed. Its progression can only be slowed down.

×× High BP and diabetes can both lead to failure of kidneys.

××When the kidney functions are completely lost, it is known as ESRD or End Stage Renal Disease.

××People suffering with ESRD can live longer with help of kidney transplant or dialysis.

××The first ever kidney transplant was conducted by Yuri Voronoy, a Russian surgeon in year 1933. The transplant failed.

×× The first ever successful kidney transplant was conducted by Dr. Joseph E. Murray in December 1954. The transplant was betwe

×× If the nephrons in both kidneys are taken out and placed end to end horizontally, they will cover a distance of 16 kilometers.

×× If one kidney is taken away and the functional capacity of the other kidney is reduced to just 75%, it can still sustain life. This happens because the nephrons are capable of enlarging and handling excess load. This is known as hypertrophy.

××Kidneys are responsible for maintaining a constant amount of fluid in the body. The entire blood in the body gets filtered around 400 times in a day through the kidneys.

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You Can be a Better Marketer By these secret things in Your Brain

So let’s take a look at some secrets of the human mind you can tap into from a marketing perspective.

× We all have a primitive brain. The amygdala controls our reactions and emotions, and it works much faster than our conscious, rational mind, Garner says. In fact, we experience gut reactions in three seconds or less. Emotions make a more lasting imprint than rational thought.

Marketing takeaway: Aim for a gut reaction, and pay special attention to how your materials look when scanned quickly (as opposed to deliberately considered—because no one has the time or inclination to do that anymore).

Pay attention to the things people see first. In email marketing, your subject line and pre-header (that bit of text you read most prominently on a mobile device, above the body of the email) should grab readers and speak to their pains, wants, needs and emotions. In blogging or other online content, pay special attention to headlines. (You should spend as much time writing the headline as you do the rest of the piece.) In website content, make your pages welcoming and easily grokked.

× Our brains love images of faces. Research suggests that natural selection favored humans who were able to quickly identify threats and build relationships. As part of that, we are wired from birth to recognize and prefer human faces. The part of the brain that processes human faces is right next to the part that processes emotions.

Marketing takeaway: Use real people in your marketing materials, and consider putting faces on landing pages, in emails or on web pages designed to drive a desired action.

Eye-tracking studies show that our brains will default to first look at human faces on a web page. What’s more, we’ll look where the faces are looking. So entice by adding, say, a photo of a face that looks toward a call-to-action button or crucial bit of text.

Colors inspire specific feelings. There’s more to color choice than what looks good. Different colors cue different signals in a brain. In fact, research has shown that 62 to 90 percent of our feeling about a product is determined by color alone. Yellow activates the anxiety center of the brain. Blue builds trust. Red creates urgency. And that’s just the start.

Marketing takeaway: There’s a science and art behind color choice—especially as it relates to marketing fundamentals like call-to-action buttons. “Don’t choose colors arbitrarily,” Crestodina says.

What colors work best for your company will depend on your brand, positioning and audience. The best approach, as always, is to test how color affects response before choosing.

× Names change behavior. What something is called affects our reaction to it. A recent study by David R. Just and Brian Wansink of the Cornell University Food and Brand Lab found that calling the same portion of spaghetti “double-size” instead of “regular” caused diners to eat less.

Marketing takeaway: Carefully consider how your wording might influence attitude as you name products, describe models or options and create customer messaging.

×: We crave belonging. We have an innate desire to conform. “When people are free to do as they please, they usually imitate each other,” said philosopher Eric Hoffer.

Marketing takeaway: Remove anxiety, signal belonging and build credibility with an audience by using social proof and signals—in the form of endorsements from well-known influencers in your market; badges or awards from McAfee, TRUSTe or Norton; media logos (from outlets that have quoted or referenced you); customer testimonials woven throughout a site (not exiled to a specific page); and social widgets and shares, assuming you have a solid social media program in place.

One more tip is to use inclusive, specific language on any call to action to signal what Crestodina calls a “call to conform.” Rather than having a sign-up box for a newsletter, say something like, “We are the nation’s leading resource for home heating and cooling information and supplies. Subscribe now.” You might invoke belonging by saying: “Join more than 35,000 contractors and homeowners who seek weekly heating and cooling tips and supplies.” pin it

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