Available Balance
What do you understand by animal coloration ????
May 24, 2017
0
TMPDOODLE1495619540538

Some animals such as many moths, mantises and grasshoppers, have a repertory of threatening or startling behaviour, such as suddenly displaying conspicuous eyespots or patches of bright and contrasting colours, so as to scare off or momentarily distract a predator. This gives the prey animal an opportunity to escape. The behaviour is deimatic (startling) rather than aposematic as these insects are palatable to predators, so the warning colours are a bluff, not an honest signal.[34][35]

Motion dazzle Edit
Some prey animals such as zebra are marked with high-contrast patterns which possibly help to confuse their predators, such as lions, during a chase. The bold stripes of a herd of running Zebra have been claimed make it difficult for predators to estimate the prey’s speed and direction accurately, or to identify individual animals, giving the prey an improved chance of escape.[36] Since dazzle patterns (such as the Zebra’s stripes) make animals harder to catch when moving, but easier to detect when stationary, there is an evolutionary trade-off between dazzle and camouflage.[36] Another theory is that the zebra’s stripes could provide some protection from flies and biting insects.[37]

Physical protection Edit
Further information: Biological pigment
Many animals have dark pigments such as melanin in their skin, eyes and fur to protect themselves against sunburn[38] (damage to living tissues caused by ultraviolet light).
Some frogs such as Bokermannohyla alvarengai, which basks in sunlight, lighten their skin colour when hot (and darkens when cold), making their skin reflect more heat and so avoid overheating.
Some animals are coloured purely incidentally because their blood contains pigments. For example, amphibians like the olm that live in caves may be largely colourless as colour has no function in that environment, but they show some red because of the haem pigment in their red blood cells, needed to carry oxygen. They also have a little orange coloured riboflavin in their skin.[42] Human albinos and people with fair skin have a similar colour for the same reason.
Animal coloration may be the result of any combination of pigments, chromatophores, structural coloration and bioluminescence.
Pigments are coloured chemicals (such as melanin) in animal tissues.[44] For example, the Arctic fox has a white coat in winter (containing little pigment), and a brown coat in summer (containing more pigment), an example of seasonal camouflage (a polyphenism). Many animals, including mammals, birds, and amphibians, are unable to synthesize most of the pigments that colour their fur or feathers, other than the brown or black melanins that give many mammals their earth tones.[45] For example, the bright yellow of an American goldfinch, the startling orange of a juvenile red-spotted newt, the deep red of a cardinal and the pink of a flamingo are all produced by carotenoid pigments synthesized by plants. In the case of the flamingo, the bird eats pink shrimps, which are themselves unable to synthesize carotenoids. The shrimps derive their body colour from microscopic red algae, which like most plants are able to create their own pigments, including both carotenoids and (green) chlorophyll. Animals that eat green plants do not become green, however, as chlorophyll does not survive digestion.
Chromatophores are special pigment-containing cells that can change their size, thus varying the colour and pattern of the animal. The voluntary control of chromatophores is known as metachrosis.[44] For example, cuttlefish and chameleons can rapidly change their appearance, both for camouflage and for signalling, as Aristotle first noted over 2000 years ago:[46]

The octopus … seeks its prey by so changing its colour as to render it like the colour of the stones adjacent to it; it does so also when alarmed.
When cephalopod molluscs like squid and cuttlefish find themselves against a light background, they contract many of their chromatophores, concentrating the pigment into a smaller area, resulting in a pattern of tiny, dense, but widely spaced dots, appearing light. When they enter a darker environment, they allow their chromatophores to expand, creating a pattern of larger dark spots, and making their bodies appear dark.[47] Amphibians such as frogs have three kinds of star-shaped chromatophore cells in separate layers of their skin. The top layer contains ‘xanthophores’ with orange, red, or yellow pigments; the middle layer contains ‘iridophores’ with a silvery light-reflecting pigment; while the bottom layer contains ‘melanophores’ with dark melanin.
While many animals are unable to synthesize carotenoid pigments to create red and yellow surfaces, the green and blue colours of bird feathers and insect carapaces are usually not produced by pigments at all, but by structural coloration.[45] Structural coloration means the production of colour by microscopically-structured surfaces fine enough to interfere with visible light, sometimes in combination with pigments: for example, peacock tail feathers are pigmented brown, but their structure makes them appear blue, turquoise and green. Structural coloration can produce the most brilliant colours, often iridescent.[44] For example, the blue/green gloss on the plumage of birds such as ducks, and the purple/blue/green/red colours of many beetles and butterflies are created by structural coloration.[48] Animals use several methods to produce structural colour, as described in the table.
Bioluminescence is the production of light, such as by the photophores of marine animals,[49] and the tails of glow-worms and fireflies. Bioluminescence, like other forms of metabolism, releases energy derived from the chemical energy of food. A pigment, luciferin is catalysed by the enzyme luciferase to react with oxygen, releasing light.[50] Comb jellies such as Euplokamis are bioluminescent, creating blue and green light, especially when stressed; when disturbed, they secrete an ink which luminesces in the same colours. Since comb jellies are not very sensitive to light, their bioluminescence is unlikely to be used to signal to other members of the same species (e.g. to attract mates or repel rivals); more likely, the light helps to distract predators or parasites.[51] Some species of squid have light-producing organs (photophores) scattered all over their undersides that create a sparkling glow. This provides counter-illumination camouflage, preventing the animal from appearing as a dark shape when seen from below.[52] Some angler fish of the deep sea, where it is too dark to hunt by sight, contain symbiotic bacteria in the ‘bait’ on their ‘fishing rods’. These emit light to attract prey.

Things you never know about animals !!!
May 24, 2017
0
TMPDOODLE1495619009479

The Ecdysozoa are protostomes, named after the common trait of growth by moulting or ecdysis.[97] The largest animal phylum belongs here, the Arthropoda, including insects, spiders, crabs, and their kin. All these organisms have a body divided into repeating segments, typically with paired appendages. Two smaller phyla, the Onychophora and Tardigrada, are close relatives of the arthropods and share these traits. The ecdysozoans also include the Nematoda or roundworms, perhaps the second largest animal phylum. Roundworms are typically microscopic, and occur in nearly every environment where there is water.[98] A number are important parasites.[99] Smaller phyla related to them are the Nematomorpha or horsehair worms, and the Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, and Loricifera. These groups have a reduced coelom, called a pseudocoelom.
Lophotrochozoa
The Lophotrochozoa, evolved within Protostomia, include two of the most successful animal phyla, the Mollusca and Annelida.[100][101] The former, which is the second-largest animal phylum by number of described species, includes animals such as snails, clams, and squids, and the latter comprises the segmented worms, such as earthworms and leeches. These two groups have long been considered close relatives because of the common presence of trochophore larvae, but the annelids were considered closer to the arthropods because they are both segmented.[102] Now, this is generally considered convergent evolution, owing to many morphological and genetic differences between the two phyla.[103] Lophotrochozoa also includes the Nemertea or ribbon worms, the Sipuncula, and several phyla that have a ring of ciliated tentacles around the mouth, called a lophophore.[104] These were traditionally grouped together as the lophophorates.[105] but it now appears that the lophophorate group may be paraphyletic,[106] with some closer to the nemerteans and some to the molluscs and annelids.[107][108] They include the Brachiopoda or lamp shells, which are prominent in the fossil record, the Entoprocta, the Phoronida, and possibly the Bryozoa or moss animals.[109]

The Platyzoa include the phylum Platyhelminthes, the flatworms.[110] These were originally considered some of the most primitive Bilateria, but it now appears they developed from more complex ancestors.[111] A number of parasites are included in this group, such as the flukes and tapeworms.[110] Flatworms are acoelomates, lacking a body cavity, as are their closest relatives, the microscopic Gastrotricha.[112] The other platyzoan phyla are mostly microscopic and pseudocoelomate. The most prominent are the Rotifera or rotifers, which are common in aqueous environments. They also include the Acanthocephala or spiny-headed worms, the Gnathostomulida, Micrognathozoa, and possibly the Cycliophora.[113] These groups share the presence of complex jaws, from which they are called the Gnathifera.

A relationship between the Brachiopoda and Nemertea has been suggested by molecular data.[114] A second study has also suggested this relationship.[115] This latter study also suggested that Annelida and Mollusca may be sister clades. Another study has suggested that Annelida and Mollusca are sister clades.[116] This clade has been termed the Neotrochozoa.
Animals can be divided into two broad groups: vertebrates (animals with a backbone) and invertebrates (animals without a backbone). Half of all described vertebrate species are fishes and three-quarters of all described invertebrate species are insects. The following table lists the number of described extant species for each major animal subgroup as estimated for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2014.3
Over 95% of the described animal species in the world are invertebrates.
Because of the great diversity found in animals, it is more economical for scientists to study a small number of chosen species so that connections can be drawn from their work and conclusions extrapolated about how animals function in general. Because they are easy to keep and breed, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have long been the most intensively studied metazoan model organisms, and were among the first life-forms to be genetically sequenced. This was facilitated by the severely reduced state of their genomes, but as many genes, introns, and linkages lost, these ecdysozoans can teach us little about the origins of animals in general. The extent of this type of evolution within the superphylum will be revealed by the crustacean, annelid, and molluscan genome projects currently in progress. Analysis of the starlet sea anemone genome has emphasized the importance of sponges, placozoans, and choanoflagellates, also being sequenced, in explaining the arrival of 1500 ancestral genes unique to the Eumetazoa.[118]

An analysis of the homoscleromorph sponge Oscarella carmela also suggests that the last common ancestor of sponges and the eumetazoan animals was more complex than previously assumed.[119]

Other model organisms belonging to the animal kingdom include the house mouse (Mus musculus), laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces. Some animals are brightly coloured, while others are hard to see. In some species, such as the peacock, the male has strong patterns, conspicuous colours and is iridescent, while the female is far less visible.

There are several separate reasons why animals have evolved colours. Camouflage enables an animal to remain hidden from view. Animals use colour to advertise services such as cleaning to animals of other species; to signal their sexual status to other members of the same species; and in mimicry, taking advantage of the warning coloration of another species. Some animals use flashes of colour to divert attacks by startling predators. Zebras may possibly use motion dazzle, confusing a predator’s attack by moving a bold pattern rapidly. Some animals are coloured for physical protection, with pigments in the skin to protect against sunburn, while some frogs can lighten or darken their skin for temperature regulation. Finally, animals can be coloured incidentally. For example, blood is red because the haem pigment needed to carry oxygen is red. Animals coloured in these ways can have striking natural patterns.

Animals produce colour in different ways. Pigments are particles of coloured material. Chromatophores are cells containing pigment, which can change their size to make their colour more or less visible. Some animals, including many butterflies and birds, have microscopic structures in scales, bristles or feathers which give them brilliant iridescent colours. Other animals including squid and some deep-sea fish can produce light, sometimes of different colours. Animals often use two or more of these mechanisms together to produce the colours and effects they need.

Things you never know about animals !!!
May 24, 2017
1
animal cruelty 2

The Ecdysozoa are protostomes, named after the common trait of growth by moulting or ecdysis.[97] The largest animal phylum belongs here, the Arthropoda, including insects, spiders, crabs, and their kin. All these organisms have a body divided into repeating segments, typically with paired appendages. Two smaller phyla, the Onychophora and Tardigrada, are close relatives of the arthropods and share these traits. The ecdysozoans also include the Nematoda or roundworms, perhaps the second largest animal phylum. Roundworms are typically microscopic, and occur in nearly every environment where there is water.[98] A number are important parasites.[99] Smaller phyla related to them are the Nematomorpha or horsehair worms, and the Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, and Loricifera. These groups have a reduced coelom, called a pseudocoelom.
Lophotrochozoa
The Lophotrochozoa, evolved within Protostomia, include two of the most successful animal phyla, the Mollusca and Annelida.[100][101] The former, which is the second-largest animal phylum by number of described species, includes animals such as snails, clams, and squids, and the latter comprises the segmented worms, such as earthworms and leeches. These two groups have long been considered close relatives because of the common presence of trochophore larvae, but the annelids were considered closer to the arthropods because they are both segmented.[102] Now, this is generally considered convergent evolution, owing to many morphological and genetic differences between the two phyla.[103] Lophotrochozoa also includes the Nemertea or ribbon worms, the Sipuncula, and several phyla that have a ring of ciliated tentacles around the mouth, called a lophophore.[104] These were traditionally grouped together as the lophophorates.[105] but it now appears that the lophophorate group may be paraphyletic,[106] with some closer to the nemerteans and some to the molluscs and annelids.[107][108] They include the Brachiopoda or lamp shells, which are prominent in the fossil record, the Entoprocta, the Phoronida, and possibly the Bryozoa or moss animals.[109]

The Platyzoa include the phylum Platyhelminthes, the flatworms.[110] These were originally considered some of the most primitive Bilateria, but it now appears they developed from more complex ancestors.[111] A number of parasites are included in this group, such as the flukes and tapeworms.[110] Flatworms are acoelomates, lacking a body cavity, as are their closest relatives, the microscopic Gastrotricha.[112] The other platyzoan phyla are mostly microscopic and pseudocoelomate. The most prominent are the Rotifera or rotifers, which are common in aqueous environments. They also include the Acanthocephala or spiny-headed worms, the Gnathostomulida, Micrognathozoa, and possibly the Cycliophora.[113] These groups share the presence of complex jaws, from which they are called the Gnathifera.

A relationship between the Brachiopoda and Nemertea has been suggested by molecular data.[114] A second study has also suggested this relationship.[115] This latter study also suggested that Annelida and Mollusca may be sister clades. Another study has suggested that Annelida and Mollusca are sister clades.[116] This clade has been termed the Neotrochozoa.
Animals can be divided into two broad groups: vertebrates (animals with a backbone) and invertebrates (animals without a backbone). Half of all described vertebrate species are fishes and three-quarters of all described invertebrate species are insects. The following table lists the number of described extant species for each major animal subgroup as estimated for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2014.3
Over 95% of the described animal species in the world are invertebrates.
Because of the great diversity found in animals, it is more economical for scientists to study a small number of chosen species so that connections can be drawn from their work and conclusions extrapolated about how animals function in general. Because they are easy to keep and breed, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have long been the most intensively studied metazoan model organisms, and were among the first life-forms to be genetically sequenced. This was facilitated by the severely reduced state of their genomes, but as many genes, introns, and linkages lost, these ecdysozoans can teach us little about the origins of animals in general. The extent of this type of evolution within the superphylum will be revealed by the crustacean, annelid, and molluscan genome projects currently in progress. Analysis of the starlet sea anemone genome has emphasized the importance of sponges, placozoans, and choanoflagellates, also being sequenced, in explaining the arrival of 1500 ancestral genes unique to the Eumetazoa.[118]

An analysis of the homoscleromorph sponge Oscarella carmela also suggests that the last common ancestor of sponges and the eumetazoan animals was more complex than previously assumed.[119]

Other model organisms belonging to the animal kingdom include the house mouse (Mus musculus), laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces. Some animals are brightly coloured, while others are hard to see. In some species, such as the peacock, the male has strong patterns, conspicuous colours and is iridescent, while the female is far less visible.

There are several separate reasons why animals have evolved colours. Camouflage enables an animal to remain hidden from view. Animals use colour to advertise services such as cleaning to animals of other species; to signal their sexual status to other members of the same species; and in mimicry, taking advantage of the warning coloration of another species. Some animals use flashes of colour to divert attacks by startling predators. Zebras may possibly use motion dazzle, confusing a predator’s attack by moving a bold pattern rapidly. Some animals are coloured for physical protection, with pigments in the skin to protect against sunburn, while some frogs can lighten or darken their skin for temperature regulation. Finally, animals can be coloured incidentally. For example, blood is red because the haem pigment needed to carry oxygen is red. Animals coloured in these ways can have striking natural patterns.

Animals produce colour in different ways. Pigments are particles of coloured material. Chromatophores are cells containing pigment, which can change their size to make their colour more or less visible. Some animals, including many butterflies and birds, have microscopic structures in scales, bristles or feathers which give them brilliant iridescent colours. Other animals including squid and some deep-sea fish can produce light, sometimes of different colours. Animals often use two or more of these mechanisms together to produce the colours and effects they need.

Many things people don’t know about Animal !!!!
May 24, 2017
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TMPDOODLE1495581909450

Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also called Metazoa). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs: they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance.

Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species. They include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams, oysters, octopuses, squid, snails); arthropods (millipedes, centipedes, insects, spiders, scorpions, crabs, lobsters, shrimp); annelids (earthworms, leeches), nematodes (filarial worms, hookworms), flatworms (tapeworms, liver flukes), cnidarians (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges. The study of animals is called zoology.
The word “animal” comes from the Latin animalis, meaning having breath, having soul or living being.[3] In everyday non-scientific usage the word excludes humans – that is, “animal” is often used to refer only to non-human members of the kingdom Animalia; often, only closer relatives of humans such as mammals and other vertebrates, are meant.[4] The biological definition of the word refers to all members of the kingdom Animalia, encompassing creatures as diverse as sponges, jellyfish, insects, and humans.
Aristotle divided the living world between animals and plants, and this was followed by Carl Linnaeus, in the first hierarchical classification.[7] In Linnaeus’s original scheme, the animals were one of three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Insecta, Pisces, Amphibia, Aves, and Mammalia. Since then the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, the Chordata, whereas the various other forms have been separated out.

In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into two subkingdoms: Metazoa (multicellular animals) and Protozoa (single-celled animals).[8] The protozoa were later moved to the kingdom Protista, leaving only the metazoa. Thus Metazoa is now considered a synonym of Animalia.
Animals have several characteristics that set them apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular,[10] which separates them from bacteria and most protists. They are heterotrophic,[11] generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae.[12] They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking rigid cell walls.[13] All animals are motile,[14] if only at certain life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a blastula stage,[15] which is a characteristic exclusive to animals.

Structure
With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges (Phylum Porifera) and Placozoa, animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues. These include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals. Typically, there is also an internal digestive chamber, with one or two openings.[16] Animals with this sort of organization are called metazoans, or eumetazoans when the former is used for animals in general.[17]

All animals have eukaryotic cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins.[18] This may be calcified to form structures like shells, bones, and spicules.[19] During development, it forms a relatively flexible framework[20] upon which cells can move about and be reorganized, making complex structures possible. In contrast, other multicellular organisms, like plants and fungi, have cells held in place by cell walls, and so develop by progressive growth.[16] Also, unique to animal cells are the following intercellular junctions: tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes.
Nearly all animals undergo some form of sexual reproduction.[23] They produce haploid gametes by meiosis (see Origin and function of meiosis). The smaller, motile gametes are spermatozoa and the larger, non-motile gametes are ova.[24] These fuse to form zygotes, which develop into new individuals[25] (see Allogamy).

Many animals are also capable of asexual reproduction.[26] This may take place through parthenogenesis, where fertile eggs are produced without mating, budding, or fragmentation.[27]

A zygote initially develops into a hollow sphere, called a blastula,[28] which undergoes rearrangement and differentiation. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location and develop into a new sponge.[29] In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement.[30] It first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber, and two separate germ layers—an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm.[31] In most cases, a mesoderm also develops between them.[32] These germ layers then differentiate to form tissues and organs.
During sexual reproduction, mating with a close relative (inbreeding) generally leads to inbreeding depression. For instance, inbreeding was found to increase juvenile mortality in 11 small animal species.[34] Inbreeding depression is considered to be largely due to expression of deleterious recessive mutations.[35] Mating with unrelated or distantly related members of the same species is generally thought to provide the advantage of masking deleterious recessive mutations in progeny.[36] (see Heterosis). Animals have evolved numerous diverse mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding and promoting outcrossing[37] (see Inbreeding avoidance).

As indicated in the image of chimpanzees, they have adopted dispersal as a way to separate close relatives and prevent inbreeding.[37] Their dispersal route is known as natal dispersal, whereby individuals move away from the area of birth.
n various species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality. Females that are pair bonded to a male of poor genetic quality, as is the case in inbreeding, are more likely to engage in extra-pair copulations in order to improve their reproductive success and the survivability of their offspring.
All animals are heterotrophs, meaning that they feed directly or indirectly on other living things.[39] They are often further subdivided into groups such as carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, and parasites.[40]

Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a heterotroph that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).[41] Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on them, but the act of predation almost always results in the death of the prey.[42] The other main category of consumption is detritivory, the consumption of dead organic matter.[43] It can at times be difficult to separate the two feeding behaviours, for example, where parasitic species prey on a host organism and then lay their eggs on it for their offspring to feed on its decaying corpse. Selective pressures imposed on one another has led to an evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, resulting in various antipredator adaptations.[44]

Most animals indirectly use the energy of sunlight by eating plants or plant-eating animals. Most plants use light to convert inorganic molecules in their environment into carbohydrates, fats, proteins and other biomolecules, characteristically containing reduced carbon in the form of carbon-hydrogen bonds. Starting with carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), photosynthesis converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy in the form of simple sugars (e.g., glucose), with the release of molecular oxygen. These sugars are then used as the building blocks for plant growth, including the production of other biomolecules.[16] When an animal eats plants (or eats other animals which have eaten plants), the reduced carbon compounds in the food become a source of energy and building materials for the animal.[45] They are either used directly to help the animal grow, or broken down, releasing stored solar energy, and giving the animal the energy required for motion.[46][47]

Animals living close to hydrothermal vents and cold seeps on the ocean floor are not dependent on the energy of sunlight.[48] Instead chemosynthetic archaea and bacteria form the base of the food chain.
Animals are generally considered to have emerged within flagellated eukaryota.[51] Their closest known living relatives are the choanoflagellates, collared flagellates that have a morphology similar to the choanocytes of certain sponges.[52] Molecular studies place animals in a supergroup called the opisthokonts, which also include the choanoflagellates, fungi and a few small parasitic protists.[53] The name comes from the posterior location of the flagellum in motile cells, such as most animal spermatozoa, whereas other eukaryotes tend to have anterior flagella.[54]

The first fossils that might represent animals appear in the Trezona Formation at Trezona Bore, West Central Flinders, South Australia.[55] These fossils are interpreted as being early sponges. They were found in 665-million-year-old rock.[55]

The next oldest possible animal fossils are found towards the end of the Precambrian, around 610 million years ago, and are known as the Ediacaran or Vendian biota.[56] These are difficult to relate to later fossils, however. Some may represent precursors of modern phyla, but they may be separate groups, and it is possible they are not really animals at all.[57]

Aside from them, most known animal phyla make a more or less simultaneous appearance during the Cambrian period, about 542 million years ago.[58] It is still disputed whether this event, called the Cambrian explosion, is due to a rapid divergence between different groups or due to a change in conditions that made fossilization possible.

Some palaeontologists suggest that animals appeared much earlier than the Cambrian explosion, possibly as early as 1 billion years ago.[59] Trace fossils such as tracks and burrows found in the Tonian period indicate the presence of triploblastic worms, like metazoans, roughly as large (about 5 mm wide) and complex as earthworms.[60] During the beginning of the Tonian period around 1 billion years ago, there was a decrease in Stromatolite diversity, which may indicate the appearance of grazing animals, since stromatolite diversity increased when grazing animals became extinct at the End Permian and End Ordovician extinction events, and decreased shortly after the grazer populations recovered. However the discovery that tracks very similar to these early trace fossils are produced today by the giant single-celled protist Gromia sphaerica casts doubt on their interpretation as evidence of early animal evolution.
Traditional morphological and modern molecular phylogenetic analysis have both recognized a major evolutionary transition from “non-bilaterian” animals, which are those lacking a bilaterally symmetric body plan (Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria and Placozoa), to “bilaterian” animals (Bilateria) whose body plans display bilateral symmetry. The latter are further classified based on a major division between Deuterostomes and Protostomes. The relationships among non-bilaterian animals are disputed, but all bilaterian animals are thought to form a monophyletic group. Current understanding of the relationships among the major groups of animals is summarized by the following cladogram:[63]

Apoikozoa

Choanoflagellata

Animal

Porifera

Placozoa

Ctenophora

Cnidaria

Bilateria

Deuterostomes

Protostomes

Ecdysozoa

Lophotrochozoa

Non-bilaterian animals: Porifera, Placozoa, Ctenophora, Cnidaria
Several animal phyla are recognized for their lack of bilateral symmetry, and are thought to have diverged from other animals early in evolution. Among these, the sponges (Porifera) were long thought to have diverged first, representing the oldest animal phylum.[64] They lack the complex organization found in most other phyla.[65] Their cells are differentiated, but in most cases not organized into distinct tissues.[66] Sponges typically feed by drawing in water through pores.[67] However, a series of phylogenomic studies from 2008-2015 have found support for Ctenophora, or comb jellies, as the basal lineage of animals.[68][69][70][71] This result has been controversial, since it would imply that sponges may not be so primitive, but may instead be secondarily simplified.[68] Other researchers have argued that the placement of Ctenophora as the earliest-diverging animal phylum is a statistical anomaly caused by the high rate of evolution in ctenophore genomes.[72][73][74][75]

Among the other phyla, the Ctenophora and the Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, and jellyfish, are radially symmetric and have digestive chambers with a single opening, which serves as both the mouth and the anus.[76] Both have distinct tissues, but they are not organized into organs.[77] There are only two main germ layers, the ectoderm and endoderm, with only scattered cells between them. As such, these animals are sometimes called diploblastic.[78] The tiny placozoans are similar, but they do not have a permanent digestive chamber.

The Myxozoa, microscopic parasites that were originally considered Protozoa, are now believed to have evolved within Cnidaria.
Bilaterian animals
The remaining animals form a monophyletic group called the Bilateria. For the most part, they are bilaterally symmetric, and often have a specialized head with feeding and sensory organs. The body is triploblastic, i.e. all three germ layers are well-developed, and tissues form distinct organs. The digestive chamber has two openings, a mouth and an anus, and there is also an internal body cavity called a coelom or pseudocoelom. There are exceptions to each of these characteristics, however—for instance adult echinoderms are radially symmetric, and certain parasitic worms have extremely simplified body structures.

Genetic studies have considerably changed our understanding of the relationships within the Bilateria. Most appear to belong to two major lineages: the deuterostomes and the protostomes, the latter of which includes the Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa. The Chaetognatha or arrow worms have been traditionally classified as deuterostomes, though recent molecular studies have identified this group as a basal protostome lineage.[80]

In addition, there are a few small groups of bilaterians with relatively cryptic morphology whose relationships with other animals are not well-established. For example, recent molecular studies have identified Acoelomorpha and Xenoturbella as comprising a monophyletic group,[81][82][83] but studies disagree as to whether this group evolved from within deuterostomes,[82] or whether it represents the sister group to all other bilaterian animals (Nephrozoa).[84][85] Other groups of uncertain affinity include the Rhombozoa and Orthonectida. One phyla, the Monoblastozoa, was described by a scientist in 1892, but so far there have been no evidence of its existence.
Deuterostomes differ from protostomes in several ways. Animals from both groups possess a complete digestive tract. However, in protostomes, the first opening of the gut to appear in embryological development (the archenteron) develops into the mouth, with the anus forming secondarily. In deuterostomes the anus forms first, with the mouth developing secondarily.[87] In most protostomes, cells simply fill in the interior of the gastrula to form the mesoderm, called schizocoelous development, but in deuterostomes, it forms through invagination of the endoderm, called enterocoelic pouching.[88] Deuterostome embryos undergo radial cleavage during cell division, while protostomes undergo spiral cleavage.[89]

All this suggests the deuterostomes and protostomes are separate, monophyletic lineages. The main phyla of deuterostomes are the Echinodermata and Chordata.[90] The former are radially symmetric and exclusively marine, such as starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers.[91] The latter are dominated by the vertebrates, animals with backbones.[92] These include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.[93]

In addition to these, the deuterostomes also include the Hemichordata, or acorn worms, which are thought to be closely related to Echinodermata forming a group known as Ambulacraria.[94][95] Although they are not especially prominent today, the important fossil graptolites may belong to this group.
The Ecdysozoa are protostomes, named after the common trait of growth by moulting or ecdysis.[97] The largest animal phylum belongs here, the Arthropoda, including insects, spiders, crabs, and their kin. All these organisms have a body divided into repeating segments, typically with paired appendages. Two smaller phyla, the Onychophora and Tardigrada, are close relatives of the arthropods and share these traits. The ecdysozoans also include the Nematoda or roundworms, perhaps the second largest animal phylum. Roundworms are typically microscopic, and occur in nearly every environment where there is water.[98] A number are important parasites.[99] Smaller phyla related to them are the Nematomorpha or horsehair worms, and the Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, and Loricifera. These groups have a reduced coelom, called a pseudocoelom.
Lophotrochozoa
The Lophotrochozoa, evolved within Protostomia, include two of the most successful animal phyla, the Mollusca and Annelida.[100][101] The former, which is the second-largest animal phylum by number of described species, includes animals such as snails, clams, and squids, and the latter comprises the segmented worms, such as earthworms and leeches. These two groups have long been considered close relatives because of the common presence of trochophore larvae, but the annelids were considered closer to the arthropods because they are both segmented.[102] Now, this is generally considered convergent evolution, owing to many morphological and genetic differences between the two phyla.[103] Lophotrochozoa also includes the Nemertea or ribbon worms, the Sipuncula, and several phyla that have a ring of ciliated tentacles around the mouth, called a lophophore.[104] These were traditionally grouped together as the lophophorates.[105] but it now appears that the lophophorate group may be paraphyletic,[106] with some closer to the nemerteans and some to the molluscs and annelids.[107][108] They include the Brachiopoda or lamp shells, which are prominent in the fossil record, the Entoprocta, the Phoronida, and possibly the Bryozoa or moss animals.[109]

The Platyzoa include the phylum Platyhelminthes, the flatworms.[110] These were originally considered some of the most primitive Bilateria, but it now appears they developed from more complex ancestors.[111] A number of parasites are included in this group, such as the flukes and tapeworms.[110] Flatworms are acoelomates, lacking a body cavity, as are their closest relatives, the microscopic Gastrotricha.[112] The other platyzoan phyla are mostly microscopic and pseudocoelomate. The most prominent are the Rotifera or rotifers, which are common in aqueous environments. They also include the Acanthocephala or spiny-headed worms, the Gnathostomulida, Micrognathozoa, and possibly the Cycliophora.[113] These groups share the presence of complex jaws, from which they are called the Gnathifera.

A relationship between the Brachiopoda and Nemertea has been suggested by molecular data.[114] A second study has also suggested this relationship.[115] This latter study also suggested that Annelida and Mollusca may be sister clades. Another study has suggested that Annelida and Mollusca are sister clades.[116] This clade has been termed the Neotrochozoa.

Many things people don’t know about Animal !!!!
May 24, 2017
0
Woe betide those who have not understood animals

Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also called Metazoa). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs: they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance.

Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species. They include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams, oysters, octopuses, squid, snails); arthropods (millipedes, centipedes, insects, spiders, scorpions, crabs, lobsters, shrimp); annelids (earthworms, leeches), nematodes (filarial worms, hookworms), flatworms (tapeworms, liver flukes), cnidarians (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges. The study of animals is called zoology.
The word “animal” comes from the Latin animalis, meaning having breath, having soul or living being.[3] In everyday non-scientific usage the word excludes humans – that is, “animal” is often used to refer only to non-human members of the kingdom Animalia; often, only closer relatives of humans such as mammals and other vertebrates, are meant.[4] The biological definition of the word refers to all members of the kingdom Animalia, encompassing creatures as diverse as sponges, jellyfish, insects, and humans.
Aristotle divided the living world between animals and plants, and this was followed by Carl Linnaeus, in the first hierarchical classification.[7] In Linnaeus’s original scheme, the animals were one of three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Insecta, Pisces, Amphibia, Aves, and Mammalia. Since then the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, the Chordata, whereas the various other forms have been separated out.

In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into two subkingdoms: Metazoa (multicellular animals) and Protozoa (single-celled animals).[8] The protozoa were later moved to the kingdom Protista, leaving only the metazoa. Thus Metazoa is now considered a synonym of Animalia.
Animals have several characteristics that set them apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular,[10] which separates them from bacteria and most protists. They are heterotrophic,[11] generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae.[12] They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking rigid cell walls.[13] All animals are motile,[14] if only at certain life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a blastula stage,[15] which is a characteristic exclusive to animals.

Structure
With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges (Phylum Porifera) and Placozoa, animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues. These include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals. Typically, there is also an internal digestive chamber, with one or two openings.[16] Animals with this sort of organization are called metazoans, or eumetazoans when the former is used for animals in general.[17]

All animals have eukaryotic cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins.[18] This may be calcified to form structures like shells, bones, and spicules.[19] During development, it forms a relatively flexible framework[20] upon which cells can move about and be reorganized, making complex structures possible. In contrast, other multicellular organisms, like plants and fungi, have cells held in place by cell walls, and so develop by progressive growth.[16] Also, unique to animal cells are the following intercellular junctions: tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes.
Nearly all animals undergo some form of sexual reproduction.[23] They produce haploid gametes by meiosis (see Origin and function of meiosis). The smaller, motile gametes are spermatozoa and the larger, non-motile gametes are ova.[24] These fuse to form zygotes, which develop into new individuals[25] (see Allogamy).

Many animals are also capable of asexual reproduction.[26] This may take place through parthenogenesis, where fertile eggs are produced without mating, budding, or fragmentation.[27]

A zygote initially develops into a hollow sphere, called a blastula,[28] which undergoes rearrangement and differentiation. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location and develop into a new sponge.[29] In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement.[30] It first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber, and two separate germ layers—an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm.[31] In most cases, a mesoderm also develops between them.[32] These germ layers then differentiate to form tissues and organs.
During sexual reproduction, mating with a close relative (inbreeding) generally leads to inbreeding depression. For instance, inbreeding was found to increase juvenile mortality in 11 small animal species.[34] Inbreeding depression is considered to be largely due to expression of deleterious recessive mutations.[35] Mating with unrelated or distantly related members of the same species is generally thought to provide the advantage of masking deleterious recessive mutations in progeny.[36] (see Heterosis). Animals have evolved numerous diverse mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding and promoting outcrossing[37] (see Inbreeding avoidance).

As indicated in the image of chimpanzees, they have adopted dispersal as a way to separate close relatives and prevent inbreeding.[37] Their dispersal route is known as natal dispersal, whereby individuals move away from the area of birth.
n various species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality. Females that are pair bonded to a male of poor genetic quality, as is the case in inbreeding, are more likely to engage in extra-pair copulations in order to improve their reproductive success and the survivability of their offspring.
All animals are heterotrophs, meaning that they feed directly or indirectly on other living things.[39] They are often further subdivided into groups such as carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, and parasites.[40]

Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a heterotroph that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).[41] Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on them, but the act of predation almost always results in the death of the prey.[42] The other main category of consumption is detritivory, the consumption of dead organic matter.[43] It can at times be difficult to separate the two feeding behaviours, for example, where parasitic species prey on a host organism and then lay their eggs on it for their offspring to feed on its decaying corpse. Selective pressures imposed on one another has led to an evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, resulting in various antipredator adaptations.[44]

Most animals indirectly use the energy of sunlight by eating plants or plant-eating animals. Most plants use light to convert inorganic molecules in their environment into carbohydrates, fats, proteins and other biomolecules, characteristically containing reduced carbon in the form of carbon-hydrogen bonds. Starting with carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), photosynthesis converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy in the form of simple sugars (e.g., glucose), with the release of molecular oxygen. These sugars are then used as the building blocks for plant growth, including the production of other biomolecules.[16] When an animal eats plants (or eats other animals which have eaten plants), the reduced carbon compounds in the food become a source of energy and building materials for the animal.[45] They are either used directly to help the animal grow, or broken down, releasing stored solar energy, and giving the animal the energy required for motion.[46][47]

Animals living close to hydrothermal vents and cold seeps on the ocean floor are not dependent on the energy of sunlight.[48] Instead chemosynthetic archaea and bacteria form the base of the food chain.
Animals are generally considered to have emerged within flagellated eukaryota.[51] Their closest known living relatives are the choanoflagellates, collared flagellates that have a morphology similar to the choanocytes of certain sponges.[52] Molecular studies place animals in a supergroup called the opisthokonts, which also include the choanoflagellates, fungi and a few small parasitic protists.[53] The name comes from the posterior location of the flagellum in motile cells, such as most animal spermatozoa, whereas other eukaryotes tend to have anterior flagella.[54]

The first fossils that might represent animals appear in the Trezona Formation at Trezona Bore, West Central Flinders, South Australia.[55] These fossils are interpreted as being early sponges. They were found in 665-million-year-old rock.[55]

The next oldest possible animal fossils are found towards the end of the Precambrian, around 610 million years ago, and are known as the Ediacaran or Vendian biota.[56] These are difficult to relate to later fossils, however. Some may represent precursors of modern phyla, but they may be separate groups, and it is possible they are not really animals at all.[57]

Aside from them, most known animal phyla make a more or less simultaneous appearance during the Cambrian period, about 542 million years ago.[58] It is still disputed whether this event, called the Cambrian explosion, is due to a rapid divergence between different groups or due to a change in conditions that made fossilization possible.

Some palaeontologists suggest that animals appeared much earlier than the Cambrian explosion, possibly as early as 1 billion years ago.[59] Trace fossils such as tracks and burrows found in the Tonian period indicate the presence of triploblastic worms, like metazoans, roughly as large (about 5 mm wide) and complex as earthworms.[60] During the beginning of the Tonian period around 1 billion years ago, there was a decrease in Stromatolite diversity, which may indicate the appearance of grazing animals, since stromatolite diversity increased when grazing animals became extinct at the End Permian and End Ordovician extinction events, and decreased shortly after the grazer populations recovered. However the discovery that tracks very similar to these early trace fossils are produced today by the giant single-celled protist Gromia sphaerica casts doubt on their interpretation as evidence of early animal evolution.
Traditional morphological and modern molecular phylogenetic analysis have both recognized a major evolutionary transition from “non-bilaterian” animals, which are those lacking a bilaterally symmetric body plan (Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria and Placozoa), to “bilaterian” animals (Bilateria) whose body plans display bilateral symmetry. The latter are further classified based on a major division between Deuterostomes and Protostomes. The relationships among non-bilaterian animals are disputed, but all bilaterian animals are thought to form a monophyletic group. Current understanding of the relationships among the major groups of animals is summarized by the following cladogram:[63]

Apoikozoa

Choanoflagellata

Animal

Porifera

Placozoa

Ctenophora

Cnidaria

Bilateria

Deuterostomes

Protostomes

Ecdysozoa

Lophotrochozoa

Non-bilaterian animals: Porifera, Placozoa, Ctenophora, Cnidaria
Several animal phyla are recognized for their lack of bilateral symmetry, and are thought to have diverged from other animals early in evolution. Among these, the sponges (Porifera) were long thought to have diverged first, representing the oldest animal phylum.[64] They lack the complex organization found in most other phyla.[65] Their cells are differentiated, but in most cases not organized into distinct tissues.[66] Sponges typically feed by drawing in water through pores.[67] However, a series of phylogenomic studies from 2008-2015 have found support for Ctenophora, or comb jellies, as the basal lineage of animals.[68][69][70][71] This result has been controversial, since it would imply that sponges may not be so primitive, but may instead be secondarily simplified.[68] Other researchers have argued that the placement of Ctenophora as the earliest-diverging animal phylum is a statistical anomaly caused by the high rate of evolution in ctenophore genomes.[72][73][74][75]

Among the other phyla, the Ctenophora and the Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, and jellyfish, are radially symmetric and have digestive chambers with a single opening, which serves as both the mouth and the anus.[76] Both have distinct tissues, but they are not organized into organs.[77] There are only two main germ layers, the ectoderm and endoderm, with only scattered cells between them. As such, these animals are sometimes called diploblastic.[78] The tiny placozoans are similar, but they do not have a permanent digestive chamber.

The Myxozoa, microscopic parasites that were originally considered Protozoa, are now believed to have evolved within Cnidaria.
Bilaterian animals
The remaining animals form a monophyletic group called the Bilateria. For the most part, they are bilaterally symmetric, and often have a specialized head with feeding and sensory organs. The body is triploblastic, i.e. all three germ layers are well-developed, and tissues form distinct organs. The digestive chamber has two openings, a mouth and an anus, and there is also an internal body cavity called a coelom or pseudocoelom. There are exceptions to each of these characteristics, however—for instance adult echinoderms are radially symmetric, and certain parasitic worms have extremely simplified body structures.

Genetic studies have considerably changed our understanding of the relationships within the Bilateria. Most appear to belong to two major lineages: the deuterostomes and the protostomes, the latter of which includes the Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa. The Chaetognatha or arrow worms have been traditionally classified as deuterostomes, though recent molecular studies have identified this group as a basal protostome lineage.[80]

In addition, there are a few small groups of bilaterians with relatively cryptic morphology whose relationships with other animals are not well-established. For example, recent molecular studies have identified Acoelomorpha and Xenoturbella as comprising a monophyletic group,[81][82][83] but studies disagree as to whether this group evolved from within deuterostomes,[82] or whether it represents the sister group to all other bilaterian animals (Nephrozoa).[84][85] Other groups of uncertain affinity include the Rhombozoa and Orthonectida. One phyla, the Monoblastozoa, was described by a scientist in 1892, but so far there have been no evidence of its existence.
Deuterostomes differ from protostomes in several ways. Animals from both groups possess a complete digestive tract. However, in protostomes, the first opening of the gut to appear in embryological development (the archenteron) develops into the mouth, with the anus forming secondarily. In deuterostomes the anus forms first, with the mouth developing secondarily.[87] In most protostomes, cells simply fill in the interior of the gastrula to form the mesoderm, called schizocoelous development, but in deuterostomes, it forms through invagination of the endoderm, called enterocoelic pouching.[88] Deuterostome embryos undergo radial cleavage during cell division, while protostomes undergo spiral cleavage.[89]

All this suggests the deuterostomes and protostomes are separate, monophyletic lineages. The main phyla of deuterostomes are the Echinodermata and Chordata.[90] The former are radially symmetric and exclusively marine, such as starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers.[91] The latter are dominated by the vertebrates, animals with backbones.[92] These include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.[93]

In addition to these, the deuterostomes also include the Hemichordata, or acorn worms, which are thought to be closely related to Echinodermata forming a group known as Ambulacraria.[94][95] Although they are not especially prominent today, the important fossil graptolites may belong to this group.
The Ecdysozoa are protostomes, named after the common trait of growth by moulting or ecdysis.[97] The largest animal phylum belongs here, the Arthropoda, including insects, spiders, crabs, and their kin. All these organisms have a body divided into repeating segments, typically with paired appendages. Two smaller phyla, the Onychophora and Tardigrada, are close relatives of the arthropods and share these traits. The ecdysozoans also include the Nematoda or roundworms, perhaps the second largest animal phylum. Roundworms are typically microscopic, and occur in nearly every environment where there is water.[98] A number are important parasites.[99] Smaller phyla related to them are the Nematomorpha or horsehair worms, and the Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, and Loricifera. These groups have a reduced coelom, called a pseudocoelom.
Lophotrochozoa
The Lophotrochozoa, evolved within Protostomia, include two of the most successful animal phyla, the Mollusca and Annelida.[100][101] The former, which is the second-largest animal phylum by number of described species, includes animals such as snails, clams, and squids, and the latter comprises the segmented worms, such as earthworms and leeches. These two groups have long been considered close relatives because of the common presence of trochophore larvae, but the annelids were considered closer to the arthropods because they are both segmented.[102] Now, this is generally considered convergent evolution, owing to many morphological and genetic differences between the two phyla.[103] Lophotrochozoa also includes the Nemertea or ribbon worms, the Sipuncula, and several phyla that have a ring of ciliated tentacles around the mouth, called a lophophore.[104] These were traditionally grouped together as the lophophorates.[105] but it now appears that the lophophorate group may be paraphyletic,[106] with some closer to the nemerteans and some to the molluscs and annelids.[107][108] They include the Brachiopoda or lamp shells, which are prominent in the fossil record, the Entoprocta, the Phoronida, and possibly the Bryozoa or moss animals.[109]

The Platyzoa include the phylum Platyhelminthes, the flatworms.[110] These were originally considered some of the most primitive Bilateria, but it now appears they developed from more complex ancestors.[111] A number of parasites are included in this group, such as the flukes and tapeworms.[110] Flatworms are acoelomates, lacking a body cavity, as are their closest relatives, the microscopic Gastrotricha.[112] The other platyzoan phyla are mostly microscopic and pseudocoelomate. The most prominent are the Rotifera or rotifers, which are common in aqueous environments. They also include the Acanthocephala or spiny-headed worms, the Gnathostomulida, Micrognathozoa, and possibly the Cycliophora.[113] These groups share the presence of complex jaws, from which they are called the Gnathifera.

A relationship between the Brachiopoda and Nemertea has been suggested by molecular data.[114] A second study has also suggested this relationship.[115] This latter study also suggested that Annelida and Mollusca may be sister clades. Another study has suggested that Annelida and Mollusca are sister clades.[116] This clade has been termed the Neotrochozoa.

Some thing you dont know about buildings we live in
May 21, 2017
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TMPDOODLE1495346035097

A building or edifice is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.[1] Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures.

Buildings serve several needs of society – primarily as shelter from weather, security, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the human habitat (a place of comfort and safety) and the outside (a place that at times may be harsh and harmful).

Ever since the first cave paintings, buildings have also become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in sustainable planning and building practices has also become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings.
The word building is both a noun and a verb also an adverb: the structure itself and the act of making it. As a noun, a building is ‘a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place’;[1] “there was a three-storey building on the corner”; “it was an imposing edifice”. In the broadest interpretation a fence or wall is a building.[2] However, the word structure is used more broadly than building including natural and man-made formations[3] and does not necessarily have walls. Structure is more likely to be used for a fence. Sturgis’ Dictionary included that “[building] differs from architecture in excluding all idea of artistic treatment; and it differs from construction in the idea of excluding scientific or highly skilful treatment.”[4] As a verb, building is the act of construction.

Structural height in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on building from street-level. Depending on how they are classified, spires and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not generally included. The definition of a low-rise vs. a high-rise building is a matter of debate, but generally three storeys or less is considered low-rise.[5]
A report by Shinichi Fujimura of a shelter built 500 000 years ago[6] is doubtful since Fujimura was later found to have faked many of his findings.[7] Supposed remains of huts found at the Terra Amata site in Nice purportedly dating from 200 000 to 400 000 years ago[8] have also been called into question. (See Terra Amata.) There is clear evidence of homebuilding from around 18 000 BC.[9] Buildings became common during the Neolithic (see Neolithic architecture).
Single-family residential buildings are most often called houses or homes. Residential buildings containing more than one dwelling unit are called a duplex, apartment building to differentiate them from ‘individual’ houses. A condominium is an apartment that the occupant owns rather than rents. Houses may also be built in pairs (semi-detached), in terraces where all but two of the houses have others either side; apartments may be built round courtyards or as rectangular blocks surrounded by a piece of ground of varying sizes. Houses which were built as a single dwelling may later be divided into apartments or bedsitters; they may also be converted to another use e.g. an office or a shop.

Building types may range from huts to multimillion-dollar high-rise apartment blocks able to house thousands of people. Increasing settlement density in buildings (and smaller distances between buildings) is usually a response to high ground prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other common building materials are brick, concrete or combinations of either of these with stone.

Residential buildings have different names for their use depending if they are seasonal include holiday cottage (vacation home) or timeshare; size such as a cottage or great house; value such as a shack or mansion; manner of construction such as a log home or mobile home; proximity to the ground such as earth sheltered house, stilt house, or tree house. Also if the residents are in need of special care such as a nursing home, orphanage or prison; or in group housing like barracks or dormitories.

Historically many people lived in communal buildings called longhouses, smaller dwellings called pit-houses and houses combined with barns sometimes called housebarns.

Buildings are defined to be substantial, permanent structures so other dwelling forms such as houseboats, yurts, and motorhomes are dwellings but not buildings.

Multi-storey Edit
A multi-storey is a building that has multiple floors. Sydney is a city with many multi story buildings: One suburb which has been notorious for poor construction is Lane Cove. Many overseas investors have been sucked in a and bought poorly built buildings

Complex Edit
Sometimes a group of inter-related (and possibly inter-connected) builds are referred to as a complex – for example a housing complex,[10] educational complex,[11] hospital complex, etc.
The practice of designing, constructing, and operating buildings is most usually a collective effort of different groups of professionals and trades. Depending on the size, complexity, and purpose of a particular building project, the project team may include:

A real estate developer who secures funding for the project;
One or more financial institutions or other investors that provide the funding
Local planning and code authorities
A Surveyor who performs an ALTA/ACSM and construction surveys throughout the project;
Construction managers who coordinate the effort of different groups of project participants;
Licensed architects and engineers who provide building design and prepare construction documents;
The principal design Engineering disciplines which would normally include the following professionals:- Civil, Structural, Mechanical building services or HVAC (heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) Electrical Building Services, Plumbing and drainage. Also other possible design Engineer specialists may be involved such as Fire (prevention), Acoustic, facade engineers,building physics,Telecomms, AV (Audio Visual), BMS (Building Management Systems)Automatic controls etc. These design Engineers also prepare construction documents which are issued to specialist contractors to obtain a price for the works and to follow for the installations.
Landscape architects;
Interior designers;
Other consultants;
Contractors who provide construction services and install building systems such as climate control, electrical, plumbing, Decoration, fire protection, security and telecommunications;
Marketing or leasing agents;
Facility managers who are responsible for operating the building.
Regardless of their size or intended use, all buildings in the US must comply with zoning ordinances, building codes and other regulations such as fire codes, life safety codes and related standards.

Vehicles—such as trailers, caravans, ships and passenger aircraft—are treated as “buildings” for life safety purposes.
Any building requires a certain amount of internal infrastructure to function, which includes such elements like heating / cooling, power and telecommunications, water and wastewater etc. Especially in commercial buildings (such as offices or factories), these can be extremely intricate systems taking up large amounts of space (sometimes located in separate areas or double floors / false ceilings) and constitute a big part of the regular maintenance required.

Conveying systems Edit
Systems for transport of people within buildings:

Elevator
Escalator
Moving sidewalk (horizontal and inclined)
Systems for transport of people between interconnected buildings:

Skyway
Underground city
Buildings may be damaged during the construction of the building or during maintenance. There are several other reasons behind building damage like accidents[12] such as storms, explosions and subsidence caused by mining or poor foundations. Buildings also may suffer from fire damage and flooding in special circumstances. They may also become dilapidated through lack of proper maintenance or alteration work improperly carried out.

Some Crazy Facts About Eyes
May 17, 2017
2
images-2

×× Your retinas actually perceive the outside world as upside-down – your brain flips the image for you.

If you want to see the world as your retinas do, try a pair of prism glasses . Just don’t, you know, walk near sheer drops or operate heavy machinery while wearing them.

×× In addition to being upside-down, images arrive at your retina split in half and distorted.

Each half of your brain receives one half of the image, and then they scramble the images together to compose the whole picture you’re used to seeing.

×× Your peripheral vision is very low-resolution and is almost in black-and-white.

 

You don’t realise it because your eyes move to “fill in” the peripheral detail before you notice the difference.

×× Your retinas cannot detect the colour red.

Although your retinas have red, green and blue colour receptors, the “red” receptor only detects yellow-green, and the “green” receptor detects blue-green. Your brain combines these signals and turns them into red.

×× Got blue eyes? You share an ancestor with all other blue-eyed people across the world.

×× And if you have brown eyes, you’re old school.

 

All humans originally had brown eyes. Blue eyes appeared as a mutation about 6,000 years ago.

×× “20/20 vision” doesn’t equal perfect vision. It just means you can see 20 feet in front of you as well as the average person can.

×× If you’re shortsighted, your eyeball is longer than normal. If you’re farsighted, it’s shorter than average.

×× If you’re blind, but were born with sight, you probably still see images in your dreams.

 

××. On average, you blink 17 times a minute.

That’s 14,280 times in a 14-hour day, and 5.2 million times a year.

×× Your eye is constantly making tiny jerking movements called “microsaccades” to stop objects from fading from your vision.

 

××A process called Troxler’s phenomenon causes static objects in your gaze to disappear if you stare at them for too long . Microsaccades stop this from happening.

 

××  your eye can distinguish between 50,000 shades of grey.

×× Your eyes are almost the same size as they were when you were born. And newborn babies can see clearly up to 15 inches away.

Which is, handily, generally where their mothers’ faces are when they’re breastfeeding.

××Your tears have different compositions based on whether something’s irritating your eye, or you’re crying, or yawning.

How to grow aloe vera at home and its many benefits
May 11, 2017
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aloe vera
Aloe Vera is a succulent plant like cacti which grows well in dry condition. The one benefit of growing this plant is that you don’t need to water it often. They not only add graceful beauty to your shelf or your garden where you grow but also has many medicinal benefits. So, growing an Aloe Vera is very simple but proper care is important.
1. Aloe Vera needs a large container with lots of drainage holes in it so that water can drain easily without getting stagnant. Never allow water to stagnate as this will rot your plant.
2. Fill the container with potting soil well mixed with compost and fertilizers (if you want). Make sure water will drain thoroughly through the soil otherwise this will result in rotting and wilting of your plant. We don’t want that. Do we?
3. Aloe Vera is just like Cactus so they need a lot of sunlight. Place them directly in the spot where they will get a lot of sunlight. If you are growing inside your house then place the pot in South or East directions.
4. Water Aloe Vera deeply and in order to avoid rotting allow the soil to dry 1 to 2 inches deep between the watering period. Reduce the time of watering in winter.
5. Occasionally the mother plant will produce offsets or babies which have the ability to produce an entirely new plant. Remove the mother plant from the pot and see where these babies are attached and cut off the babies alone carefully. Place them in another container with potting soil to have more Aloe Vera. After placing the offsets allow for a week for them to settle for the dry soil condition and then water it.
6. The common problems for Aloe Vera will come from mealy bugs and scales. Some common diseases include fungal rot, leaf rot, root rot, soft rot. You can avoid these diseases by preventing overwatering and by providing proper drainage.
7. Other types of aloe vera include tiger aloe or patridge breasted aloe vera and lace aloe.
Medicinal uses of Aloe Vera gel
Aloe Vera gel has many benefits for your face, skin and also for weight loss.
1. The gel can be used to treat dry skin. Take some Aloe Vera gel, a pinch of turmeric, a teaspoon of honey, milk and a few drops of rose water. Blend the mix and apply it on your skin for 20 minutes and wash it off.
2. Aloe Vera gel is excellent for curing acne and preventing further production. Take some Aloe Vera gel, walnuts grounded to flour consistency, and honey. Aloe Vera along with the honey’s antioxidants will result in a smooth and clear skin.
4. If you have sensitive skin then take some Aloe Vera gel, cucumber juice, yogurt and rose oil and blend them well. Apply this for 20 minutes and wash it off.
5. Other benefits of Aloe Vera gel includes soothing sunburns, accelerating wound healing, removing blemishes, promote hair growth and prevents dandruff when used as a head pack once in a week.
Thus Aloe Vera is not only a succulent plant but also with lots of medicinal values providing natural care for your beauty as well as health. So, enjoy growing this amazing plant.
Thanks for reading. Good luck. 🙂
How to grow beautiful jasmine plant in your garden
May 11, 2017
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jasmine
Jasmine is a beautiful flower and a fragrance is just rendered and adds a beauty to your garden and your home. The plant can either be a vine or a bush. The plant can grow in warmer climates with just the right amount of sunlight. Although growing jasmine is not a very simple task it will be worth the time invested in it. You will definitely love to see the flowers blossoming and spreading the fragrance in your home. Common Jasmine is usually a vine and has larger shiny green leaves than the Royal Jasmine and also has the pleasant scent. Now there are a lot of varieties of Jasmine available and it can be grown in according to the temperature and atmospheric conditions. Now let’s see the steps to grow some beautiful jasmines.
1. Before placing your jasmine plant choose a location that is warm and doesn’t have too much sunlight. Jasmine loves shade a lot than sunlight. They are vines and loves to climb up so place as support which is at least 15 feet tall.
2. Have a well fertile and draining soil. The soil should be rich in organic matter. Go for clay or organic soil such as peat as it is loose and when watered it will hold the right amount of water for your jasmine plant to grow healthily.
3. Jasmine needs a surveillance at the early stage as you have to get them climb the support. When you start to see new leaves cut off the yellow and dried leaves. Spider mites might be a problem so in order to get rid of that use horticultural oil or neem oil if necessary.
4. If you are growing indoors then dwarf jasmine would be a perfect choice. It requires more moisture and more sunlight in your home. So place this in a spot where you will get a lot of sunlight. Since the potted plants would not be able to get more nutrients you will need to fertilize it annually.
5. Arabian Jasmine would perfect for your indoor as well as outdoors. Once grown fully they will have the ability to produce flowers throughout the year. You can make your own perfume by putting the plants in the hot water before bathing and they prove to be a great scent. You can do this if you like to give a little treat for yourself.
6. Lotions made from Jasmine flowers are wonderful for treating sunburns and rashes. The juices of Jasmine flowers are said to moisturize your skin and give a young look and feel preventing wrinkles.
7. Jasmine flowers have great uses in the field of aromatherapy. The scent of Jasmine flowers is used as an anti- depressed and to relieve stress. Also, Jasmine is mainly used in making essential oils.
8. Along with these Jasmine is used for treating headaches, irritability, sunstrokes, anxiety, depression and uterine problems. These flowers are also used to treat fresh cuts and to clean scraps. The flowers have high healing power.
9. Jasmine tea is a herbal tea which has many medicinal benefits. The benefits include reducing the risk of heart attacks, prevention of diabetes, preventing cancer, reducing stress, improving the digestive process, lowering cholesterol, and easing out chronic inflammation like muscle aches and pains.
So, Jasmine is not just beautiful plant adding beauty and sweet fragrance to your home but also it is of so many medicinal benefits. Enjoy your time growing this wonderful plant.
Thanks for reading. Good luck.
likely 5 step to a better cut !!!!!!
May 10, 2017
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Warm weather is just around the corner, but does that mean you should start cutting now? No, it just means you should start planning now! Here’s how.

With the sun soon setting on cold, dreary weather, the mind turns unavoidably to the approach of warm summer days and, for many of us, beach season. With it comes the excitement of prepping your body for that bikini, board shorts—or if you’re daring, Speedo—you purchased months in advance. You focused on building muscle mass over the winter, but soon enough, it’ll be time for all that sexy to come out of hibernation.

How to structure your cutting program is one question. When to start is another, and in some ways, it’s just as important. Unfortunately, there’s not a single answer I can give you since, as you might expect, it depends on your unique body and lifestyle. What I can do, however, is help you plan out a healthy approach to cutting weight that won’t leave you scrambling for answers or feeling miserable with a crash diet.

Answer these five questions in the order I have them here, and you’ll be well on your way to chiseling a body that’s worth a double- or even triple-take.

Question 1:> How Does My Body Respond To Caloric Deficit?

If this is your first time cutting in general, you’re probably not familiar with how your body responds to eating fewer calories than you consume. Some people can feel just fine, while others find that at least initially, they feel, well, not so fine.

Just remember that nothing happens in isolation. Chemical imbalances can send a cascade of deleterious effects throughout the body, and if you’re telling yourself to ignore the warning signs, you can quickly find yourself downright miserable. Your body’s appetite- and weight-regulating mechanisms may react negatively to reduced calories by making you feel hungrier, messing with your hydration, affecting mood and energy levels, and even disrupting your sleep.

Reduced calories may make you feel hungrier, mess with your hydration, affect mood and energy levels, and even disrupt your sleep.

Luckily, there are steps you can take to help avoid these sorts of extreme scenarios. One is to keep your protein intake high to preserve muscle mass as you continue eating at a deficit. Another is to regularly monitor your body for any major abnormalities. A third, perhaps the most important, is to prioritize sleep. I know you’ve heard it before, but losing sleep really will hamper your fat loss.

In almost all cases, the leaner you are when you start dieting, the greater the chance that you will end up peeling off muscle mass with too extreme of a diet. Plus, the lower your current body fat levels, the more stubborn a further drop in body fat will be. For men with single-digit body fat levels in men or women in the mid-to-low teens, this is especially the case.

Be sure to cushion your cutting phase with an additional few weeks to preserve as much muscle as possible, and to decrease the risk of rebellion from your body.

Question 2: Am I Mentally Prepared To Succeed?

Aside from any physical struggles, reaching your ideal physique through a stricter eating regimen is never a walk in the park on a mental or emotional level. It requires extraordinary planning, hours of meal prep and training, regular dates with a diet comprised often of less-than-exciting foods, intense self-regulation, and an iron will.

There will be times when your body and mind will conspire against you and make fierce attempts to sabotage your efforts. The world will try to woo your carb-depleted brain with intoxicating temptations such as syrup-smothered pancakes, perfectly juicy burgers, and chocolate-dipped bacon. Yes, that exists!

The world will try to woo your carb-depleted brain with intoxicating temptations such as syrup-smothered pancakes, juicy burgers, and chocolate-dipped bacon.

Some people can stay lean without feeling the need to cheat; if you’re not one of those people, don’t feel like you’re doomed to a monastic meal plan. Just be strategic! Consider incorporating a carb re-feed day, or one cheat meal per week to keep your sanity and generally alleviate the stress of cutting.

Cheat meals allow you to relax your psychological white-knuckle grip on your diet, but just as importantly, they can help reboot weight-regulating hormones like leptin that will help continue chipping away at fat.

Remember that when losing fat, hunger is normal. That’s part of the adventure, but it doesn’t have to be the whole story. It’s what you do 90 percent of the time that produces results in the end. Set realistic expectations, and you’ll be able to stay committed to the end.

Question 3: How Much Fat Do I Need To Lose?

One pound of body fat, you may have heard, is equal to approximately 3,500 calories. That number doesn’t do justice to the full complexity of the systems involved in human fat production and loss, but it’s a surprisingly effective benchmark—provided you use it right. The more pounds in fat you want to lose, the greater amount of time you will need to safely and truly shed fat weight, not mere water weight, or even worse, muscle.

For men, it’s thought to be below 1,500 calories; for women, it could fall below 1,200 calories of deficit.

A general guideline that works for many people is to aim to lose body fat at a pace of 1 pound per week without resorting to extreme dieting. That means eating at a deficit of approximately 500 calories per day. Set your calendar accordingly. If you have 10 pounds or fewer to lose, you should start at least 2-3 months out. If you have more than 20 pounds to torch, begin your cutting phase 4-5 months prior.

Sure, a more aggressive diet can achieve weight loss in a fraction of the time, but research and experience have shown there are limitations to how deep in calorie debt you can get before you wreck your metabolism.

For men, it’s thought to be below 1,500 calories; for women, it could fall below 1,200 calories of deficit. And besides, if your diet is so extreme that you can’t stick to it, that in itself is wasted time and effort!

Question 4: Am I Prepared For Potential Setbacks?

In life, there are few precious things we can control. Luckily, the way our body looks is often one of them. However, all it takes is one setback to rip away that feeling of control and leave us feeling helpless. That’s why it’s important to anticipate any roadblocks along your path to sun-kissed glory.

Look at your calendar. Perhaps you have a family event, extended travel for business, or some other big obligation that will pry you away from your kitchen and gym. Don’t let these well-known enemies sneak up on you! They can make it difficult to stick to a cutting regimen, sure, but that doesn’t mean you have to let your previous hard work go down the tubes during this time. Your success hinges on recognizing the obstacles ahead of time and accounting for them.

Take the time to plan ahead, and you’ll be strong in the face of any temptation

You might extend your cutting regimen or break it up into four-week cycles. If you’re going to travel, it’s not uncommon to prepare an extra bag brimming with prepared meals, protein powder, and appropriate muscle-fueling snacks.

If there’s an event that will flow with alcohol and wonderful food, schedule that event as a cheat meal, but don’t let it suck you into a black-hole of indulgence. Take the time to plan ahead, and you’ll be strong in the face of any temptation.

Question 5: For How Long Should I Cut?

Once you’ve established your answers to the first four questions, you’re finally ready to decide on a timeframe that’s right for you.

The common timelines here are designed to give enough breathing room for healthy expulsion of unwanted body fat, while allowing for the inevitable dance around obligations. Customize them to your end goal and you should find them fairly generous.

For 10 pounds or less, start cutting 2-3 months ahead.
For 20 pounds or more, start cutting 4-5 months ahead.
Add 1-2 weeks for any major foreseeable obstacles.
If such extended time is not on your side, I recommend at minimum six weeks for any cutting program. Don’t leave it to the last minute.

Once you decide on your timeline, consider these programs to provide you with some structure and guidance in your efforts. They’re all different lengths and intensities, so match them up to the time you have at your disposal.

Ashley Conrad’s Clutch Cut: 3 weeks
Jim Stoppani’s Shortcut-to-Shred: 6 weeks
Jamie Eason’s LiveFit: 12 weeks
You were systematic in building all that muscle, so don’t put your gains at risk by taking a haphazard approach to fat-loss. It’ll all be worth it when it comes time to disrobe and reveal a pina colada-dropping physique.