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Dusty Rose Bathroom Accessories – Where To Find Bargains

 

The bathroom can be a most important room in a modern home. With the hectic and frenetic pace of modern life, the bathroom can be a haven of peace and quiet, a retreat from the stress and strain of the outside world. More and more people are using their bathroom as a place of self pampering, with relaxing baths allied to health and beauty treatments. This atmosphere of peace and calm can be so much enhanced by having an aesthetic and tastefully designed décor, and judicious and intelligent use of bathroom accessories. Dusty Rose bathroom accessories are one tasteful design that can help create this pleasing ambience.

Choosing the style and décor of a room should depend very much on the preferences of the owner or owners, and their affinities. The surroundings in which you spend large portions of your time need to somehow resonate with you. Good retailers of bathroom accessories will have an extremely wide range of possible designs and styles, from many different periods of history. It is very important that you consider which of these period styles you would feel comfortable in. Of course there is also always a wide range of contemporary styles as well that may suit you better. One thing is certain, thanks to the internet we can now choose from a far wider range of styles than our predecessors, often from the comfort of our own home.

Of course the most important parts of choosing a bathroom design are the decoration of the room and the selection of the bathroom suite itself. This is because of the simple fact that this is by far the hardest part to change. Minor fittings can be easily replaced if for some reason they don’t live up to the original expectations that you had. Nevertheless, even things like curtains need to be chosen carefully, as there is no point whatsoever in throwing money away by choosing too hastily. If you wish to choose dusty rose bathroom accessories, make sure that you have thought it through, and that this will fit in with the overall scheme of the room.

When it comes to dusty rose bathroom accessories, there are many different products available, both on the internet, and in shopping malls. It is possible to get ceramic bathroom fittings such as sinks in a dusty rose pattern. Even toilets are for sale in this color on some internet sites. At totally the other end of the scale, there is a collection of hand painted shower curtain hooks selling for less than ten dollars. Hand towels are also selling on the auction sites. If you wish to pick up dusty rose bathroom accessories, there is plenty of choice.

The absolute best place to find bargains on dusty rose bathroom accessories is online, using the internet. Because of the increased competition inherent in a global market where everyone has access to products and services from all countries and all vendors who sell their wares on the internet, prices are very competitive with online retailers. Also, you can reach a far higher choice of goods on the internet, due to you being able to access that many more retailers. With dusty rose bathroom accessories, your best bet is to try the online retailers, and even the online auction sites.

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How to Choose Brushed Chrome Bathroom Accessories

People with discerning taste choose brushed chrome bathroom accessories for their bathroom for a variety of reasons. Brushed chromes bathroom accessories lend a distinctive look to a bathroom. This, coupled with the fact that brushed chrome is easy care, makes it a popular choice. The fact that brushed chrome bathroom accessories are so popular is good for the consumer, because it means you have many choices available.Comfortable-Bathroom

Brushed chrome bathroom accessories fall into two loose groups: bathroom fixtures, such as towel racks and toilet tissue holders; and bathroom accessories such as wastebaskets, tumblers, soap dishes and lotion dispensers. The wonderful thing about choosing brushed chrome bathroom accessories is that you’ll find products in both areas. There’s a wide variety of choices in bathroom fixtures such as towel racks and the like, and you can continue your brushed chrome theme by choosing tumblers and soap dishes to match.

Because brushed chrome bathroom accessories are so popular, there are many unique items that you won’t find in other product lines. Look for products such as a wall-mounted candle holder, a brushed chrome toilet brush, either free standing or wall mounted, and many other unique items. You can also find lighting fixtures with brushed chrome or brushed chrome trim on them. Just imagine how beautiful your bathroom will be when it is decorated completely in brushed chrome.

One of the chief appeals of brushed chrome bathroom accessories is that they are so easy to keep looking good. All it takes to keep brushed chrome looking good is cleaning it when you clean the rest of your bathroom. No polishing of fussing. Brushed chrome bathroom accessories are also inexpensive and durable. They can be used to evoke a timeless, traditional look in bathroom decorating, or just as easily for a contemporary bathroom.

Brushed chrome bathroom accessories can either be highlighted or fade into the background and allow other design elements to take center stage. If you have your heart set on buying bathroom accessories in a theme, such as polka dots, or tropical, or Asian, all of which are readily available, you might choose brushed chrome for your bathroom fixtures. This way the brushed chrome fixtures won’t overtake the bathroom accessories in your chosen style. Its amazing how brushed chrome bathroom accessories will go with just about any style you can imagine.

Popular manufacturers of brushed chrome bathroom accessories include Kohler, Dynasty, and Santec. You can visit your local home improvement store to view brushed chrome bathroom accessories from these and many other manufacturers. Or, save time and preview ideas and designs on the internet. You’ll find numerous sites with all kinds of brushed chrome available. This way you can get a great idea of what is available and see all the various product lines.

The class and simplicity of brushed chrome bathroom accessories never goes out of style. Choosing it for your bathroom is a wise decision that will allow you to enjoy your bathroom accessories for years to come.

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All About Black Iron, Bathroom Accessories

There is a wide variety of black iron, bathroom accessories available to the discerning buyer, ranging from products produced by large manufacturers to hand-forged items. Imagine the delight of having your black iron, bathroom accessories made for you by a modern-day blacksmith!

Black iron, bathroom

Black Iron Bathroom

Black Iron Bathroom

are often used to achieve a rustic look in a bathroom. Hand wrought black iron towel racks or towel hooks can bring to mind the décor of a country inn or rustic lake-side lodge. Can’t you just picture the hand-hewn black iron towel rack against a knotty pine wall?

If you want to bring a bit of a lake-side vacation home with you, perhaps you might want to recreate this look in one of your bathrooms. Often people will choose to decorate the guest or other extra bathroom in a theme style. Using black iron, bathroom accessories could be the perfect theme for you, particularly if you are a fan of the rustic lodge look. This is a popular decorating style for second homes, also, and black iron, bathroom accessories might be a great choice for your bathrooms there. Of course, if you have a log home, either for your primary residence or second home, using black iron, bathroom accessories is a no-brainer. There’s no doubt that black iron and wood go together like a hand in a glove.

Sometimes black iron is used to create theme pieces such as a towel hook decorated with a horse head, or a soap dish in the shape of a loon. If you desire to add special touches to your bathroom with a specific theme, black iron, bathroom accessories may be just the thing for you. Another popular motif is the Texas star, which fits right in with homes in a southwestern or western style. And what about using it for a child’s bathroom with a cowboy theme? Black iron, bathroom accessories have a versatile style.

The hammered texture of hand-forged black iron often is also used in homes with Mission or Craftsman styles. If you have a home in one of these styles you’ll want to consider using black iron, bathroom accessories in your bathroom for sure.

But what if you like the look of black iron, bathroom accessories but aren’t sure you want to design a whole bathroom around it? The other option is to choose one of the special hand wrought black iron pieces and use it as a special feature in your bathroom. One spectacular towel bar or robe hook in black iron can make a whole bathroom. But once you buy one piece, you probably won’t be content with just one. That’s when you’ll think seriously about using black iron, bathroom accessories for the theme of your whole bathroom.

When searching for black iron, bathroom accessories be sure to check out not only the hand-forged varieties but the manufactured kind, also. You may be able to get a similar look for a less expensive price. Whichever you choose, your black iron, bathroom accessories are sure to give you lasting pleasure.

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Making Compost with grass and leaves
June 28, 2018
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I have been saving rather than bagging my leaves each year and placing them along with the leaves I rake up later in the summer from hot weather, to make a bed of compost for planting things like bell peppers and jalapenos. The jalapenos really love it when, after having them sprout from seeds in small pots, I then remove them and place them in larger pots, about 3 to 5 gallon pots using lots of backyard mulch, then topping it off with top soil and then giving them plenty of water and placing the potted jalapenos on the porch so they are not in direct sunlight because in Dallas, during the heat of the summer months, it really gets too much heat and the plant can dry out too fast therefore making it impossible for the plant to thrive. I find they like it best in half shade or sitting on the porch and I water them daily.

Compost made simply from grass clippings and leaves, raked after mowing the lawn as well as leaves that fall year round due to hot weather days, can eventually decompose and produce lots of organic nutrients for any plant. I have never had a problem growing plants with 80 % compost at the bottom of the pot and 20 % top soil and or miracle grow potting medium soil. Watering them frequently is good for them and the compost base is porous enough to allow proper drainage.

I usually will get a shovel and turn over the compost once every so many months. I tend to slack in that department. It takes effort to produce good compost for a garden. Watering the compost pile, spread evenly across an area partitioned around it by landscape timbers, allows even amounts be spread out to decompose more quickly. At the bottom of any compost area, nearest the ground, will be faster to turn to soil. The need to add other elements like leftover table scraps of vegetables not eaten and buried just under the compost with a shovel on a regular basis will speed up the process of proper decomposition. You can always buy manure and add that to the compost and keeping it turned over and over insures a full level of compost to be viable for the next year to use in the garden both for adding nutrients into the garden but to provide a source of holding more moisture and some winter plants can be lightly covered in compost to prevent freezing of the near surface roots.

It takes all kinds of patience to garden. The one thing you need to learn is from practice and learning more about creating compost from raw materials such as organic materials from leaves, grass, twigs and left over vegetable table scraps and extra manure can be easily realized from personal experience and over time and learning more about organic composting from online sources, you might be surprised at the results in your personal backyard garden. The earth worms and the other insects will thank you and so will the birds.

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Give the Luxury Makeover to your Modular Kitchen

As the demand for apartments grows and lifestyle changes, insist for a modular kitchen is also growing day by day. One of the fastest growing sectors in the country is Indian Kitchen Market and it is only due to the high demand for modular kitchens. More and more people are ready to invest well in making their homes a dream come true. The best part of the modular kitchen is that they make life more simple and organized and that is pretty much required in this fast-paced life. It is not just maximizing the use of small space even a large area can be efficiently planned.

There are the number of luxury modular kitchen designs and ideas available in the market which can give any kitchen the whole new elegant and modular appearance. One can easily find wide range of colors, finishes, textures, patterns etc. at many leading designer stores for modular kitchen. It becomes easy for anyone to integrate these modular kitchen designs for their kitchens.

These designers make every possible effort to design according to the need of clients. Lets us look into some great ideas for your perfect luxury kitchen.

Without a doubt, wood finish has always been the most loved and popular idea for the modular kitchen. Wood is the perfect base material to work with be it any theme like classic, modern, contemporary etc, it gives an immense stylish look to the kitchens.

Make sure to use hydraulic push back or pullout doors as they can easily move with just a touch and this is something very trendy and designer are in love with it. Modular kitchen with a swing of technology goes pretty well after all luxury is all about having comfort and ease.

Another great idea for your luxury kitchen is that make proper use of inbuilt shelves, well-lit cabinetry. To give it a marvelous look mismatch the cabinets in different tones like copper with steelFree Reprint Articles, black with white etc.

The final and the foremost way to give that luxurious look to your kitchen are with your furniture. If you can get customized build modular furniture then go for it.

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10 Things That Could Damage Your Carpet
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A carpet is great addition to any home. It could be a simple centerpiece rug that adds that warm cozy touch to your living room. Or maybe it is a full wall to wall unit you have to help keep your home warm. Whatever the case, it is hard to go wrong with a good carpet. However, as the home owner it is your responsibility to ensure that you protect the carpet from any kind of damage. This ensures that you get to enjoy both the aesthetic and functional benefits for a very long time. The best way to do this is by understanding what causes damage to home carpets. This allows you to identify the best ways to address these risks for the sake of your carpet. Without further ado, below are 10 things that could damage your carpet.

1. Use of harsh cleaning chemicals

One of the fastest ways to ruin a good carpet is by using harsh detergents while cleaning. These wreak all sorts of havoc on the carpet fiber. One common effect is discoloration with some spots having the dye bleached clean off the fabric. Other common effects include weakened fibers and chemical burns on the carpet. Fortunately, this is a rookie mistake that is easily avoided by working with experienced professional carpet cleaning crews.

2. Use of rough cleaning equipment

When it comes to carpet cleaning, there are many different types of cleaning equipment. Those with brushes as part of cleaning accessories are particularly popular when it comes to deep cleaning a carpet. Despite being so effective in scrubbing off stains and brushing dirt away from the carpet, some of these can do more harm than good. This usually happens when carpet cleaners with rough bristles are used to clean carpets with delicate fabric. It may result in unraveling of the fabric which basically ruins your carpet.

3. Using the wrong cleaning technique on the wrong fabric

Cleaning could also cause damage to a carpet if the wrong cleaning technique is used. When it comes to professional carpet cleaning, there are many different cleaning methods available. These range from good old fashion soap and water extraction methods to modern dry cleaning methods. It is important to work with experienced professionals who understand the specific needs of different types of carpet fabrics. This is because if the wrong technique is used it could lead to damage. A great example is that of shrinkage of carpets when water-based methods are used.

4. Wearing outdoor shoes indoors

This is the case especially with heeled shoes. These tend to be especially rough on the carpet fabric. Wearing such shoes on the carpet could cause different problems including unraveling of the carpet’s woven matrix as well as loosening of fibers. Outdoor shoes also damage the carpet by introducing contaminants from outside. The most common in this case is mud. It soils the carpet and could lead to permanent staining if the mess is not cleared up right away.

5. Spills and messes left unattended

Something else that could really cost your carpet is leaving messes unattended. It could be that you spilt your morning coffee and simply didn’t feel like cleaning it up immediately after because you were tired. Or maybe your baby decided to use their lunch as paint and the carpet as canvas for their artwork and you were too frustrated to clean up. Ignoring messes like these is the easiest way to ensure that you damage your carpet. It will lead to unsightly stains which tend to become more difficult to remove the longer they are left on the carpet.

6. Pets

Pets can damage your carpet in two ways. The first is by actually tearing away at the fibers either using their claws or their teeth. This is common with cats and young untrained puppies. Pets could also damage your carpet by peeing or pooping on it. In this case, they leave stains that are very difficult to get rid of. In both cases, the best way to protect your carpet is by simply training the pet.

7. Water

Water is good for carpet cleaning but can be the enemy in some situations. In most cases, this happens when the carpet is left wet or at least dump after cleaning or after a spill. In this case, there is a huge risk of the carpet suffering water damage. One of the most common manifestations of this is growth of mold and mildew.

8. Carpet pests

A dirty carpet can host very many different pests. A few of these are attracted to the fibers themselves and will damage the carpet if left uncontrolled. The most common in this case are the carpet moths and carpet beetles. They feed on the fabric and could lead to loosening of fibers and in some instances complete destruction with unsightly holes in the carpet.

9. Heavy foot traffic

This is more common in the commercial setting. In this case, constant pressure on the carpet will lead to damage. This is as a result of friction and is pretty much inevitable. The best that you can do here is to ensure that the carpet is cleaned and conditioned regularly. This increases the strength and integrity of the fibers making them better suited to handle the constant pressure.

10. Dragging furniture

Finally, if you are constantly drugging heavy furniture across the floor over the carpet then you are likely to damage it. In this case, fibers tend to get caught in the furniture legs with the pulling causing them to loosen and unravel. The best solution in this case is to invest in furniture coasters.

Bottom line

With all this information in mind, you should be in a great position to protect your carpet. Just make sure to avoid what you can and take extra care when it comes to things that you cannot change. In addition to this, it is important to ensure that you keep your carpet clean. A clean carpet is a strong carpet and is less likely to succumb to damage by these and other factors. So make sure to set apart some time for carpet cleaning whether it is routine vacuuming or professional carpet cleaning. That way, you will have your carpet looking and feeling great for a very long time.

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HOME REMEDIES Detox your body through your feet.
April 22, 2018
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Adopting a detox foot bath is a great relaxing therapy which is ideal for cleansing (through the legs) of the body from toxins. This article gives an overview of the ion detox foot bath, its benefits, as well as related hypotheses. The recipe for a home detoxification bath.
You have to take 1 cup of English salt, 1 cup of sea salt, 2 cups of baking soda and a few drops of lavender oil. Then, you mix thoroughly all the ingredients. Take a 1⁄4 cup of the mixture, and pour very warm water in the bath for feet, take your feet in the tub and just relax. You are to keep your feet in the bath for 15-25 minutes.
This is a time-tested method of getting rid of dirt, soot and bacteria on the legs. Baths for feet with salt water have several useful qualities. They help to remove dirt from the soles of your feet and thoroughly clean your feet. In addition, salt is believed to have properties that promote the healing of wounds of a certain type.
Perhaps you experienced the impact of this property, standing in cool sea water. So, what has emerged simply as a warm bath for the feet, taken to relax the body, has now been transformed into a method of detoxifying the body.
Our body needs to be cleaned of toxins that get into it with food, water, and air. Too much toxin in the body causes the appearance of hyperemia, inflamed, bad skin sinusitis, cold and flu fatigue migraines and headaches unpleasant odor from the body and out of the mouth.
The emergence of such problems is a signal that something is going wrong. Such therapies as taking a detox foot bath are very useful.
Useful properties of detox foot bath are various. It relieves joint pain and muscle stiffness, strengthens the immune system, promotes recovery from trauma, removes fatigue, improves sleep, eliminates blood clots, improves kidney and liver function, reduces stress and the symptoms of menopause.
It must be also remembered that this method of detoxifying the body not recommended to use by pregnant or lactating women, people who had organ transplanted. There is nothing a relax, putting your feet in a soothing detoxification bath after a hard day.
This toxin removal method can be combined with meditation and/or other breathing techniques to increase the flow of oxygen into the body and thus improve your state.

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What do you understand by animal coloration ????
May 24, 2017
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Some animals such as many moths, mantises and grasshoppers, have a repertory of threatening or startling behaviour, such as suddenly displaying conspicuous eyespots or patches of bright and contrasting colours, so as to scare off or momentarily distract a predator. This gives the prey animal an opportunity to escape. The behaviour is deimatic (startling) rather than aposematic as these insects are palatable to predators, so the warning colours are a bluff, not an honest signal.[34][35]

Motion dazzle Edit
Some prey animals such as zebra are marked with high-contrast patterns which possibly help to confuse their predators, such as lions, during a chase. The bold stripes of a herd of running Zebra have been claimed make it difficult for predators to estimate the prey’s speed and direction accurately, or to identify individual animals, giving the prey an improved chance of escape.[36] Since dazzle patterns (such as the Zebra’s stripes) make animals harder to catch when moving, but easier to detect when stationary, there is an evolutionary trade-off between dazzle and camouflage.[36] Another theory is that the zebra’s stripes could provide some protection from flies and biting insects.[37]

Physical protection Edit
Further information: Biological pigment
Many animals have dark pigments such as melanin in their skin, eyes and fur to protect themselves against sunburn[38] (damage to living tissues caused by ultraviolet light).
Some frogs such as Bokermannohyla alvarengai, which basks in sunlight, lighten their skin colour when hot (and darkens when cold), making their skin reflect more heat and so avoid overheating.
Some animals are coloured purely incidentally because their blood contains pigments. For example, amphibians like the olm that live in caves may be largely colourless as colour has no function in that environment, but they show some red because of the haem pigment in their red blood cells, needed to carry oxygen. They also have a little orange coloured riboflavin in their skin.[42] Human albinos and people with fair skin have a similar colour for the same reason.
Animal coloration may be the result of any combination of pigments, chromatophores, structural coloration and bioluminescence.
Pigments are coloured chemicals (such as melanin) in animal tissues.[44] For example, the Arctic fox has a white coat in winter (containing little pigment), and a brown coat in summer (containing more pigment), an example of seasonal camouflage (a polyphenism). Many animals, including mammals, birds, and amphibians, are unable to synthesize most of the pigments that colour their fur or feathers, other than the brown or black melanins that give many mammals their earth tones.[45] For example, the bright yellow of an American goldfinch, the startling orange of a juvenile red-spotted newt, the deep red of a cardinal and the pink of a flamingo are all produced by carotenoid pigments synthesized by plants. In the case of the flamingo, the bird eats pink shrimps, which are themselves unable to synthesize carotenoids. The shrimps derive their body colour from microscopic red algae, which like most plants are able to create their own pigments, including both carotenoids and (green) chlorophyll. Animals that eat green plants do not become green, however, as chlorophyll does not survive digestion.
Chromatophores are special pigment-containing cells that can change their size, thus varying the colour and pattern of the animal. The voluntary control of chromatophores is known as metachrosis.[44] For example, cuttlefish and chameleons can rapidly change their appearance, both for camouflage and for signalling, as Aristotle first noted over 2000 years ago:[46]

The octopus … seeks its prey by so changing its colour as to render it like the colour of the stones adjacent to it; it does so also when alarmed.
When cephalopod molluscs like squid and cuttlefish find themselves against a light background, they contract many of their chromatophores, concentrating the pigment into a smaller area, resulting in a pattern of tiny, dense, but widely spaced dots, appearing light. When they enter a darker environment, they allow their chromatophores to expand, creating a pattern of larger dark spots, and making their bodies appear dark.[47] Amphibians such as frogs have three kinds of star-shaped chromatophore cells in separate layers of their skin. The top layer contains ‘xanthophores’ with orange, red, or yellow pigments; the middle layer contains ‘iridophores’ with a silvery light-reflecting pigment; while the bottom layer contains ‘melanophores’ with dark melanin.
While many animals are unable to synthesize carotenoid pigments to create red and yellow surfaces, the green and blue colours of bird feathers and insect carapaces are usually not produced by pigments at all, but by structural coloration.[45] Structural coloration means the production of colour by microscopically-structured surfaces fine enough to interfere with visible light, sometimes in combination with pigments: for example, peacock tail feathers are pigmented brown, but their structure makes them appear blue, turquoise and green. Structural coloration can produce the most brilliant colours, often iridescent.[44] For example, the blue/green gloss on the plumage of birds such as ducks, and the purple/blue/green/red colours of many beetles and butterflies are created by structural coloration.[48] Animals use several methods to produce structural colour, as described in the table.
Bioluminescence is the production of light, such as by the photophores of marine animals,[49] and the tails of glow-worms and fireflies. Bioluminescence, like other forms of metabolism, releases energy derived from the chemical energy of food. A pigment, luciferin is catalysed by the enzyme luciferase to react with oxygen, releasing light.[50] Comb jellies such as Euplokamis are bioluminescent, creating blue and green light, especially when stressed; when disturbed, they secrete an ink which luminesces in the same colours. Since comb jellies are not very sensitive to light, their bioluminescence is unlikely to be used to signal to other members of the same species (e.g. to attract mates or repel rivals); more likely, the light helps to distract predators or parasites.[51] Some species of squid have light-producing organs (photophores) scattered all over their undersides that create a sparkling glow. This provides counter-illumination camouflage, preventing the animal from appearing as a dark shape when seen from below.[52] Some angler fish of the deep sea, where it is too dark to hunt by sight, contain symbiotic bacteria in the ‘bait’ on their ‘fishing rods’. These emit light to attract prey.

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Things you never know about animals !!!
May 24, 2017
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The Ecdysozoa are protostomes, named after the common trait of growth by moulting or ecdysis.[97] The largest animal phylum belongs here, the Arthropoda, including insects, spiders, crabs, and their kin. All these organisms have a body divided into repeating segments, typically with paired appendages. Two smaller phyla, the Onychophora and Tardigrada, are close relatives of the arthropods and share these traits. The ecdysozoans also include the Nematoda or roundworms, perhaps the second largest animal phylum. Roundworms are typically microscopic, and occur in nearly every environment where there is water.[98] A number are important parasites.[99] Smaller phyla related to them are the Nematomorpha or horsehair worms, and the Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, and Loricifera. These groups have a reduced coelom, called a pseudocoelom.
Lophotrochozoa
The Lophotrochozoa, evolved within Protostomia, include two of the most successful animal phyla, the Mollusca and Annelida.[100][101] The former, which is the second-largest animal phylum by number of described species, includes animals such as snails, clams, and squids, and the latter comprises the segmented worms, such as earthworms and leeches. These two groups have long been considered close relatives because of the common presence of trochophore larvae, but the annelids were considered closer to the arthropods because they are both segmented.[102] Now, this is generally considered convergent evolution, owing to many morphological and genetic differences between the two phyla.[103] Lophotrochozoa also includes the Nemertea or ribbon worms, the Sipuncula, and several phyla that have a ring of ciliated tentacles around the mouth, called a lophophore.[104] These were traditionally grouped together as the lophophorates.[105] but it now appears that the lophophorate group may be paraphyletic,[106] with some closer to the nemerteans and some to the molluscs and annelids.[107][108] They include the Brachiopoda or lamp shells, which are prominent in the fossil record, the Entoprocta, the Phoronida, and possibly the Bryozoa or moss animals.[109]

The Platyzoa include the phylum Platyhelminthes, the flatworms.[110] These were originally considered some of the most primitive Bilateria, but it now appears they developed from more complex ancestors.[111] A number of parasites are included in this group, such as the flukes and tapeworms.[110] Flatworms are acoelomates, lacking a body cavity, as are their closest relatives, the microscopic Gastrotricha.[112] The other platyzoan phyla are mostly microscopic and pseudocoelomate. The most prominent are the Rotifera or rotifers, which are common in aqueous environments. They also include the Acanthocephala or spiny-headed worms, the Gnathostomulida, Micrognathozoa, and possibly the Cycliophora.[113] These groups share the presence of complex jaws, from which they are called the Gnathifera.

A relationship between the Brachiopoda and Nemertea has been suggested by molecular data.[114] A second study has also suggested this relationship.[115] This latter study also suggested that Annelida and Mollusca may be sister clades. Another study has suggested that Annelida and Mollusca are sister clades.[116] This clade has been termed the Neotrochozoa.
Animals can be divided into two broad groups: vertebrates (animals with a backbone) and invertebrates (animals without a backbone). Half of all described vertebrate species are fishes and three-quarters of all described invertebrate species are insects. The following table lists the number of described extant species for each major animal subgroup as estimated for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2014.3
Over 95% of the described animal species in the world are invertebrates.
Because of the great diversity found in animals, it is more economical for scientists to study a small number of chosen species so that connections can be drawn from their work and conclusions extrapolated about how animals function in general. Because they are easy to keep and breed, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have long been the most intensively studied metazoan model organisms, and were among the first life-forms to be genetically sequenced. This was facilitated by the severely reduced state of their genomes, but as many genes, introns, and linkages lost, these ecdysozoans can teach us little about the origins of animals in general. The extent of this type of evolution within the superphylum will be revealed by the crustacean, annelid, and molluscan genome projects currently in progress. Analysis of the starlet sea anemone genome has emphasized the importance of sponges, placozoans, and choanoflagellates, also being sequenced, in explaining the arrival of 1500 ancestral genes unique to the Eumetazoa.[118]

An analysis of the homoscleromorph sponge Oscarella carmela also suggests that the last common ancestor of sponges and the eumetazoan animals was more complex than previously assumed.[119]

Other model organisms belonging to the animal kingdom include the house mouse (Mus musculus), laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces. Some animals are brightly coloured, while others are hard to see. In some species, such as the peacock, the male has strong patterns, conspicuous colours and is iridescent, while the female is far less visible.

There are several separate reasons why animals have evolved colours. Camouflage enables an animal to remain hidden from view. Animals use colour to advertise services such as cleaning to animals of other species; to signal their sexual status to other members of the same species; and in mimicry, taking advantage of the warning coloration of another species. Some animals use flashes of colour to divert attacks by startling predators. Zebras may possibly use motion dazzle, confusing a predator’s attack by moving a bold pattern rapidly. Some animals are coloured for physical protection, with pigments in the skin to protect against sunburn, while some frogs can lighten or darken their skin for temperature regulation. Finally, animals can be coloured incidentally. For example, blood is red because the haem pigment needed to carry oxygen is red. Animals coloured in these ways can have striking natural patterns.

Animals produce colour in different ways. Pigments are particles of coloured material. Chromatophores are cells containing pigment, which can change their size to make their colour more or less visible. Some animals, including many butterflies and birds, have microscopic structures in scales, bristles or feathers which give them brilliant iridescent colours. Other animals including squid and some deep-sea fish can produce light, sometimes of different colours. Animals often use two or more of these mechanisms together to produce the colours and effects they need.

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Things you never know about animals !!!
May 24, 2017
1

The Ecdysozoa are protostomes, named after the common trait of growth by moulting or ecdysis.[97] The largest animal phylum belongs here, the Arthropoda, including insects, spiders, crabs, and their kin. All these organisms have a body divided into repeating segments, typically with paired appendages. Two smaller phyla, the Onychophora and Tardigrada, are close relatives of the arthropods and share these traits. The ecdysozoans also include the Nematoda or roundworms, perhaps the second largest animal phylum. Roundworms are typically microscopic, and occur in nearly every environment where there is water.[98] A number are important parasites.[99] Smaller phyla related to them are the Nematomorpha or horsehair worms, and the Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, and Loricifera. These groups have a reduced coelom, called a pseudocoelom.
Lophotrochozoa
The Lophotrochozoa, evolved within Protostomia, include two of the most successful animal phyla, the Mollusca and Annelida.[100][101] The former, which is the second-largest animal phylum by number of described species, includes animals such as snails, clams, and squids, and the latter comprises the segmented worms, such as earthworms and leeches. These two groups have long been considered close relatives because of the common presence of trochophore larvae, but the annelids were considered closer to the arthropods because they are both segmented.[102] Now, this is generally considered convergent evolution, owing to many morphological and genetic differences between the two phyla.[103] Lophotrochozoa also includes the Nemertea or ribbon worms, the Sipuncula, and several phyla that have a ring of ciliated tentacles around the mouth, called a lophophore.[104] These were traditionally grouped together as the lophophorates.[105] but it now appears that the lophophorate group may be paraphyletic,[106] with some closer to the nemerteans and some to the molluscs and annelids.[107][108] They include the Brachiopoda or lamp shells, which are prominent in the fossil record, the Entoprocta, the Phoronida, and possibly the Bryozoa or moss animals.[109]

The Platyzoa include the phylum Platyhelminthes, the flatworms.[110] These were originally considered some of the most primitive Bilateria, but it now appears they developed from more complex ancestors.[111] A number of parasites are included in this group, such as the flukes and tapeworms.[110] Flatworms are acoelomates, lacking a body cavity, as are their closest relatives, the microscopic Gastrotricha.[112] The other platyzoan phyla are mostly microscopic and pseudocoelomate. The most prominent are the Rotifera or rotifers, which are common in aqueous environments. They also include the Acanthocephala or spiny-headed worms, the Gnathostomulida, Micrognathozoa, and possibly the Cycliophora.[113] These groups share the presence of complex jaws, from which they are called the Gnathifera.

A relationship between the Brachiopoda and Nemertea has been suggested by molecular data.[114] A second study has also suggested this relationship.[115] This latter study also suggested that Annelida and Mollusca may be sister clades. Another study has suggested that Annelida and Mollusca are sister clades.[116] This clade has been termed the Neotrochozoa.
Animals can be divided into two broad groups: vertebrates (animals with a backbone) and invertebrates (animals without a backbone). Half of all described vertebrate species are fishes and three-quarters of all described invertebrate species are insects. The following table lists the number of described extant species for each major animal subgroup as estimated for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2014.3
Over 95% of the described animal species in the world are invertebrates.
Because of the great diversity found in animals, it is more economical for scientists to study a small number of chosen species so that connections can be drawn from their work and conclusions extrapolated about how animals function in general. Because they are easy to keep and breed, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have long been the most intensively studied metazoan model organisms, and were among the first life-forms to be genetically sequenced. This was facilitated by the severely reduced state of their genomes, but as many genes, introns, and linkages lost, these ecdysozoans can teach us little about the origins of animals in general. The extent of this type of evolution within the superphylum will be revealed by the crustacean, annelid, and molluscan genome projects currently in progress. Analysis of the starlet sea anemone genome has emphasized the importance of sponges, placozoans, and choanoflagellates, also being sequenced, in explaining the arrival of 1500 ancestral genes unique to the Eumetazoa.[118]

An analysis of the homoscleromorph sponge Oscarella carmela also suggests that the last common ancestor of sponges and the eumetazoan animals was more complex than previously assumed.[119]

Other model organisms belonging to the animal kingdom include the house mouse (Mus musculus), laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces. Some animals are brightly coloured, while others are hard to see. In some species, such as the peacock, the male has strong patterns, conspicuous colours and is iridescent, while the female is far less visible.

There are several separate reasons why animals have evolved colours. Camouflage enables an animal to remain hidden from view. Animals use colour to advertise services such as cleaning to animals of other species; to signal their sexual status to other members of the same species; and in mimicry, taking advantage of the warning coloration of another species. Some animals use flashes of colour to divert attacks by startling predators. Zebras may possibly use motion dazzle, confusing a predator’s attack by moving a bold pattern rapidly. Some animals are coloured for physical protection, with pigments in the skin to protect against sunburn, while some frogs can lighten or darken their skin for temperature regulation. Finally, animals can be coloured incidentally. For example, blood is red because the haem pigment needed to carry oxygen is red. Animals coloured in these ways can have striking natural patterns.

Animals produce colour in different ways. Pigments are particles of coloured material. Chromatophores are cells containing pigment, which can change their size to make their colour more or less visible. Some animals, including many butterflies and birds, have microscopic structures in scales, bristles or feathers which give them brilliant iridescent colours. Other animals including squid and some deep-sea fish can produce light, sometimes of different colours. Animals often use two or more of these mechanisms together to produce the colours and effects they need.

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