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Things to Know About Power Generation Station Part 1
November 28, 2017

A  power  generation  station  which  uses  the  potential  or  kinetic  energy  of  water  for  the

generation of an electrical energy is called hydro -electric power station.

Water has a kinetic energy when it is in motion. While the water stored at  high level has a

potential energy. The difference in level of water between the two points is called head. Such a

water head is practically created by constructing reservoirs across river or lake. Generally a dam

is constructed at high altitudes, which can  be used as a continuous source of the water for the

hydro-electric power stations. The water from the dam is taken through pipes and canals to the

water turbine, which is at lower level. The turbine obtains the energy from the falling water and

changes it  into a mechanical energy. This mechanical energy of the turbine is then used to drive

the  alternator,  which  converts  the  mechanical  energy  into  an  electrical  energy.


Factors for Selection of Site

The water reservoir like dam cannot be constructed anywhere. There are  number of factors

of affecting the choice of site for the hydroelectric power station.

  1. Availability of  water:  As  the  basic  requirement  of  hydro -electric  plant  is  the  water,  the

availability of huge quantity of water is the main consideration. The plant   must be constructed

where sufficient quantity of water is available at a good head. The previous rainfall records are

studied and the maximum and minimum quantity of water available during the year estimated.

Considering the losses such as evaporation, the water necessary for the plant is calculated. Then

by comparing both the estimations, the choice of the site is done.

  1. Storage of water : The rainfall is not consistent every year. Hence the available water should

be stored. This makes necessary to construct dams. The storage helps in equalizing the flow of

water throughout the year. So site should be provide sufficient facilities for erecting dam and the

storage of water.

  1. Head of water : For getting sufficient head, the dam or reservoir should be constructed at a

height in a hilly area. The availability of the head directly affects the cost and economy of the

power  generation.  So  site  should  be  selected  in  proper  geographical  area,  which  can  give

sufficient water head.

  1. Cost and type of land: The initial cost of the project includes the cost of the land. Hence land

must be available at a reasonable price. Similarly the type of the land must be such that it should

able to withstand the weight of the heavy equipment to be installed.

  1. Transportation facilities: For transporting the equipment and the machinery, the site selected

must be easily accessible by rail and road.

  1. Distance from load centers: The load center is connected to the site by the transmission lines.

Hence to keep the cost of the  transmission  lines  minimum and the  losses occurring  in the  line

minimum, the distance of the site from the load centers must be less. Otherwise the overall cost

increases considerably.

All these factors affect the selection of site for the hydro-electric power station.

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