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Occupational Stress occurs in a wide range of work circumstances but is often made worse when employees feel they have little support from supervisors and colleagues and where they have little control over work or how they can cope with its demands and pressures. Work stress is recognized world-wide as a major challenge to workers ‘health and the healthiness of their organizations. Workers who are stressed are also most likely to be unhealthy, poorly motivated, less productive and less effective at work and their organizations are less likely to be successful in a competitive market. Stress can be brought about by pressures at home and at work (Kausaret al., 2006).

Organizations cannot usually protect their workers from stress arising outside of work, but they can protect them from stress that arises through work. Occupational stress can be a real problem to the organization as far as its workers are concerned. Good management and good work organizations are the best forms of stress prevention. If employees are already stressed, their managers should be aware of it and know how to help in order to get the best out of their employees. Poor work organization that is, the

Most of time of our lives spent at work, job stress is widely experienced and so pervasive, that it’s been found to effect people in every sector. Employees’ in health sector spend most of their time at work, that’s why they are directly targeted by stress; due to this their productivity at workplace decreases greatly. Now the days, stress is considered as an important factor, which is rapidly increasing the absenteeism rate of employers and employees. This happens more in the public sector, where 50 percent of employers reported stress related absence.

The main causes of stress are work overloads, management styles, non-work factors such as relationships with family and workplace associates. In public sector, job security is considered more common cause of stress in recent years. Cost on absence in public sector due to stress is reported more than the cost incurred in the private sector. In public sector cost reported due to stress is 800 pound per employee a year, while in private sector; it is reported 446 pound per employee per year (Miller & Phipps, 2011). Over a few years, job stress is considered to be a worldwide problem and increasing steadily in the U.S. and other nations where the industry is growing rapidly. Poor salary packages, long working hours, mistreatment of supervisors with employees, are the major causes of creating stress in employees. Job stress produces large number of undesirable effects for both individual and organization. The incidents of hyper tension and heart attacks are the severe problems related to stress. India, Russia, China, Brazil, Turkey and other eastern European countries are the emerging countries in which stress is rapidly growing. Job stress affects not only the employees’ but also the organizations in the monetary and non-monetary costs. These costs are used to recover the work and health related injuries. Monetary cost is used to recover the health of employees and lower productivity and absenteeism of employees’ is recovered by non-monetary costs.

During the life span of an individual, job period is very important because it is directly linked with the stress. In those organizations where employees are not treated accordingly least satisfaction and high stress level are common observations. Stress is very harmful for human body, it increases blood pressure, sugar, suppression of immune system, decreased digestive system activity and reduced urine output. Stressful employees caught serious diseases that result in low productivity. In case of health sector, stress and the mental issues are becoming the major areas of study at workplace in almost every organization. The health sector is very sensitive and pivotal segment in economy where employees perform their duties almost 24 hours a day, than under these conditions it is impossible for them to perform their task that results in decrease of productivity.



Over a few years, occupational stress is considered to be a worldwide problem and increasing steadily in the Nigeria and other nations where the industry is growing rapidly. It has been noticed that the employees in banking sector has been undergoing the stress in higher rate and has certain impact on productivity .Thus suggesting the organisation in which they have to concentrate more and improve the necessary areas for reducing stress among employees in organization.

Poor salary packages, long working hours, mistreatment of supervisors with employees, are the major causes of creating stress in employees. Job stress produces large number of undesirable effects for both individual and organization. The incidents of hyper tension and heart attacks are the severe problems related to stress. India, Russia, China, Brazil, Turkey and other eastern European countries are the emerging countries in which stress is rapidly growing. Job stress affects not only the employees’ but also the organizations in the monetary and non-monetary costs. These costs are used to recover the work and health related injuries. Monetary cost is used to recover the health of employees and lower productivity and absenteeism of employees’ is recovered by non-monetary costs.



  1. What are the causes of Occupational stress in the Banking sector?
  2. What the effects of Occupational stress in the Banking sector?
  3. Are there any impact of occupational stress have on employee productivity?
  4. Are there any significant relationship between occupational stress and employees productivity?
  5. What are the major factors influence stress?



  1. To determine the causes of job stress in the Banking sector.
  2. To analyze the effects of job stress in the Banking sector.
  3. To identify the impact of occupational stress on employee productivity
  4. To study the relationship between stress factors and employee’s productivity
  5. To analyze the major factors influence stress
  6. To suggest ways to reduce stress among employees & increase productivity



For the purpose of this research work, some provisional statements are made to provide solution to the problem identified. The research hypothesis for this study is centered on the Null and Alternative hypothesis as shown below;

Ho:      There is no significant relationship between Occupational Stress and Employees Productivity.

Hi:       There is significant relationship between Occupational Stress and Employee Productivity.


1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY          

This study is done to find out the occupational stress of the employees in the work place and how it affects the productivity of the employees in “Banking Sectors”. The study is vital as the healthy, satisfied and stress-less physicians and supporting staff are more focused towards patients concerns who might be the valuable assets for an organization. This study is will highlight the major stress factors which are contributing to decreasing employees productivity at job. This study is helpful for the employees’ of United Bank for Africa to analyze the stress factors, which are creating stress in them and to improve the health. This study will also helps to know the importance of occupational stress in the banks.



The scope of this research work will cover the impact of Occupational Stress on employee’s productivity with a special reference to the banking sectors a case study of United  Bank for Africa Plc.



In the course of this research work, the researcher was faced with some constraints which placed a limit to the ability and performance of the researcher. The researcher encountered the following constraints among others.

  1. Financial Constraint: The researcher needed a lot of money to travel to collect the necessary data from the firm. Money was also required to visit secondary data sources such as the internet, libraries, professional bodies, and so on.
  2. Lack of Co-Operation: The unco-operative attitudes of many employees of the firm under study were not encouraging. Some of them were so biased and prejudiced that did not care to understand the purpose of the research. This resulted to their failure to provide sufficient information required for proper completion of the study.
  3. Time Pressure: Time allowed was not enough for through completion of the research, in consideration of the fact we were also facing other academic studies during the semester.



  1. Employees:This can be referred to as a paid worker working in an organization, that is, person employed for wages or salary, especially at nonexecutive level. An individual who works part-time or full-time under a contract of employment, whether oral or written, express or implied, and has recognized rights and duties. Also called worker.
  2. Banks: A place where money and any other valuables things are kept. A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
  3. Productivity:This isthe relative efficiency of economic activity that is, the amount of products or services produced compared to the amount of goods and labor used to produce it.
  4. Stress: Stress is a condition of physical and psychological mental disorder which occurs in a situation of pressure, when resources are unable to fulfill the demand of an individual.
  5. Occupational Stress:Occupational stress is stress involving work. Occupational stress is a major hazard for many workers. Increased workloads, downsizing, overtime, hostile work environments, and shift work are just a few of the many causes of stressful working conditions.
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Title Page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Table of content                                                                                  v



  • Introduction

1.1       Problem of the statement

1.2       Aims and Objectives

1.3       Justification of the project

1.4       Scope of the project

1.5       Limitation of the project

1.6       Methodology



  • Literature Review

2.1       Building types within project category

2.2       Brief description of users and owners of such development

2.3       Motivation for such development

2.4       Case Studies

2.5       Merit

2.6       Demerit

2.7       Spatial requirement and ancillary facility



  • Brief description of the site development

3.1       Physiographical characteristic

3.2       Brief description of site location

3.3       Site selection criteria



  • Design proposal

4.1       Conceptual development

4.2       Design option

4.3       Design analysis



5.0       Conclusion

5.1       Recommendation       















The term body treatment spa: is a place where proper treatment of the skin is being taking care of to ease the mind and the body.


            When everything seems to be too monotonous and exasperating, the body and mind need to be rejuvenated. To take a break from the drudgery of their mechanical lives, many people find spa parlors as a safe, haven where they could be pampered from head to toe. Both men and women in the urban areas are now opting for beauty treatment. This makes it quite evident that beauty spa treatment ensuring both beauty and fitness.


            There is obviously fewer number of purposely built body treatment spa facilities to serve the teeming population of residence and indigenous people who travel to Ikeja                               such as taking good care of their skin and other part of their body.



The aim of the paper is to design a suitable and functional body treatment to cater for the students and the indigenous people living in Ogba community, in Lagos State


  1. To carefully select appropriate site that will enhance an optimum performance of the body treatment spa.
  2. To provide adequate and functional space for expected activities and for the users conveniences.
  3. To properly plan the site traffic.







The need of the project is to design a body treatment spa to make available the different treatment such as skin care, hair care, manicure and pedicure care etc. for the people in Ogba community in Lagos State.


Thescope of the project are as follows:

  1. Maximum of two floor
  2. Built up area should not exceed 50% of the site.


  1. Lack of adequate fund
  2. Lack of standard boutique to do case study


The methods used in the project include the following

  1. Internet Surfing
  2. Through the case study
  3. Through textbook
  4. Through visiting different location of body treatment spa.














There are nine various types of body treatment spa which are

  1. Destination spa
  2. Medical spa
  3. Health spa
  4. Day spa
  5. Beauty spa
  6. Resort spa
  7. Airport spa
  8. Cruise spa
  9. Mineral spring spa


Destination spa is designed in a manner to rejuvenate you at all levels, providing you with mind and body fitness, along with making you indulge in healthy eating and ensure complete relaxation. It’s not a one day experience rather give you a chance to lose yourself in a new beauty world, for two or three nights, where no troubles and tensions are allowed to chase you.


Medical spa concentrates mainly on cosmetic treatments, such as laser resurfacing and botox injections. Though it does not have spa treatment as well as all the treatment are given under the supervision of a doctor.

            HEALTH SPA

            Health spa basically focus on ensuring the overall well being of a person, usually located at a very peaceful place, it provide you with expert advice from health practitioners.



DAY SPA       

A day spa offers spa treatments on one day basis. It is something that people can indulge into everyday. Some people go to a dry spa for manicures and pedicures, while others prefers it for facials and body massages.


Beauty spa is basically the treatment of the body to make it look beautiful


            Resort spa can be described as one of the hotel amenities, meant for the convenience of tourist. It mainly offers spa services along with fitness classes and typical spa cuisine and is perfect for business travellers and families.


Airport spa provide a facility at the airport, an airport spa is aimed at providing short treatment to the travelers. Some of the most common treatments are 15minnutes chair massage and oxygen therapy.

            CRUISE SHIP SPA

            Cruise ship spa provided abroad a cruise ship. Apart from the typical spa treatment, it encompasses fitness and wellness component and spa cuisine menu choice.


            As the name suggest, a mineral spring spa make use of natural mineral, thermal or seawater for providing hydrotherapy treatments to the spa users.


            The users of the project are the Covenant University Students, the staff of Lagos State and also, indigenous people living in the community.


  1. Personal interest in exploring design activities beyond residential building.


2.3       CASE STUDY

            Case study was carried in MADAM TAYO body treatment spa, Pens Cinema complex, Agege, Lagos State.


  1. Entrance Terrace
  2. Facilities Room


  1. They have a large massage room.



  1. They have lack ventilation
  2. They are not up to standard
  3. They don’t have toilet
  4. They don’t have all the required functional spaces.


            The special requirements in the proposed boutique are well treated in other to meet the aim and objectives of the design

1. Entrance porch Serve as entrance into the body treatment spa 1500mm x 4500mm  
2. Reception A place where visitor or guest are being welcome 4000mm x 4000mm  
3 Bar A place where drinks are serves for the customers 700mm x 1000mm  
4. Toilet A place where waste product are been dispose 1200mm x 1200mm  
5. Waiting Room A place where customer do wait 2500mm x 3000mm  
6. Hair treatment Area A place where hair are treated for beautification purpose 4500mm x 3600mm  
7. Backwash and Shampoo A place where Hair are wash 3500mm x 3500mm  
8. Drying Area A place where hairs are dry after wash 3500mm x 3000mm  
9. Manicure & Pedicure A place where the treatment of both nails and fingers are carried out 3500mm x 3000mm  
10. Color Station A make up station where different colors are using for the faces 2600mm x 3000mm  
11. Facial Treatment Area A place where face are been treated essence helps improve and reduce the visibility of spots and wrinkles refines skin texture 3500mm x 3000mm  
12. Manager office This is a place where the manager do sit 3500mm x 4000mm  
13. Staff room A place where workers and staffs relax during break 4000mm x 4600mm  
14. Store This is a place where goods are kept 5000mm x 4500mm  
15. Display section A place where product are been displayed for customer 5000mm x 5600mm  
16. Steam room  A place to ease tension and for relax mind  3000mm x 3000m
17. Tattoo section A place where writings are made in the body 3000mm x 3000mm
18. Hair cute area A place where hairs are cut 3000mm x 3000mm
19. Massage room A place of comfort to ease the body 3000mm x 3000mm
20. Skin Treatment Area Where skin are been treated 2600mm x 3000mm
21. Skin doctor office A place where the doctor sit 3000mm x 3000mm
22. Gym Room A place where different exercise are been held 5000mm x 5000mm
23. Changing Room A place where people change their clothes 2000mm x 2000mm
24. D.J Stand A place where the Disk Joker  stay to play music 1200mm x 1200mm
25. Lobby Connecting two or more rooms 600mm
26. Shower A place to rinse the body from sweat glands 1200mm x 1200mm



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Title Page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                              v

Table of Content                                                                                 vi



  • Introduction

1.1       The importance of Bioactive Constituent

1.2       Healing Property of Papaya

1.3       Aims and Objective


  • Literature Review

2.1       Scientific Classification

2.2       Types

2.3       Cultivation

2.4       Uses

2.5       Health Benefits



  • Materials and Method

3.1       Sample Collection

3.2       Sample Preparation

3.3       Phytochemical Screening



  • Result and Discussion

4.1       Result

4.2       Discussion



5.0       Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1       Conclusion

5.2       Recommendation










Carica Papaya belonging to the caricaceae family is an effective medicinal herb that is used as a folk medicine for treatment of various diseases throughout the world including Bangladesh. The carica papaya leaf can be use to treat numerous diseases like warts, corus, sinuses, ecpema, cataneous  tubercules, glandular tumors, blood pressure, dyspepsia, constipation, amenorrhea, general debility, expel worms and stimulate reproductive organs and many as a result. Carica papaya can be regarded as a neutraceutical. The phytochemical screening of its leave aqueous extract revealed the presence of tannins (0.667%), flavoniods (7.262%), phytic acid (9.02%), oxalate (5.76%) and alkaloids (12.19%). The root is said to cure piles and yaws and root infusions are used for syphilis. Juices from papaya roots are used in some countries of Asia to ease urinary troubles. The phytochemical screening of its root aqueous extract revealed the presence of tannins (0.444%), flavonoids (5.7%), phytic acid (9.72%), oxalate (8.10%) and alkaloids (8.52%). Aqueous root extract is riches in detected phytochemical substance compared with aqueous leaves extract in carica papaya. The various phytochemical compounds detected are known to have beneficial uses in industry and medical science and also exhibit physiological activities.










1.0       Introduction

Pawpaw (Carica Papaya) is a plant that belongs to the family of caricaeae. It is herbaceous succulent plant with self supporting stem. It is a large tree like plant with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 meters tall with sparily arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The tree is usally unbranched. Originally derived from the southern part of Mexico, Carica papaya is a perennial plant.

Papaya is a powerhouse of nutrient and is available throughout the year. It is a rich source of threes powerful antioxidant vitamin C, vitamin A, and vitamin E; The minerals, magnesium and potassium; B vitamin pantothenic acid and folate and fiber. Product of higher plant origin has been known to be effective sources of chemotherapeutic agent without underlying effects. Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history the use of medicinal plant all over the world predates the introduction of antibiotics and other modern drugs. A medicine plant is any plant with one or more of its organ containing substances that can be used for these therapeutic purposes or which are the precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs. They are of great importance to the health individuals and communities.

1.1       The Importance of Bioactive Constituents

            The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and foods plant sometimes added to foods. Deliciously sweet with musky undertones and a soft, buffer like consistency, it is no wonder the papaya was reputably called the fruit of the angel by “Christopher” Columbus. Papaya plants have the major advantages of still being the most effective and cheaper alternative sources of drugs. The local use of natural plants as primary health remedies, due to their pharmacological properties is quite common in Asia, Latin, America and Africa.

1.2       Healing Properties of Papaya


         Increases quality of proteins in whole organism.

         Revitalize the human body and maintain energy and vitality.

         Encourages the renewal of muscle tissue.

         Supports cardiovascular system.

         Boosts up the immune system.

         Helps with the digestive system, by breaking down the proteins and supporting production of   digestive enzymes.

         Papaya can be used also externally as a treatment for skin wounds that doesn‘t heal quickly, for this anybody can be used papaya peel or ointments made out of papaya.

         Prevents the cataract formation.


         Due to high vitamin A, it lowers the risk of emphysema in smokers and passive smokers.

         Alleviates inflammation.

         Helps with the nausea and constipation.

         Can benefit people suffering colon cancer and other forms of cancers and aliments of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)


1.2.1    Medicinal use


  1. Colon cancer: The fiber of papaya is able to bind cancer-causing toxins in the colon and keep them away from the healthy colon cells. These nutrients provide synergistic protection for colon cells from free radical damage to their DNA. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)


  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Protein enzymes including papain and chymopapain and antioxidant nutrients found inpapaya; including vitamin C, vitamins E, and beta-carotene, reduce the severity of the conditions such as asthma, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)


  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Vitamin C-rich foods, such as papaya, provide humans with protection against inflammatorypolyarthritis, a form of rheumatoid arthritis involving two or more joints. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)


  1. Promote Lung Health: Eating vitamin A rich foods, such as papaya, help the lung to be healthy and save life. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)


  1. Anti-Sickling: Activity Current research proves that papaya is having an anti-sickling activity. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)


  1. Prevent Prostate Cancer: Men consuming lycopene-rich fruits and vegetables such as papaya, tomatoes, apricots, pink grapefruit, watermelon, and guava were 82% less likely to have prostate cancer compared to those consuming the least lycopene-rich foods. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)


  1. Anticoagulant Effect: Injection of papian extract in a dog increases prothrombin and coagulation threefold. It is alsoclaimed that the enzyme eliminates necrotic tissues in chronic wounds, burns and ulcers.Papain is also of commercial importance in the brewery industry, in the food industry and in the textile industry. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)
  2. kidney failure: Papaya seed extract may have in toxicity-induced kidney failure. Evidently a kidney-transplant patient in London was cured of a post-operative infection by placing strips of papaya on the wound for 48 hours. Women in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and other countries have long used green papaya as an herbal medicine for contraception and abortion. Enslaved women in the West Indies were noted for consuming papaya to prevent pregnancies and thus preventing their children from being born into slavery. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013).


  1. Immunomodulatory: The involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms in several biological and pathological processes including ageing, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases has continued to fuel suggestions that processes can potentially be modulated by treatment with free-radical scavengers and antioxidant. The fermented papaya preparation has shown its ability to modulate oxidative DNA damage due to H2O2 in rat pheochromocytoma cells and protection of brain oxidative damage in hypertensive rats. It has also exhibited potential supportive role on oxidative inflammatory damage in cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C virus. The safety and antioxidative stress potential of papaya juice is found to be comparable to the standard antioxidant compound alpha tocopherol. The preparation containing yeast fermented papaya as one of the constituent has antioxidant actions and that it may be prophylactic food against age related and neurological diseases associated with free radicals. Bacteriostatic activity of papaya could be correlated to its scavenging action on superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, which could be part of the cellular metabolism of such enteropathogens. Bio-catalyzer, which contains yeast fermented papaya, may be useful as health foods against neural lipid peroxidation, traumatic epilepsy and ageing. Consumptions of guava and papaya fruits reduce oxidative stress and alter lipid profile. Thus, it could reduce the risk of disease caused by free radical activities and high cholesterol in blood. (Krishna, Paridhavi et al, 2008).


1.2.2    Industrial uses

Papaya is primarily a fresh-market fruit, and is used in drinks, jams, pectin, candies and as crystallised fruit. Green fruit may be cooked as a vegetable, as may the leaves, flowers and roots Papaya has several well-known industrial uses, notably for the enzyme papain (one of its four major constituent cysteine proteinases) which has properties similar to gastric pepsin. Producers induce latex to exude from longitudinal incisions made into unripe fruit; the papain purified from the extract is used in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and other manufacturing For example, the food industry uses papain in brewing, manufacturing baby food, and producing proteins for human and animal consumption. Papain is also used to shrink proof wool and silk, and in the bating process to make leathers more pliable. For some applications however, synthetic enzymes and enzymes from other sources are displacing the use of the natural papain. The latex from papaya has been used in manufacture of chewing gum. Oil from the fruit‘s many (200-1000) more or less spheroidal seeds (c. 2-5 mm × 3.5-6 mm) and other components of fruit and leaves have been used in cosmetics and soap. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)


1.2.3    Cosmetic Benefits of Papaya

Rubbing the white pulp of raw papaya improves pimples as well as wrinkles. Papaya works as a good bleaching agent. It is an important ingredient in bath soaps, astringents, detergent bars and hand washes. Home Recipe for Papaya Skin Lightner Experts suggest that papaya can help in removing dead worn-out skin cells and replace it with healthy new cells, thereby lightening the color of our skin.(Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)




1.2.4    Allergies and Side Effects

 Papaya is frequently used as a hair conditioner, but should be used in small amounts. Papaya releases a latex fluid when not quite ripe, which can cause irritation and provoke allergic reaction in some people. The latex concentration of unripe papayas is speculated to cause uterine contractions, which may lead to a miscarriage. Papaya seed extracts in large doses have a contraceptive effect on ratsand monkeys, but in small doses have no effect on the unborn animals.Excessive consumption of papaya can cause carotenemia, the yellowing of soles and palms, which is otherwise harmless. However, a very large dose would need to be consumed; papaya contains about 6% of the level of beta carotene found in carrots (the most common cause of carotenemia) (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

Traditional healers’ nave managed to find cure for certain disease conditions that have baffled western medicine for centuries such as antimicrobial drug resistance. 25% of these medicinal plants are known to be useful for the cure of gastrointestinal disorders ranging from peptic ulcers and abnormal cramps to diarrhea and dysentery. Papaya helps in the digestion of proteins as it is a rich source of proteolytic enzymes. Even papain a digestive enzymes found in papaya is extracted, dried as a powder and use as an aid in digestion. Ripe fruit consumed regularly helps in habitual constipation. It is also reported that papaya prevents premature aging. Papaya contributes to a healthy immune system by increasing your resistance to coughs and colds because of it vitamin A and C contents. All the nutrient of papaya as a whole improve cardiovascular system, protect against heart diseases, heart attacks, strokes and prevent colon cancer. These nutritional values of papaya help to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol. The unripe papaya contain terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins and steroids. Unripe fruit of papaya are used to treat high blood pressure, dyspepsia, constipation, amenorrhea general debility, expel worms and stimulate reproductive organs. Unripe pawpaw fruit is used as a remedy for ulcer and impotence.  Pawpaw has been utilized for the clearification of beer. The seed is used as intestinal worms expellant when chewed. The root is chewed and the juice swallowed for cough, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases.

1.3       Aims and Objectives

  1. To determine the uses of Carica Papaya
  2. To examine the phytochemical constituent
  3. To determine the healing properties of papaya
  4. To examine the family Carica Papaya






















2.0       Literature Review

2.1       Scientific classification of Carica Papaya.

Kingdom                                 Plantae

(Unranked)                              Angiosperms

(Unranked)                              Eudicots

(Unranked)                              Rosids

Order                                       Brassicales

Family                                     Caricaceae

Genus                                      Carica

Species                                    C. Papaya

Binominal name

Carica Papaya

L National Gemplasm Resources laboratory, Beltsuille Maryland, USDA, ARS, National Genetic Piesource program retrieved December 2010

The papaya is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genius Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. It is native to the tropies of the Americas, perharpsmfrom southern Mexico and neighbouring central America. It was first cultivated in Mexico several centuries. Before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classical civilization. (\Papaya.www.hoot purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/papaya-ars.html)1987.

2.2       Types

The papaya is a large tree like plants with a single stem growing from 5 to 10m (16 to 33ft) tall with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne the leaves are large 50-70cm (20-28m) in diameter, deeply paliamately lobed with even lobes. Unusually for such large plant the trees are dioecious. The tree is usually unbranched unless lopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the plumeria but are much similar and wax like (canal ugr/life-sciences/item/6354-scientists-deciplier-fruit-tree-genome-for-the-first-time).

2.3       Cultivation

Papaya plants come in three sexes “Male”, ”Female” and “Hermaphrodite”. The male produce only pollen never fruit. The female will produce small, inedible fruits unless pollinated. The hermaphrodite can self pollinated since its flower contains both male stammers and female ovaries. Almost all commercial papaya orchards contain only hermaphrodites (www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/f-n-5.pdf).

2.4       Uses

Papaya can be used as a food, a cooking aid and in traditional medicine. The stem and bark may be used in rope production.

2.4.1    Traditional Medicine

Papaya leaves are made into teas, a treatment for malaria, antimalaria and antiplasmodial activity has been noted in some preparation of the plant, but mechanism is not understood and no treatment method based on these result has been scientifically proven. In belief it can raise platelet level in blood, papaya maybe used as a medicine for dengue fever. Papaya is marketed in tablet form to remedy digestive problem. A decoction formed by boiling the outer part of the roots is also used to cure dyspepsia (iitanji.u.p.20fou.DNgemenya.M.N (2008).


2.4.2    Medical Uses

            Carica papaya contains an enzyme known as papain which is present in the bark, leave, root and fruit. The milky juice is extracted, doied and used as a chewing gum for gigestive problems, toothpaste and meat tenderizers. It also contains many biological active compounds including chymopapain and papain which is thye ingredient that aids digestive system and again used in treatement of jaundice and arthritis.

Papaya leaf is used in herbal medicine to remove intestinal worms. Papaya leaf was less of the protein, dissolving papain than the fruit, so it is less likely to dissolve the worms but it contains tannins that the fruits does not. This tannin protects the intestine from reinfection tanning protein in the lining of the intestinal wall so that worms cannot attach themselves.

Papaya roots is used as poultice or prepared as decoction. Decoctions of pounded papaya roots are used as digestive tonic and to cure dyspepsia. Extracts from papaya root are used to abort early pregnancy and also used to treat insect bite.(Loliya,N.K.B. Manivannan, p.k.mishia; N. Pathak; S. Sriram; S.S.  Blande; S. Panneerdoss (March 2002) retrieved 2006-11-18.

2.5       Health Benefits

Papaya are rich sources of antioxidant nutrients such as carotenes, vitamin C and flavonoid; the B vitamins, Folate and pantothenic acid; and minerals potassium, copper and magnesium; and fiber. Together, these nutrients promote the health of the cardiovascular system and also provide protection against colon cancer. In addition, the papaya contains the digestive enzymes papain which is used like bromelain, similar enzymes found in pineapple to treat sport Injuries, other cause of trauma, and allergies (http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=47).


2.5.1    Protection against Heart Disease

Papaya maybe very helpful for the prevention of atherosclerosis and diabetic heart disease. Papayas are an excellent source of the powerful antioxidant vitamin C and vitamin A (through their concentration of pro-vitamin A carotenoid phytonutrients).

These nutrients help to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol. Only when cholesterol becomes oxidized it is able to stick to and build up in blood vessels walls, forming dangerous plagues that can eventually cause heart attack and strokes. One way in which dietary vitamin E and vitamin C may exert this effect is through their suggested association with a compound called paraoxonase, an enzyme that inhibits LDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol oxidation. Papaya is also a good source of fiber, which have been shown to lower high cholesterol levels. The folic acid found in the papaya is needed for the conversion of a substance called homocysteine into benign amino acids such as cysteine or methionine. If unconverted, homocysteine can directly damage blood vessel walls level get to high, is consider a significant risk factor for a heart attack or strokes. (http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=47)

2.5.2    Promotes digestive Health

The nutrients in papaya have also been shown to be helpful in the prevention of colon cancer. Papaya’s fiber is able to bind to cancer- causing toxins in the colon and keep them away from the health colon cells;. In addition, papaya folate, vitamin C, beta- carotene and Vitamin E have each been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer. These nutrients provides synergistic protection for colon cells from free radical damage to their DNA (http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=47)





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INTRODUCTION TO DRUG ABUSE, causes, effect and treatment


Drug use аnd аbuѕе іѕ the рrіmаrу reason why mаnу youths have been іnсаrсеrаtеd, as well аѕ being a ѕоurсе оf crime аnd hеаlth problem іn our ѕосіеtу today. The numbеr оf youths іnсаrсеrаtеd in various prisons асrоѕѕ the country has increased dramatically оvеr the lаѕt few decades. As a mаttеr оf fасt, mаjоrіtу оf these youths hаvе bееn аrrеѕtеd for drug оffеnces оr have a drug аbuѕе рrоblеm. Hоwеvеr, as one may read about it on https://urinedrugtesthq.com/xstream-synthetic-review that ѕіnсе the Nаtіоnаl Drug Lаw Enforcement Agеnсу (NDLEA) was ѕеt-uр іn 1999, frаntіс еffоrtѕ were made tо соllесt rеlеvаnt іnfоrmаtіоn on drugs through vаrіеtу оf drug іndісаtоrѕ for роlісу formulation. Thе іmрасt оf thеѕе аgеnсіеѕ іn tеrmѕ оf іntеrvеntіоn ѕtrаtеgіеѕ аnd соntrоl іѕ trеmеndоuѕ.

Thе wоrld today is witnessing аn uрѕurgе оf issues thаt аrе оf global dіmеnѕіоn, for еxаmрlе drug аbuѕе, human trаffісkіng, HIV/AIDS, еnvіrоnmеnt dеgrаdаtіоn аnd роllutіоn еtс. Thе рrоblеmѕ including drug abuse heralded аn unеndіng dеѕіrе іn оur nаtіоn tо ѕеnѕіtіzе hеr citizens especially the уоuthѕ оf the evil of drug uѕе аnd abuse whісh hаѕ rеасh alarming stage. Aѕ a mаttеr of fасt thе ѕосіаl еffесtѕ of аbuѕе оf аlсоhоl whісh іnсludе rоаd accidents, lоѕѕ оf jobs, рооr асаdеmіс аnd jоb реrfоrmаnсеѕ, іnѕtаbіlіtу fаmіlу ѕеt up еtс. аrе ѕоurсеѕ оf concern tо thе gоvеrnmеnt.


Whаt іѕ drug?

A drug is a substance uѕеd fоr mеdісаl рurроѕеѕ thаt change thе ѕtаtе оr funсtіоn оf the bоdу. Drug іѕ аnу ѕubѕtаnсе whісh uроn еntеrіng thе body саn сhаngе еіthеr the funсtіоn or ѕtruсturе оf thе оrgаnіѕm. On the оthеr hаnd, drug abuse іѕ a ѕіtuаtіоn whеn drug is tаkеn mоrе thаn іt is prescribed. It could bе seen аѕ thе uѕе оf іllісіt drugѕ, оr the abuse оf рrеѕсrірtіоn or over-the-counter drugѕ. Drug аbuѕе саn bе further dеfіnеd as thе dеlіbеrаtе uѕе оf chemical ѕubѕtаnсеѕ fоr reasons other thаn іntеndеd mеdісаl purposes and whісh rеѕultѕ іn рhуѕісаl, mental emotional оr ѕосіаl іmраіrmеnt of thе uѕеr. Thе аbuѕе of lеgаl drugѕ can happen when people uѕе thе drugѕ іn a mаnnеr other thаn directed by thе mаnufасturеr or рurроѕе thаt аrе nоt legitimate.

Thе abuse оf vаrіоuѕ mооd-аltеrіng ѕubѕtаnсеѕ hаѕ bееn rероrtеd tо bе prevalent аmоng Nigerian youths. Sоmе ѕubѕtаnсеѕ alter the mind, сhаngе the user’s feeling, perception аnd behaviour when thеу are uѕеd bесаuѕе they exert асtіоn оn thе brain. Global ѕtudіеѕ оn drug uѕе аnd аbuѕе rеvеаlеd thаt еаrlу іnіtіаtіоn of drug use іѕ оnе of thе best рrеdісtоrѕ оf futurе drug аbuѕе аnd dереndеnсе, fоr іnѕtаnсе уоuthѕ whose drug uѕе ѕtаrtеd before the аgе оf 14 аrе mоrе vulnеrаblе to drug рrоblеmѕ lаtеr in lіfе thаn thоѕе whо ѕtаrtеd uѕіng drugs at the аgе оf 21 аnd above. Thе use of drugs hаѕ always bееn аn іnѕераrаblе раrt of оссultіѕm and thе уоuths in Nigeria’s tertiary іnѕtіtutіоnѕ аrе dеерlу іnvоlvеd іn thіѕ рrасtісе.

There аrе twо аѕресtѕ оf dаngеr аѕѕосіаtеd wіth drugs; the risk оf addiction and аdvеrѕе hеаlth and bеhаvіоurаl consequences.

Driving from thе dеfіnіtіоnѕ аbоvе, drugѕ саn bе сlаѕѕіfіеd into two саtеgоrіеѕ;
Drugѕ аrе bаѕісаllу twо grоuрѕ i.e. lеgаllу аррrоvеd аnd acceptable drugѕ аnd іllеgаl оr legally dіѕаррrоvеd drugѕ. Lеgаllу approved and acceptable drugѕ аrе drugs which have thrоugh thе аgеѕ bесоmе a раrt оf the ѕосіеtу аnd hаd rеmаіnеd. Hоwеvеr, due to large ԛuаntіtіеѕ of thеѕе drugѕ bеіng tаkеn in and оut of the соuntrу, thе gоvеrnmеnt іmроѕеѕ import dutіеѕ оn thеm. Thеrе are two mаіn tуреѕ nаmеlу: Tоbассо аnd Alсоhоl.

Tоbассо іѕ used аlmоѕt unіvеrѕаllу bу реорlе thrоughоut the wоrld. Tоbассо is rewarding fоr thеіr manufacturing соnсеrnѕ аnd to thе gоvеrnmеnt because іt brings іn hugе financial bеnеfіtѕ. Hоwеvеr, bесаuѕе оf thе dаngеr associated wіth сіgаrеttе ѕmоkіng, such аѕ саnсеr оf thе lung, соrоnаrу heart dіѕеаѕеѕ whісh leads to premature dеаth, thе Fеdеrаl Gоvеrnmеnt mаdе іt соmрulѕоrу that еvеrу аdvеrtіѕеmеnt оn аnу branch оf сіgаrеttе muѕt саrrу warning е.g. “cigarette іѕ dаngеrоuѕ tо health and ѕmоkеrѕ are liable to dіе уоung”.

Thеrеfоrе general аvоіdаnсе of сіgаrеttеѕ ѕmоkіng wоuld greatly reduce thе number of рrеmаturе death. Thе rаtеѕ оf ѕmоkіng among the tееnаgеrѕ especially ѕtudеntѕ аrе hіgh and seem tо be іnсrеаѕіng, along with another less harmful trend of e-cigarettes and the variety of vaping accessories. Regular cіgаrеttе ѕmоkіng and аlсоhоl аrе rеѕроnѕіblе fоr more deaths аnd sicknesses thаn іllісіt drug use.

Cаuѕеѕ of drug abuse

Thеrе are twо primary саuѕеѕ of drug аbuѕе аmоng the уоuthѕ. Thеѕе аrе
1.         Pееr рrеѕѕurе and

  1. Dерrеѕѕіоn.
    Pееr рrеѕѕurе:Yоuth аѕѕосіаtеѕ wіth dіffеrеnt tуреѕ оf реорlе otherwise known аѕ frіеndѕ. Thrоugh thе pressure frоm thеѕе frіеndѕ a сhіld they end up hаving a tаѕtе of thеѕе drugѕ аnd оnсе this іѕ done, thеу соntіnuе tо tаkе it and become аddісtеd tо it in thе long-run.

Depression: Anоthеr рrіmаrу cause оf drug аbuѕе іѕ depression. When certain things happen tо ѕоmеоnе thаt іѕ considered vеrу ѕаd аnd dіѕ-hеаrtеnіng thе реrѕоn started thinking оf the best wау tо bесоmе hарру once mоrе hence thе uѕе of hard drugѕ wіll соmе in. This lаtеr оn turnѕ to a hаbіt, hence drug abuse.
Another mаjоr саuѕе оf drug аbuѕе іѕ ѕаіd to bе the rаtе оf unеmрlоуmеnt among youths. Furthеrmоrе, drugѕ can bе ѕаіd tо be abused when youth don’t kеер to thе рrеѕсrіbе dosage and соntіnuоuѕ uѕе of a particular drug for a lоng time wіthоut doctor’s аррrоvаl. Thіѕ kind of аbuѕе іѕ аѕѕосіаtеd wіth ѕоft drugѕ.

Effесtѕ оf drug abuse

Alcohol іѕ a ѕubѕtаnсе thаt has been consumed by mаn since mаnу centuries ago іn order tо gеt ѕресіаl bodily ѕеnѕаtіоn аnd іѕ deeply еmbеddеd in diverse сulturеѕ of thе wоrld. It іѕ used in almost аll раrtѕ оf thе wоrld yet many реорlе аrе nоt even aware thаt іt іѕ a drug. Many Nigerians do not regard аlсоhоl аѕ a vеrу роtеnt drug duе to thе fact that іt іѕ rеаdіlу available аnd іtѕ use іѕ socially accepted by thе ѕосіеtу. In ѕоmе societies оthеr than Nіgеrіа today, drinking bеhаvіоur is соnѕіdеrеd іmроrtаnt fоr the whole ѕосіаl оrdеr аnd ѕо drinking is defined and limited in accordance wіth fundamental motifs оf the сulturе. In Nіgеrіа аlсоhоl hаѕ contributed іmmеnѕеlу tо various road ассіdеntѕ аnd сrіmеѕ. Mаnу уеаrѕ аgо, alcohol used to bе thе рrеѕеrvе оf аdult mаlеѕ, but rесеnt studies ѕhоw thаt аlсоhоl іѕ nоw аbuѕеd by thе уоung ones аnd also the fеmаlеѕ. Alсоhоl іѕ іn thе соmроѕіtіоn of many bеvеrаgеѕ and varies grеаtlу іn thеіr nаturе аnd ѕtrеngth. Sоmе hаvе frоm .3-20% while ѕоmе others соntаіn up tо 50% аlсоhоl. Whеn this аlсоhоl іѕ tаkеn in еxсеѕѕ, the following effects соuld bе еxреrіеnсеd in the body:

  1. It deadens the nеrvоuѕ system.
  2. It іnсrеаѕеs thе heart-beat.
  3. It causes thе blооd vеѕѕеlѕ tо dilate.
  4. It саuѕеѕ bad dіgеѕtіоn nоtаblу оf vіtаmіn B еѕресіаllу whеn taken on empty stomach.
  5. It interferes wіth thе роwеr оf judgmеnt аnd роіѕоnѕ thе higher brаіn аnd nеrvе сеntrе еtс.

Apart frоm alcohol and tobacco, оthеr ѕubѕtаnсеѕ with several арреllаtіоnѕ whісh are sources оf grеаt concern tо the gоvеrnmеnt аrе the nаrсоtісѕ. Thеѕе аrе thе hаrd drugѕ аnd are thе mоѕt dаngеrоuѕ – list on Detoxofsouthflorida.comto іnсludе codeine, hеrоіn еtс.Aѕ a mаttеr оf fасt, thеѕе twо are common оnеѕ аvаіlаblе іn Nіgеrіа. Othеrѕ are mоrрhіnе and paregoric methadone. Thеѕе drugѕ reduce рhуѕісаl аnd рѕусhоlоgісаl ѕеnѕіtіvіtу, resulting іn a lоѕѕ of соntасt with rеаlіtу, ѕеnѕе оf еuрhоrіа, rеduсеѕ fеаr, tension and аnxіеtу. It аlѕо rеduсеѕ рhуѕісаl асtіvіtіеѕ of the uѕеr аnd саuѕеѕ drowsiness, constipation, nаuѕеа and vоmіtіng in some іndіvіduаlѕ. Hіgh dоѕеѕ ѕоmеtіmеѕ саuѕе unconsciousness, coma оr dеаth.
Thе sedatives аrе nісоtіnе, tranquilizer barbiturates etc. Sedatives reduce tension, аnxіеtу and inhibitions resulting іn a fееlіng оf rеlаxаtіоn аnd drоwѕіnеѕѕ. Ovеr dоѕе of thе drugѕ produces blurrеd ѕреесh, ѕtаggеrіng, ѕluggіѕhnеѕѕ, rеасtіоn, erratic emotionality and untіmеlу ѕlеер. The stimulants іnсludе wеll knоwn сосаіnе, caffeine оr codeine, paracetamol еtс. Thеѕе саtеgоrіеѕ of drugs whеn thеу аrе not mеdісаllу uѕеd аѕ anesthetic, are capable оf еlеvаtіng mood, ѕuррrеѕѕеѕ hungеr, dесrеаѕе fаtіguе, саuѕеѕ sensation аnd ѕеnѕоrу hаlluсіnаtіоn.

Othеr aspects оf drug abuse еffесtѕ are;

  1. Social аѕресt
  2. Fіnаnсіаl aspect and
  3. Hеаlth аѕресt.
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Title Page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Table of content                                                                                  v



  • Introduction

1.1       Problem of the statement

1.2       Aims and Objectives

1.3       Justification of the project

1.4       Scope of the project

1.5       Limitation of the project

1.6       Methodology



  • Literature Review

2.1       Building types within project category

2.2       Brief description of users and owners of such development

2.3       Motivation for such development

2.4       Case Studies

2.5       Merit

2.6       Demerit

2.7       Spatial requirement and ancillary facility



  • Brief description of the site development

3.1       Physiographical characteristic

3.2       Brief description of site location

3.3       Site selection criteria



  • Design proposal

4.1       Conceptual development

4.2       Design option

4.3       Design analysis



5.0       Conclusion

5.1       Recommendation       












Rent is a periodic payment paid by the tenant to the landlord for the use and enjoyment of land and landed property. For small or large-scale property developers and investors, one way to earn money from the properties they owned is to lease/rent them out to short-term tenants. Rent falls into arrears when subsisting tenants fail to pay as at when due.

If your rent is not paid the money owned is called rent arrears. Rent arrears. Rent arrears are priority debts. In property management, tenant rent arrears are almost inevitable although some precautions may be taken to avoid it. It is a global phenomenon, occurring in all parts of the world. Both developing and developed countries, (COHRE,2004).

A landlord or an estate surveyor & valuer & value who wants to terminate a tenancy an recover possession of the property from a tenant for whatever reason must observe due diligence and lawful procedure to achieve his objective. Self-Help is an extra judicial remedy to enforce or protect a right, where the landlord employs self-help, it must be lawful otherwise he will be criminally liable for his actions. (MBIE,2013; Momah, 2011; Monek, 2009).

In Nigeria and particularly in the study area, most tenants, landlord, estate surveyor and    value as well as property managers have suffered untold hardship, tremendous financial loss, social stigma and various degrees of disgrace from the problems from the problems that culminated in rent arrears. The main thrust of this project is to identify and examine the causes and how to recover, strategies and method adopted for rent arrears and in order to improve upon property management generally and more specifically in Oshogbo Metropolis.



In development countries where properties are more of leasing than owning, tenants or users who early met with conditions of lease/letting often becomes defaulter as soon as they might have taken possession of the property. They consciously or unconsciously default on subsequent payment of rents and other statutory obligations leaving most properly investors with great consequence of financial loss. However, this study will consider the strategies for recovery of rent arrears amongst practicing estate surveyors and valuers in Oshogbo.




From the above problem statement are the under-listed questions that the study intend to answer.

  1. Why do people rent?
  2. What are the causes of default in rent payment?
  • What are the strategy in rent arrears recovery?



The study aim to examine the rent recovery strategies in property management practice with a view to make a policy recommendation that would assist property investors and property managers on ways to reducing financial loss and to harnessing returns from property investment. To achieve this above stated aim, the objectives are to:

  1. Identify and examine why people rent
  2. Examine the causes of default in rent payment
  • Identify and examine the strategies for rent arrears recovery



This is will be immense assistance to both landlord and tenant in maintaining a cordial relationship for peaceful co-existence and also to the estate surveyor and values to observe due diligence and lawful procedures.



Property management is the function of both professional and non-professional property managers i.e. Estate Surveyors and Valuers in Osogbo, Osun State.



  1. Time constraint: Time serve as a constraint to the project because there is no much time to work on the project due to strike.
  2. Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficient of the process of data collection (Internet, Interview etc)


1.8       STUDY AREA

Osogbo is the capital of Osun State, lies on coordinate 70 460 North Latitude and Longitude 40 340 East with an area of 47km sq, Osogbo shares boundary with Ikirun, Ilesa, Ede, Egbedore and Iragbiji and is easily accessible from any part of the state because of it’s central nature. It is about 48km from Ile-Ife, 32km from Ilesha, 46km from Iwo, 48km from Ikire and 46km from Ila- Orangun. The Osogbo [property market can be classified into three viz: Residential, Commercial and Industrial property markets.

The traditional centre of the city (Oja-Oba Area) comprises mainly Old Compond and Tenement house interspersed with block of flats all of high-density category. Low density ares are found in Dada Estate, Government House and also GRA.

Commercial properties consist mainly of shops, open markets and offices. Shops are generally available at all locations and neighborhoods to provide shopping facilities. They however, attract higher values at the city centres and main business district. Office refers to buildings that provide ample room spaces and facilities to support a good working condition for people. They include those occupied by private professional offices of lawyers, chartered accountants, surveyors, consultants, hospitals etc and corporate organizations like banks, insurance companies etc.






This chapter identify the reasons that tenants default on their rent payments and also the concept of property management, the evolution of property and property management and reason why people rent an apartment. Default means failure to make required debt payments on a timely basis or to comply with other obligation or agreement (Investors words.com) rent means all periodic payments to be made to the landlord for occupancy of a dwelling unit, including. Without limitation, all reasonable and actual late fees set forth in the rental agreement (Added to NRS by 1977,1999).



            Property management is the operation, control and oversight of real estate as used in its most broad terms.  Management indicates a need to be cared for, monitored and accountability given for its useful life and condition.

Property management is also the management of personal property, equipment, tooling and physical capital assets that are acquired and used to build, repair and maintain end item deliverables.

Property management involves the process systems and man power required to manage the lifecycle of all acquired property as defined above including acquisition,control accountability, maintenance, utilization and disposition.


Duties of property management generally will include a minimum of these basic primary tasks.

  1. The full and proper screening or testing of an applicant’s credit, criminal history, rental history and ability to pay.
  2. Lease contracting or accepting rent legal documents approved for the area in which the property is located.
  3. Mitigation and remediation regarding any maintenance issues, generally within a budget within prior or conveyed consent via a limited power of Attorney legally agreed to by the property owner.
  4. Maintaining necessary records for tax and legal purposes.

There are many facets to this profession including managing the accounts and finances of the real estate properties and participating in or initiating litigation with tenants contractors and insurance agencies.

Special attention is given to Landlord/tenant law and most commonly evictions. Non-payment, harassment, reduction of pre-arranged services and public nuisance are legal subjects that gain the most amount of attention from managers.



            Definition of Property?

One definition of property is one that we might readily expect: Ownership, right of possession, enjoyment, or disposal of anything, especially of something tangible to have property in land.

This definition, as many dictionary definitions do fail to even touch the below the surface of the defined concept. In other words, it doesn’t help us to understand the footholds upon which the definition depends.

For example, Neil Meyer, a professor at the university of Idaho, might not entirely agree with the compendiary definition offered above. Neil Meyers says that “What is often referred to as property is really the access right to a stream of benefit from a given set of resources.

Another “property thinker” who actually included the Meyer’s quote in an article says that a property right are a function of what are willing to acknowledge. The limits on an owner’s action result from expectations and right of others as formally sanctioned and sustained by law.

Barlowe (1978), describes property as complicated legal concept. He said many people thought of it in terms of objects that can be owned or possessed.

In the legal sense, property does not consist of an object but a man’s right to material object.

In other hand, a property can simply defined as a subject of ownership with an exclusive bundle of right and where the connection of interest is based. From the above definition, one can describes property as the exclusive right as the exclusive right of possession, enjoying and disposing of land or bundle or right. These rights are freehold and leasehold rights.




            The Real Estate Dictionary (2004) and Business Dictionary (2000) as cited by Kuye (2008) help the view that property management is the operation of property as a business which necessitates the performance of the following two main tasks i.e property management and investment management tasks. Property management tasks include: accounting and reporting, leasing, maintenance and repair, paying taxes, provision of utilities and insurance, remodeling rent rate setting and collection Investment Management tasks includes; acquisition and disposition, development and rehabilitation, feasibility, financing and income tax accounting.

Over the years, property management has taken a new dimension which calls for profession care and decisions (Kuye, 2008).

Therefore, it requires professionalism, competency and high degree of meticulousness. This is because the expertise and competency of the property manager are most time challenged and also because of its huge capital involved in its development. Therefore, a property manager really has to prove his competency and worth so as to justify the confidence the principal reposed in him.

Property management is one of the best sphere of real estate practice for customer service, is that the activity is essentially human management.       

            How has the concept of property changes from one culture to another?

            In the old testaments, it is interesting to note the various rules and regulations given by the Lord to the people of Israel. Property or ownership, had a different way of “working itself out” in fact, the property that the people of Israel lived on could “moderately belong” to a family but only until a law of jubilee, laws of Aaronic ownership, country land rules, city land rules and various other “loop holes” stipulated otherwise.  It can also affirmed to the children of Israel, the Lord was the only true owner and this he could deal with property management issues as he saw fit. However, it is also important to recognize that the children of Israel had to agree in their mind (anal perhaps in their hearts) that this could be a true definition of “property management” is the direction, supervision and controlling of an interest or interests in landed properties with the aim of obtaining optimum returns”. Also the bible also back up the definition up in Gen. 2:15 “Then the Lord God took the man and put him into the Garden of Eden to cultivate it and keep it” To cultivate it and keep it means to direct, control and supervise it.



Renting, also known as hiring or letting is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or property owned by another.

A gross lease is when the tenant pays a flat rental amount and the landlord charges regularly incurred by the ownership.

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Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) are used to provide power when regular utility power is unavailable.  Although they are commonly used for providing power in remote locations or emergencies, this is not because they are the same as auxiliary power units, emergency power units or standby generators.

Unlike the aforementioned power sources, UPS provides an immediate and continuous supply of power to a device, hence protecting it from power interruption and allowing time for auxiliary or emergency powers, to kick in equipment to be safely shut down or utility power restored.


The major aim of this was to design a system which will be able to convert battery voltage(12v) to 220v, which is equivalent to wall outlet and secondly able to charge the battery.

The chapter one of this work, gives the over-view of UPS, it’s importance, uses, and application and some of its special features like its ability to correct frequency instability and many more.

Secondly, this work dealt with all components used in the construction of the device, there working condition and uses. Some basic abstract phenomenon were also treated like wave forms and electronic switching.

The chapter three, basically dealt on all electrical measuring instrument used in and on the device, how they are used, why and where.

The fourth chapter explains how the components where assembled into section and the sectional connection used to form the device.

The last chapter is a simple conclusion with honest recommendation.













CERTIFICATION         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

DEDICATION     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT       –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

ABSTRACT        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

TABLE OF CONTENT          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v


1.1     INTRODUCTION         –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.1     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES     –        –        –        –        –        8

1.2     SCOPE OF THIS PROJECT   –        –        –        –        –        8

1.3     AVAILABILITY OF DESIGN MATERIALS      –        –        8



2.1     LITERATURE REVIEW        –        –        –        –        –        9

2.1     WHAT IS A UPS?         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        9

2.2     WAVEFORMS    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        9

2.2.1 SQUAREWAVE  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        9

2.2.2 MODIFIED SINE WAVE        –        –        –        –        –        10

2.2.4 TRUE SNE WAVE        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        10

2.3     RESISTORS        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        11

2.4     CAPACITORS     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        12

1.4.1 CAPACITANCE  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        13

2.4.2 ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR       –        –        –        –        14


CAPACTOR –      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        14

2.5     DIODE       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        16

2.5.1 MOUNTING A DIODE –        –        –        –        –        –        18

2.5.2 CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF A DIODE   –        –        18

2.5.3 IDEAL DIODE     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        19

2.5.4 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE     –        –        –        –        –        19

2.5.5 DIODES AS RECTIFIERS      –        –        –        –        –        21 HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER  –        –        –        –        –        22  FULL-WAVE, CENTER-TAP RECTIFIE       –        –        23

2.5.6    FILTERS  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        24

2.6     TRANSISTORS   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        26

2.6.1 TRANSISTOR AS A SWIRCH        –        –        –        –        –        26

2.6.2 MOSFETS  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        28 SUPER-HIGH INPUT IMPEDANCE –    –        –        –        29 SETBACKS IN MOSFETS –        –        –        –        –        29 ITS FLEXIBILITY      –        –        –        –        –        –        30

2.7      OPTO-COUPLER        –                  –        –        –        –        –        30

2.7.1  OPTO-COUPLER CHARACTERISTICS –         –        –        –        31

2.7.2  ITS INPUT –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32

2.7.3 ITS OUTPUT       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32

2.7.4  ITS OPERATING MODE      –        –        –        –        –        33

2.8     THE SG3524 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT   –        –        –        33

2.8.1  OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF SG3524    –        –        –        34


3.0     METHODOLOGY        –        –        –        –        –        –        36

3.1     ELECTRONIC WORKBENCH        –        –        –        –        37

3.2     GALVANOMETER      –        –        –        –        –        –        37

3.3     OSCILLOSCOPE –        –        –        –        –        –        –        38

3.4     VOLTMETER     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        39

3.5     AMPMETER       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        41

3.6     WATTMETER    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        43

3.7     MULTIMETERS –        –        –        –        –        –        –        44



4.0     DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS  –        –        46

4.1     COMPLETE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF A UPS   –        –        47

4.2     STAGE BY STAGE DESIGN          –        –        –        –        –        47

4.2.1  OSCILLATOR SECTION      –        –        –        –        –        50

4.2.2  DRIVER/SWITCHING SECTION   –        –        –        –        51

4.2.3  THE OUTPUT SECTION      –        –        –        –        –        52

4.2.4  THE CHANGEOVER SECTION    –        –        –        –        53

4.2.5  THE LOW BATTERY CUT-OFF SECTION      –        –        54

4.3     COMPONENT JUSTIFICATION    –        –        –        –        55

4.3.1  MOSFETS –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        55

4.3.2 SG3524 OSCILLATOR –        –        –        –        –        –        55

4.3.3 OPTO-COUPLER –        –        –        –        –        –        –        56

4.3.4 RESISTORS         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        56

4.4 TEST AND ANALYSIS   –        –        –        –        –        –        56

4.4.1  TESTING AND SETTING THE INVERTER    –        –        57

4.5     BILL OF ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION    –        –        60



5.0 CONCLUSION        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        62

5.1 RECOMMENDATION     –        –        –        –        –        –        62

REFERENCES   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        63











Fig 1.                   Offline/ standby diagram      –        –        –        5

Fig 2.                   A capacitor         –        –        –        –        –        12

Fig 3.                   Capacitors –        –        –        –        –        –        15

Fig 4.                   Circuit Symbol of a diode –   –        –        –        17

Fig 5.                   A Led         –        –        –        –        –        –        20

Fig 6.                   Half-wave rectifier       –        –        –        –        21

Fig 7.                   Half wave Rectifier      –        –        –        –        22

Fig 8.                   A full-wave centre tap rectifier       –        –        24

Fig 9.                   A Simple filter     –        –        –        –        –        25

Fig 10.       Transistor as a Switch –        –        –        –        27

Fig 11.       A Transistor as a Switch      –        –        –        27

Fig 12.       A Mosfet    –        –        –        –        –        –        28

Fig 13        Opto-Coupler’s Input   –        –        –        –        32

Fig 14.       Inputs and output circuit of an opto-coupler – 32

Fig 15.       A Digram of a Voltmeter       –        –        –        41

Fig 16.       Diagram of Amp meter         –        –        –        –        42

Fig 17        Diagram of a Wattmeter arrangement   –        43

Fig 18        Oscillator Circuit           –        –        –        –        –        49

Fig 19        Pre-Driver Section       –        –        –        –        51

Fig 20        Change over circuit of the UPS    –        –        53

Fig 21        Low battery cut-off circuit     –        –        –        54CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF A DIODE   CITORS

l and may God reward you. , Sir CHristopher chukwu and family, Elder Emmanuel a




As blackouts roll through power-starved communities, the threat to you and your computer is not the lack of electricity, but the change in power. When the lights are off and you are about to start any industrial or computer-based projects,  all your efforts will be wasted. Even when your system acts as a server, a sudden shutdown could disrupt the processing of many others. You can make your work immune to the intransigence of rolling blackouts and protect against many other types of unexpected power disturbances. Your secret weapon is the uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source. Commonly called the UPS, this devices is a cleaver threefold package-a set of battery, an inverter that transforms the low-voltage direct current of the batteries into the standard alternating current equivalent to your wall outlet, and a battery changer that assures that reserve power storage system (the batteries) with interfaces to mach it to utility power and your computer system. A UPS differs from an auxiliary emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide instantaneous or near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attached batteries and associated electronic circuitry for low power users, and or by means of diesel generators and flywheels for high power users. While not limited to protecting any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption and/or data loss. UPS units range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor (around 200 VA rating) to large units powering entire data centers, buildings, or even cities. The UPS is designed to project against changes, specifically a temporary loss of electrical supply.

This project focuses on conversion of AC to DC and from DC to AC power inverters, which aim to efficiently transform a DC power source to a high voltage AC source, similar to power that would be available at an electrical wall outlet. Inverters are used for many applications, as in situations where low voltage DC sources such as batteries, solar panels or fuel cell must be converting electrical power from a car battery to run a laptop, TV or cell phone.




DC and AC Current

In the world today there are currently two forms of electrical transmission, Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC), each with its own advantages and disadvantages. DC power is simply the application of a steady constant voltage across a circuit resulting in a constant current. A battery is the most common source of DC transmission as current flows from one end of a circuit to the other. Most digital circuitry today is run off of DC power as it carries the ability to provide either a constant high or constant low voltage, enabling digital logic to process code executions. Historically, electricity was first commecially transmitted by Thomas Edison, and was a DC power line. However, this electricity was low voltage, due to the inability to step up DC voltage at the time, and thus it was not capable of transmitting power over long distances.


P=IV = I2R


As can be seen in the equations above, power loss can be derived from the electrical current squared and the resistance of a transmission line. When the voltage is increased, the current decreases and concurrently the power loss decreases exponentially; therefore high voltage transmission reduces power loss. For this reasoning electricity was generated at power stations and delivered to homes and businesses through AC power. Alternating current, unlike DC, oscillates between two voltage values at a specified frequency, and it’s ever changing current and voltage makes it easy to step up or down the voltage. For high voltage and long distance transmission situations, all that is needed to step up or down the voltage of the transformer. Developed in 1886 by William Stanley Jr., the transformer made long distance electrical transmission using AC power possible.

Electrical transmission has therefore been mainly based upon AC power, supplying most Nigerian homes with a 220 volt AC source. It should be noted that since 1954 there have been many high voltage DC transmission systems implemented around the globe with the advent of DC/DC converters, allowing the easy stepping up and down of DC voltages. Like DC power, there exist many devices such as power tools, radios and TV’s that run off of AC power.

It is therefore crucial that both forms of electricity transmission exist; the world cannot be powered with one simple form. It then becomes a vital matter for there to exist easy ways to transform DC to AC power and vice versa in an efficient manner. Without this ability people will be restricted to what electronic devices they use depending on the electricity source available. Electrical AC/DC converters and DC/AC inverters allow people this freedom in transferring electrical power between the two.

Offline / standby


Inverters and Applications

Power inverters are devices which can convert electrical energy of DC form into that of AC. They come in all shapes and sizes, from low power functions such as powering a car radio to that of backing up a building in case of power outage. Inverters can come in many different varieties, differing in price, power, efficiency and purpose. The purpose of a DC/AC power inverter is typically to take DC power

supplied by a battery, such as a 12 volt car battery, and transform it into a 220 volt AC power source operating at 50Hz, emulating the power available at an ordinary household electrical outlet. Power inverters are used today for many tasks like powering appliances in a car such as cell phones, radios and televisions. They also come in handy for consumers who own camping vehicles, boats and at construction sites where an electric grid may not be as accessible to hook into. Inverters allow the user to provide AC power in areas where only batteries can be made available, allowing portability and freeing the user of long power cords. However, most UPS units are also capable in varying degrees of correcting common utility power problems like:

  1. Power failure: defined as a total loss of input voltage.
  2. Surge: defined as a momentary or sustained increase in the mains voltage.
  3. Sag: defined as a momentary or sustained reduction in input voltage.
  4. Spikes, defined as a brief high voltage excursion.
  5. Noise, defined as a high frequency transient or oscillation, usually injected into the line by nearby equipment.
  6. Frequency instability: defined as temporary changes in the mains frequency.
  7. Harmonic sinusoidal waveform distortion: defined as a departure from the ideal expected on the line

Factors to consider when designing an inverter is

  • The input voltage
  • The output voltage
  • The frequency of the oscillators
  • The rating of the load to be powered by the inverter
  • The ampere range of the charging unit
  • The cost of the construction
  • The relative importance of the inverter
  • The ampere ranger of the charging unit
  • The cost of the construction
  • The relative importance of the inverter at that time specification
  • C input voltage (12V-24V)
  • C output voltage (220v-240v)
  • Output frequency (50Hz-60Hz)
  • Output power (450-550)
  • Maximum power (550)
  • Continuous output power (500)
  • Overload shutdown
  • Low voltage shutdown




The objective of this project may be summarized as listed below


  • To give a brief introduction on what UPS.
  • To highlight the basic components used in the construction of a UPS and their functions .
  • To describe the way in which there are designed and
  • Finally to highlight its application and relevance in the society





This project research encompasses the features of the variety of the components used in the construction of a UPS, their limitations and favourable working conditions, and the application of inverter in different field.




Materials used in the construction of this UPS are readily available in electronic stores across the country and are also very affordable depending on the rating of the UPS to be constructed.


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Fan is an unavoidable electrical appliance in our day to day life. While basic fan has evolved very little, the methods of controlling its speed have change vastly, from bulky regulators using resistances, to the present day miniature solid state regulators.

In our paper, we have devised a method to control the fan using a remote. Though they have Leen ways to control speed using remote, the novelty of our method lies in the fact that any kind of remote can be used to control its speed.

For example, consider a TV remote. Just like the fan, a TV is also considered a basic necessity nowadays. And if there is a TV, there is a remote.

These remote can be used to control the fan speed. Thus it is a universal method. This innovation is highly recommendable for elder people, who have problems like arthritis, and cannot walk to the switch board to change the speed. It is also a great benefit to sick people.

Remote control facilities the operation of fan regulators around the home or office from a distance. It provides a system that is simple to understand and also to operate, a system that would be cheap and affordable, a reliable and easy to maintain system of remote control and durable system irrespective of usage. It adds more comfort to everyday living by removing the inconvenience of having to move around to operate a fan regulator. The system seeks to develop a system that is cost effective while not under mining the need for efficiency. The first remote control, called boneset was developed in 1950 by Zenith Electronics Corporation (then known as Zenith Radio Corporation). He devices  was developed quickly, and it was called “Zenith Space Command”, the remote went into production in the fall of 1956, becoming the first practical wireless remote control device.

Today, remote control is a standard on other consumer electronic products, including VCR cable and satellites boxes, digital video disc players and home audio players. And the most sophisticated TV sets have remote with as many as 50buttons. In year 2000, more than 99 percent of all TV set and 100 percent of all VCR and DVD players sold are equipped with remote controls. The average individual these days probably picks up a remote control at least once or twice a day.

Basically, a remote control works in the following manner. A button is pressed. This completes a specific connection which produces a Morse code line signal specific to that button. The transistor amplifies the signal and sends it to the LED which translates the signal into infrared light. The sensor on the appliance detect the infrared light and reacts appropriately. The remote control’s function is to wait for the user to press a key and then translate that into infrared light signals that are received by the receiving appliance. The carrier frequency of such infrared signals is typically around 36kHz. Usually, the transmitter part is constructed so that the transmitter oscillator which drives the infrared transmitter LED can be turned on/off by applying a TTL (transistor-transistor logic) voltage on the modulation controlled input. On the receiver side, a photo transistor or photodiode takes up the signals.


The objective of putting up this project, therefore, is to design equipment that can facilitate a convenient and easy way of controlling our electric fan, especially in powering them, without always going to appliances physically by ourselves.

This objective will be accomplished using various components which include a microcontroller (AT89C51) and NE555 IC which acts as the backbone of the project together with other components.

There is a trigger signal from the preceding blocks. While, for the first multi vibrator, trigger is sent from the IR receiver, for the second multivibrator, trigger is sent from the Opto-coupler.


















During British rule, the word came to be used in a special sense by Anglo-Indians to mean a large swinging fan, fixed to the ceiling, and pulled by a servant, called Punkawallah.

In the 17th century, the experiments of scientists like Otto Von Guericke, Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle, elucidated the principles of vacuum and airflow. The English architect Sir Christopher Wren applied an early ventilation system in the Houses of Parliament that used bellows to circulate the air. The Houses of Parliament would be the catalyst for much later improvement and innovation. John Theophilus Desaguliers, a British engineer, demonstrated a successful use of a fan system to draw out stagnant air from the coal mines in 1727 and soon afterwards he installed a similar apparatus in Parliament.

In 1849, a 6m radius steam driven fan, designed by William Brunton, was made operational in the Gelly Gaer Colliery of South Wales. The model was exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Improvements in the technology were made by Jame Nasmyth, Frenchman Theophile Guibal and J.R. Waddle. Between the years 1882 and 1886, New Orleans resisdent Schuyler Skaats Wheeler invented a fan powered by electricity. It was commercially marketed by the American firm Crocker and Curtis Electric Motor Company. In 1882, Philip Diehl introduced the electric ceiling fan. Heat-convection fans fueled by alcohol, oil or kerosene were common around the turn of the 20th century.

In the 1920s, industrial advances allowed steel fans to be mass produced in different shapes, bringing fan prices down and allowing more homeowners to afford them. In the 1930s, the first art deco fan (the “swan fan”) was designed.

In the 1950s, fans were manufactured in colours that were bright and eye catching. Central air conditioning in the 1960s caused many companies to discontinue production of fans. In the 1970s, Victorian-style ceiling fans became popular.

In 1998, Walter K. Boyd invented the HVLS ceiling fan, Boyd developed a slow moving fan with a very large 8-feet diameter. Due to its size, the fan moved a large column of air down and out 360 degrees and continuously mixed fresh air with the stale air inside the barn. They are used in many industrial settings, because of their energy efficiency.

By the early 2000s, the number of consumer electronic devices in most homes greatly increased. According to the Consumer Electronics Association, an average American home has four remotes. To operate a home theater as many as five or six remotes may be required, including one for cable or satellites receiver, VRC or Digital Video Recorder, DVD player, TV and audio amplifier. Several of these remotes may need to be used sequentially, but, as there are no accepted interface guidelines, the process is increasingly cumbersome. Many specialists, including Jakob Nielsen, a renowned usability specialist and Robert Alder, the inventor of the modern remote, note how confusing, unwieldy and frustrating the multiplying remotes have become.

Most modern remote control alert systems for appliances use infrared diode to emit a beam of light that reaches the device or equipment.

Therefore the concept of remote control is further expanded in another form by applying it in a circuit that is used to power many appliances automatically by pressing buttons on the remote control.
















            It consists of a CD4017 decade counter IC. It has one input pin, ten outputs pins from Q0 to Q9 and one reset pin. Here, we are using the outputs Q0 – Q4, and shorting Q6 and reset pins. The outputs Q0-Q4 are routed to the threshold-discharge pins of the second multivibrator via a resistor and capacitor network. The resistances R5-R9 and the capacitance C5 fix the output pulse width of the multivibrator .


The main purpose of an Opto-isolator is to prevent the high voltages or rapidly changing voltages on one side of the circuit from damaging components or distorting transmissions on the other side. In our project we use a MOC3021 Opto-isolator IC to control the 230V AC voltage on the load using a low voltage signal from the second multivibrator. However, the two stages have a complete electrical isolation.




It is essentially an Opto-isolator, but functioning as zero detector. It sends out pulses when it detects a zero crossing on the stepped down input 12V AC line. These pulses are used to trigger the second multivibrator. We use the Opto-coupler IC MC2TE.


We need a low voltage for power supply to entire low voltage control circuit. We step down the 230V AC to 12V-0-12V using a centre tapped transformer. This voltage is rectified to DC and using a LM7809 IC, converted to 9V DC which is used to power the control circuitry.

            SRC MODULE

            We are using a BT136 triac to control the fan speed, using the MOC3021 Opto-isolator to trigger it. Since we do not have any beforehand experience of working with 230V AC, the application circuit is as directed by manufacturers on their datasheet with little modification.


The components used in construction of the remote control fan regulator are listed explained below.

2.2       RESISTOR

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor’s terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm’s law: R=V/I. The function of a resistor is to resist the flow of electric current in an electronic circuit. Resistors are classified into two classes of resistors; fixed resistors and the variable resistors. A resistor is made of either carbon film or metal film. Its SI unit is (ohms) Ω







         Fig 2.1 A Resistor




                  Fig 2.2 Electronic Symbol of Resistor


A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semi-conductor light source. When a light-emitting diode is switch on, electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. An LED is often small in area (Less than 1 mm 2), LED has many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size and faster switching

Anode                      Cathode


                               Fig 2.3 Electronic Symbol of a LED

The secondary winding. Transformer can be used to vary the relative voltage of circuit or isolate them, or both. It ranges in size from thumbnail-sized used in microphones to units weighing hundreds of tons interconnecting the power grid. A wide range of transformer designs are used in electronic and electric power applications. Transformers are essential for the transmission, distribution, and utilization of electrical energy.

Primary Winding                      Secondary Winding


Fig 2.6 Circuit Symbol of a transformer

2.4       DIODES

Diodes are semiconductor devices which allow the passage of current in one direction only. The latter part of that statement applies equally to vacuum tube diodes. Diodes however are far more versatile devices than that. They are extremely versatile in fact.

Diodes can be used as voltage regulators, tuning devices in if tuned circuits, frequency multiplying devices in rf circuits, mixing devices in rf circuits, switching applications or can be used to make logic decisions in digital circuits. There are also diodes which emit “light”, of course these are known as light-emitting-diodes or LED’s. as we say diodes are extremely versatile.




Schematic Symbols for Diodes

A few schematic symbols for diodes are:




Diode     Zener      Varactor      Vacuum Tube                  LED

diode      diode                   diode


                        Figure 2.7 Schematic symbols for diodes

2.5       CAPACITOR

A capacitor is originally known as a condenser. It’s a passive two terminal electrical component used to store energy electro statically in an electric field. An ideal capacitor is characterized by single constant value, capacitance. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. The SI unit of capacitance is the farad which is equal to one coulomb per volt.

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies. In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric power transmission systems they stabilize voltage and power flow.




       Fig 2.8 A Capacitor






                                                Fig 2.9 Schematic Symbols for diode


2.6       TRANSISTOR

Transistor can be regarded as a type of switch, as can many electronic components. They are used in a variety of circuits and you will find that it is rare that a circuit built in a school Technology Department does not contain at least one transistor. They are central to electronics and there are two main types; NPN and PNP. Most circuits (e.g. this project design) tend to use NPN. There are hundreds of transistors which work at different voltage but all of them fall into these two categories.


There are two types of standard transistors, NPN and PNP, with different circuit symbols. The letters refers to the layers of semiconductor materials used to make the transistor. Most transistors used today are NPN because this is the easiest type to make from silicon. This page is mostly about NPN transistors.

B                                B

E                                E

Fig 3.17 Transistor circuit symbols

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Title page

Approval page




Table of content




  • Introduction
  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the study
  • Objectives of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Limitations
  • Significance of the study
  • Definition of terms




2.1 Role of information technology in the academic system

2.2 Data and information

2.3 Computer based information systems

2.4 Databases



Description and analysis of the existing system

3.1 General analysis of the existing system

3.2 Method of data collection

3.4 Organizational structure

3.5 Input analysis

3.6 Process Analysis

3.7 Output analysis

3.8 Information flow diagram

3.9 Problems of the existing system

3.10 Justification of the new system




4.1 Design standards

4.2 Output specification

4.3 Input specification and design

4.4 File design

4.5 Procedure chart

4.6 System flowcharts

4.7 System specification

4.8 Program flowcharts




5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation




Appendix A Welcome page

Appendix B Home page

Appendix C Input forms

Appendix D Output forms

Appendix E Codes






















Clearance is a status granted individuals, typically members of the military, university graduates and employees of governments and their contractors, allowing them access to classified information, i.e. state secrets. The term “clearance” is also sometimes used in private organizations that have a formal process to vet employees for access to sensitive information. A clearance by itself is normally not sufficient to gain access; the organization must determine that the cleared individual has a “need to know” the information. No one is supposed to be granted access to classified information solely because of rank or position, but once a clearance is obtained, access to certain information or gain of freedom will be granted.

As many universities have choosing to pursue the dynamic educational options available online. The advantages of e-learning are many. As people of all ages and backgrounds become increasingly reliant on the internet for information, online learning becomes more convenient and efficient here the need for an online clearance system. The skills needed to access and comprehend information online are becoming commonplace, and the flexibility of wireless computing means that any coffee shop, airport or bedroom can become a classroom. Online courses, registrations, clearance have few, if any scheduling restrictions, well-integrated learning resources and competitive degree options, with an online clearance system.

The changing online college landscape now includes online clearance system, traditional undergraduate and general studies programs. However, career learning is still the most popular online training option.



Caritas university, Amorji nike Enugu is a private University approved by the federal Government of Nigeria on Dec 16 2004. It was officially opened on Jan 21,2005 by the Federal minister for education, Prof . Fabian Osuji.  It is the second catholic university founded by Rev. Fr. Prof  E.M.P Edeh. The school is managed by the congregation of Sisters of Jesus the Saviour, a religious congregation of nuns founded by him. The school operates the faculty system and presently has four faculties; Engineering, Environmental, Management and social sciences and natural science

In Universities like Caritas, there is need for automated method of keeping data, more so a greater need for an online clearance system. This would go a long way in alleviating the various problems and stress involved in the manual method of clearance. Moreover, the issue of delayed youth service as a result of inability to complete the tedious manual process of clearance would be curtailed.



The processes of clearing students after their graduation requires that the students be cleared in various departments and information units. Among which are:

  • Library fines and overdue or lost library materials from the University
  • Departmental Dues
  • Infirmary and bookstore charges
  • Residence hall damage charges
  • Return of athletic equipment
  • Student Union Fee
  • Bursary and all other charges

For a graduating student to carry out his \ her clearance from all these departments, it normally takes a lot of time and a lot of processes and delays in clearing the student for youth service as well as collection of statement of result. Hence it became imperative for an online clearance system to eliminate the shortcomings of the manual system in place.



The objectives of this project include:

  • To effectively and efficiently process students clearance
  • To provide a reliable and transparent system devoid of personal inclinations and interest
  • To provide borderless access
  • To ensure prompt clearance
  • To alleviate the problems and stress of travelling and queuing up of students during clearance.


This research work is limited to clearance system for graduating students from Caritas University. The software developed will be carried out using HTML, Visual Basic and Ms Access to manage both the database and at the same time make the software online.



This project covers all aspect of online clearance system using Caritas University as a case study. However, the following were the constraints:

Time constraints: Due to time constraint, the web – page developed covers only clearance from various departments by the graduating students.

Financial constraints:  It would cost a lot to develop a full web – based clearance system.

Some documents were considered confidential and were not made available.



The project work will help in a good number of ways to ease the queuing system in the university as the online clearance system will help students to achieve what ever they want to achieve without coming to the various offices for clearance.

Clear advantages of Internet information processing over those of traditional manual system are higher yields. Online clearance system allows the users to check their clearance status as whether they are in any way indebted to the school, fill and submit their clearance form, and obtain their clearance letter. There are many other advantages of online clearance system and some of them are listed below.

o       It saves a lot of time.

o       It is very convenient to use it right from the bedroom, office or anywhere in the World.

o       Information processing are very fast and  delays can be avoided.

o       It is inexpensive to students and school management.

  • Help the school in reducing costs such as labour and stationary.



Computer Network: Computer Network is a system that connects two or more computers together using a communication link.

World Wide Web: World Wide Web simply called www is the most important tool of the Internet. It was created in the late

1980s in Europe and was used limitedly in academic cycle.

Clearance: Official certification of blamelessness, trustworthiness, or suitability for graduation and issue of certificates in degree course.

Databases:  A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.

File Transfer:   Any kind of computer file can be sent via the Internet from one Internet user to another. Table of accounts on spreadsheets, design by a graphic artists, music sound files etc, can all be exchanged in this way.

Web Brower: This is a special kind of software that processes hypertext mark-up language (HTML) document. In other words, a web browser is a computer program that interprets HTML command to collect, arranged and display the parts of a web page.

Web Site:  A website is a collection of many interconnected web pages organized by a specific college, organization company etc, containing web pages (good and commodities) on the Internet. Websites are stored on web servers. There are many websites and thousand of HTML pages on each web site. A web site is a treasure of information and entertainment.

Hyperlinks: Hyperlinks are highlighted words and phrase you find on web documents that you can click on as to jump to some other documents or Internet services.

Online:  Connected via a computer attached to or available via a central computer network.

Offline: Disconnected from computer network; describes a computer terminal or peripheral device disconnected from a computer network.

System: Set of computer components that is, an assembling of hardware, software and peripherals functioning together.




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1.1       Background of the study.

Plaster of Paris (POP) is chemically hemihydrates of calcium sulfate (Ca SO41/2 H2O). It is produced by calcination heating of gypsum, a di-hydrate of caocium sulfate (Ca SO42 H2O). It has applications in construction industry, ceramic industry, sculptures, chalk pieces, medical (dental and surgical) etc. Most of the units producing POPs are in small scale sector with capacity ranging 10-20 TD, only a small number of units are in large scale sector 100-200TD.

POP units use both thermal (wood, coal and diesel) and electrical energy for the production of POP(Plaster Of Paris).The electricity consumption is only 5% of total energy used thus the cost of producing POP depends on the cost of thermal energy, which is increasing every month. On an average a rotary kiln calciner uses about 300 kg of wood per ton .The monthly average energy consumption is of the order of 15000 kWh per ton. Since energy used is in thermal form, it makes sense to use concentrating solar power technology to generate required process heat. Maximum numbers of POP manufacturing units are based in western Rajasthan.

This region has clear sun shine for about 300-320 days in a year. Solar resource map show that this region receives more than 6 kWh per day, which shows suitability of the site. The Indian CST industry has developed good expertise to tap the solar thermal energy with 40 to 70% efficiency, using tracking type concentrators.

If we assume efficiency of collection as 60% then each meter square of concentrator will generate around 4 kWh in a day with dual axis true parabolic concentrators. Even a fixed focus Scheffler dish can generate about 40 kwh in a day. Salman and Khraishi studied the decomposition of lime and gypsum using solar energy. Narendra et al proposed use of solar energy in calcininggypsum, however, actual experiments were simulated with electrical energy. Present paper reports results of experiments done to calcine gypsum for production of POP using a commercial parabolic solar concentrator of 4 sqm and a proposed commercial method for production of POP using solar thermal energy.





1.2       Statement of the problem

            In nowadays building construction, P.O.P contractors are commonly encountering in the wake of not knowing broadly on the installation of Plaster of Paris. The study is to provide broader view on the installation of Plaster of Paris.


1.3       Aim and objectives

The aims and objectives of the study work include the following:

  1. To ascertain the benefits of having or construction of column finishing using P.O.P in modern building.
  2. To ascertain the work of construction of column using P.O.P in modern building
  3. To ascertain materials require for the construction of columns finishing using P.O.P in modern building.
  4. To classify the columns based on types of reinforcement, loadings and slenderness ratios.
  5. Providing necessary information on the historical background of plaster of Paris thereby, giving the reader of this research work a brief on how the plaster of Paris came into existence.


1.4       Justification of the Study

Construction of column finishing using Plaster of Paris in modern building is quite demanding and yet necessary. A Plaster of Paris Column finishing is not only needed in building Construction for beautification and decoration alone but also serves other purposes like thermal insulator, heat-proofing material,











2.0       Literature Review

2.1       History of Plaster of Paris

In the early period of 1600s century Egyptians discovered the extraction of plaster of Paris from gypsum, while later on the Greeks started the use of this plaster of Paris for their construction purposes basically in their tombs and homes construction. The first scientific study on plaster was realized in 1768 by a French scientist named Lavoisier. In 1887,

Le Chatelier (2007), another prominent French scientist, was the first to study the hydration mechanisms of plaster. And then, plaster gradually became a fascinating research subject for scientists. In ancient India and China, renders in clay and gypsum plasters were used to produce a smooth surface over rough stone or mud brick walls.

History seems to indicate that, despite the name, plaster of Paris was invented by the Egyptians. It was used as an artistic decoration in many Egyptian tombs, and the Greeks picked up the technique, using plaster in their own homes, temples, and works of art. Paris became synonymous with this type of plaster in the 1600s, the large deposit of gypsum made it easy to produce plaster of Paris. The substance was also used extensively in fireproofing; giving Parisian homes a distinctive appearance.

Plaster decoration was widely used in Europe in the middle Ages where, from the mid-13th century, gypsum was used for internal and external plaster. Hair was employed as reinforcement, with additives to assist setting or plasticity including malt, urine, beer, milk and eggs. In the 14th century, decorative trowelled plaster, called pargeting was used in South-East England to decorate the exterior of timber-framed buildings. This is a form of incised, molded or modeled ornament, executed in lime putty or mixtures of lime and gypsum plaster. During this same period, terracotta was reintroduced into Europe and was widely used for the production of ornament. In the 1700’s, Paris was already the “capital of plaster” (“Plaster of Paris”) since all the walls of wooden houses were covered with plaster, as a protection against fire.


2.1.1    Plaster of Paris usage in Art & Architecture

Artists use plaster of Paris to create sculpture, make decorative items and as a painting surface. The Greeks and Romans used plaster to create replicas of their more famous artworks. The Egyptians perfected plaster casting methods and used them to make casts of the heads of the dead in order to recreate their likenesses. The use of finely ground gypsum plaster to create decorative molding was popular during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Painting in fresco is the process of painting on a thin layer of wet plaster of Paris. A well known example of fresco work is Michelangleo’s ceiling in the Sistine Chapel.

Plaster of Paris trim, medallions and friezes etc are used to bring a touch of old-world class, modern patterns & customized artwork to transform the plain ceilings/walls into desired designs to add value and sanctity to the building. Ceiling medallions made of plaster and wood were common accents in government buildings and upper class homes centuries ago.

According to house (learners dictionary of American English 2016) defines Plaster of Paris as a white powdery substance used as a base for gypsum plasters and as a material for mixing with water to make fine or decorative casts.

According to concise English dictionary,it defines it as a hard plaster produced when mixed with water: a fully hydrated form of calcium sulphate.

Etymology: 15th century: from medieval Latin plastrumparisiense, originally made from the plaster of Paris (gypsum).

Encyclopedia Britannica(2015) defines Plaster of Paris as a quick setting gypsum plaster consisting of a fine while powder (calcium surphate Hemihydrate) which hardens when moistened and allowed to dry

The plaster of Paris, is a white binder produced from gypsum by removing water of crystallization .This is done by heating the raw gypsum at temperatures of the order of 120-180℃. This removal of water is described by equation [1]

CaSO4.2H2O+ΔH→βCaSO4.1/2H2O+3/2H2O (1) ΔH=597,200kJ/ton=142,600kcal/T=165.9kWh/T


2.1.2    Advantages and Disadvantages of Plaster of Paris

Advantages of Plaster of Paris

  • Durable and hard
  • Fire resistant
  • Sound resistant
  • Fast installation
  • Easy to repair
  • Light weight
  • Inexpensive
  • Excellent substratefor paint, fabric and wood
  • Quick setting 5 – 10 minutes initial set
  • Mixes easily with water
  • Crack resistant
  • Produces hard, smooth, chip resistant finish


Disadvantages of Plaster of Paris

  • Not resistant to water
  • Untreated face paper can encourage mold growth
  • Not structural
  • Reflects sound
  • Lacks intrinsic character


According to Narenda Kumar (2013); states that the gypsum is a mineral available all over the world, it is also produced as a byproduct of fertilizer industry. In India the largest deposits are in Rajasthan followed by Tamilnadu, Jammu, Gujrat,UP, MP and West Bengal. The gypsum is used in the manufacture of hydraulic cements, ammonium sulfate fertilizer, sulphuric acid, and reclamation of acidic soil for agricultural purpose. Chemically gypsum is CaSO4.2H2O, and has a molecular weight of 177.17


2.1.3    Plaster of Paris as Core Ingredient for its Made ups:

S.N Sami Sameer 2013: views Plaster of Paris as core raw material used for the making of Plaster of Paris Tile, Boarders, Trims, Medallions and Misc Made ups. It is a sculpting material with a variety of decorative and practical applications. Plaster of Paris is inexpensive and simple to work with. It can be used to decorate a finished product with paint or embellish it with beads, stones and wire.

2.1.4    Uses of Plaster of Paris

Common uses for plaster of Paris include making castings for other artistic mediums, creating sculptures and making home décor objects. The Plaster of Paris is used in the following fields,

  • Castings
  • Architecture & Art
  • Fireproof
  • Filling small cracks in plaster surfaces
  • Large or small castings
  • Hobby and art projects


  1. Castings: One common use for plaster of Paris is to make decorative castings to be used as embellishments, jewelry charms and pendants. Select a flexible plastic mold from a craft store and apply a generous coating of a release agent to the mold before pouring the mixed plaster of Paris into it. Release agents can be common household supplies, such as petroleum jelly or nonstick cooking spray. Without a release agent, the plaster of Paris will be difficult to remove from the mold and will often break. Allow the plaster to set up in the mold for one hour, and then remove it. The molded plaster is still soft enough at this point to trim away any excess material from around the edges. Allow the cast piece to dry for at least 24 hours before decorating it.
  2. Art & Architecture:Plaster of Paris is used by artists for producing sculptures and decorative items and as a painting surface since ages. Today Plaster of Paris is being widely used in making abstract arts, canvas, sculptured paintings, wall paintings, decorative ceilings etc.The Greeks and Romans used plaster to create replicas of their more famous artworks. The Egyptians perfected plaster casting methods and used them to make casts of the heads of the dead in order to recreate their likenesses. The use of finely ground gypsum plaster to create decorative molding was popular during the 18th and 19th centuries. Painting in fresco is the process of painting on a thin layer of wet plaster of Paris.Raised plaster stenciling added architectural elegance to stately homes and government buildings at the turn of the century. Artisans created beautiful plaster designs on the walls and ceilings of the White House in 1905. Raised plaster stenciling or relief stenciling is an elegant way to perk up any space. The designs can delicately accent wall and ceiling trims or add style to outdoor urns and furniture.

Figure 1: Art and Architecture


2.2       Plaster of Paris; Review of Manufacturing Processes

According to Narenda Kumar (2013); states that the gypsum is a mineral available all over the world, it is also produced as a byproduct of fertilizer industry. In India the largest deposits are in Rajasthan followed by Tamilnadu, Jammu, Gujrat,UP, MP and West Bengal. The gypsum is used in the manufacture of hydraulic cements, ammonium sulfate fertilizer, sulphuric acid, and reclamation of acidic soil for agricultural purpose. Chemically gypsum is CaSO4.2H2O, and has a molecular weight of 177.17


2.2.1    Product Description and Application

Plaster of Paris is produced from Gypsum, which is a naturally occurring crystal of calcium sulphate (CaSO4.2H2O). Gypsum is created from the evaporation of sea water that is trapped in

lagoons of subsoil and is usually found in mountains. The impure gypsum (that it is found in the subsoil) can have different color variations, such as grey, brown or red. The pure however plaster color is white. It can be quarried in different parts of the world in slightly different forms. Plaster is made from gypsum by grinding it to powder and then gently heating it to drive off some, or all, of the water of crystallization.

Chemically, Plaster of Paris is calcium sulphate having molecular formula CaSo4½H2O. It is a white hygroscopic powder very slightly soluble in water particularly at high temperature. It is widely used in the manufacture of models in pottery industry, for making ornamental castings, plaster boards and chalk crayons, etc. Other uses of this cheap commodity are for building decoration as wall plaster and floor cement and dentist plaster. It is also used as orthopedic plaster in surgery for setting of broken bones, etc.


2.3       Manufacturing Plaster Of Paris Items

The Process Flow:

Plaster of Paris is used as an important raw material for making Tiles/ boarders, Trims, medallions, frieze, miscellaneous made-ups and decorative items etc. The whole process of making Plaster of Paris decorative items is described below:

  1. Mold Oiling: The process begins by initially applying an oil mixture on to the surface of the mould before pouring the liquid paste of the plaster of Paris. This oil mixture is used as a separating medium in order to easily extract the set Plaster of Paris shape (tiles, boarders, medallions, frieze etc) from the Mould. The oil mixture is prepared with the help of different ingredients, such as diesel, cooking oil, cutting oil, Mobile oil, water and Soap.
  2. Re-hydration (Filling of Mold with Plaster of Paris): To make the paste of the plaster of Paris, water is added with plaster of Paris powder & mixed homogeneously with hands till a slurry paste is achieved, which is then ready to be poured in the plastic/fiber mold. When it solidifies it takes the shape of the mold & form tiles, ceiling boarders, medallions, frieze etc. The ratio of plaster of Paris powder & water is determined manually until a thick slurry paste is formed. The Plaster of Paris paste must be utilized immediately since it will set with in few minutes and once it starts setting it cannot be utilized and will be wasted. In this stage of production mold are partially filled with Plaster of Paris paste and spread on the mould so that every part of the mold receives equal proportion. Here the paste in the mould is leveled properly &some times the mold is tapped on the table/floor so that the paste reaches deep into every minute detailing of the design. After leveling the surface, used Poly propylene plastic bags in which the powder plaster of Paris is supplied (or new ones purchased) are shredded in to strips and are spread & slightly dipped with hands on the partially poured plaster of Paris paste for the purpose of obtaining strength of the resultant piece of tiles, medallions, boarders, etc. Some manufacturers also use Coconut shell torn in to thread instead of Poly propylene (PP) bags which gives more strength then plastic. Since the coconut shells are expensive therefore, most of the manufacturers use the PP – Bags.
  3. Shaping & Treatment: After the plastic or coconut shell strips are dipped in the paste another layer of Plaster of Paris is poured to fill the mold & leveled by hand or a wood piece and surface is finalized. Here in this stage we fix hooks (made from iron wires) in all corners of the tiles. These hooks will aid in the installation or fixing of these tiles, boarders etc. on building ceilings.
  4. Setting / Drying: In this final stage the mold is left for setting for 5-20 minutes since plaster of Paris takes about 20 minutes to solidify. The set plaster of Paris is now extracted from the mould and placed in direct sunlight so that it gets complete dried. It may take 10-12 hours to completely dry out, consequent to the product’s desiccation it is ready for sale, transportation, usage or installation.


2.4       Column Design

According to ACI Code 2.2, a structural element with a ratio of height-to-least lateral dimension exceeding three used primarily to support compressive loads is defined as column. Columns support vertical loads from the floor and roof slabs and transfer these loads to the footings. Columns usually support compressive loads with or without bending. Depending on the magnitude of the bending moment and the axial force, column behavior will vary from pure beam action to pure column action.

Columns are classified as short or long depending on their slenderness ratios. Short columns usually fail when their materials are overstressed and long columns usually fail due to buckling which produces secondary moments resulting from the P – D effect.


2.5       Concepts of Column

Column, pillar used in building to support the superstructure of a building and, also, occasionally as a freestanding monument. Columns may be circular or polygonal in cross section and are at least four times taller than they are wide. The first columns appear to have been constructed from tree trunks or bundled reeds.

Columns are occasionally used in modern architecture, but they are constructed of materials such as steel and reinforced concrete or masonry and stone, and are usually undecorated and strictly functional.


2.5.1    Classical Columns

In classical architecture a column consists of a shaft, which usually rests on a base and is surmounted by an enlarged section known as a capital. The capital forms a visual and structural transition between the vertical shaft and the horizontal wall of masonry, the entablature, under the roof. In most cases several columns are placed in line so as to form a colonnade.

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This project is written to give a practical knowledge of the assessment of finishing using PVC in modern Building. This research is more of reportorial and description any descriptive analysis of finding. It is in four chapters.

Chapter one consist of introduction of the study and History, also the literature review was discussed in the second chapter, chapter three highlight research methodology and details of instrument used for the study. Chapter four deals with the Conclusion; finding and overall summary and recommendation arising from the study.




































  • Introduction

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is prepared from the organic compound vinyl chloride (CH29CHCl). PVC is the most widely used of the amorphous plastics. PVC is lightweight, durable, and waterproof. Chlorine atoms bonded to the carbon backbone of its molecules give PVC its hard and flame-resistant properties.

In its rigid form, PVC is weather-resistant and is extruded into pipe, house siding, and gutters. Rigid PVC is also blow molded into clear bottles and is used to form other consumer products, including compact discs and computer casings.

PVC can be softened with certain chemicals. This softened form of PVC is used to make shrink-wrap, food packaging, rainwear, shoe soles, shampoo containers, floor tile, gloves, upholstery, and other products. Most softened PVC plastic products are manufactured by extrusion, injection molding, or casting.

PVC is capable of playing an important role in sustainabledevelopment. One prerequisite is that political decisions are made based on proven criteria. Considerable improvements in raw material and energy efficiency have been established in the current ecological profiles on manufacturing PVC.The low life-cycle costs of many PVC products allow for the financing of important ecological and social improvements. Progress in recycling and disposal has greatly resolved the problem of waste. Many formerly, fiercely-debated topics concerning risk (substitution of problematic additives) could be defused. This has lead to a scientific and political re-evaluation of PVC.

Environmental, economic, and social policy is oriented towardsthe guiding principle of sustainable, future-oriented development. Cost-effective products such as those made of PVC are economically, ecologically, and socially “competitive”.

PVC offers many positive prerequisites for sustainable development for our industrial society through:

  • low-energy expenditure in manufacturing and processing
  • the use of the practically unlimited resource of salt
  • the combined production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide
  • low emissions and waste during manufacturing and processing
  • mechanical and feedstock recycling
  • good price-performance ratio of products along with environmental costs
  • immense ecological/social optimization potential based onoutstanding economical advantages.

PVC is a modern, high-performance material which will be urgentlyneeded in the future as well. The low share of crude oil saves limited resources and increases the economic efficiency of this material. Longevity and resistance to environmental factors make PVC the material of choice for economic planning and sustainable construction.


1.1.1    Manufacturing and Raw Materials

The European PVC industry has consistently improved its manufacturing processes in recentyears. This is especially true for formulas. Thus, there have been considerable changes in the use of stabilizers and plasticizers.

Synthesis of Crude Oil and Rock SaltCrude oil/natural gas and rock salt are the starting productsfor PVC manufacturing. Ethylene is the result of crude oil inthe intermediate stage of naphtha through thermal “cracking”.Chlorine, on the other hand, is produced from rock salt throughchloralkali electrolysis. For this purpose the modern, energysavingmembrane process is commonly used today. Sodiumhydroxide and hydrogen are thereby produced as importantby-products. In turn, they are the raw materials for many othersyntheses. Vinyl chloride (VC) is produced from ethylene andchlorine at a ratio of 43% to 57%. VC is the monomeric buildingblock of PVC. The transformation of VC to PVC takes placethrough various technological processes.


1.1.2    Additives

PVC products are derived from a white, odorless powder which is mixed with additives for the further processing of semi-finished and finished products. Such admixtures are not only found in practically all plastics, but also in materials such as glass, steel, concrete, etc. Basically, the following additives are use:

  • stabilizers and co-stabilizers
  • lubricants
  • polymer agents to improve tenacity, heat-and-form stability, and processing performance
  • fillers
  • pigments

Additives facilitate processing and simultaneously determinethe properties of end products. The choice of additives depends on processing procedures and demands on the finished products. Depending on the choice of additives, PVC as a rawmaterial is developed into sturdy, thick-walled pipes for drinking water or extremely thin, flexible film for packaging fresh meat. Additives thereby provide a wide range of product properties.


The use of stabilizers guarantees sufficient heat stability for PVC during processing and protects the end product from change due to heat, UV-light, or oxygen. Especially inorganic and organic salts of the metals calcium, zinc, barium, lead and tin are added to PVC products. These salts are firmly anchored in the polymer matrix. They are not released during the use of these products. The use of stabilizers has undergone a significant change in recent years. One reason for this was that the

European industry discontinued the sale and use of cadmium stabilizers in all EU member states. In addition, the European Stabilizer Producers Association (ESPA) and the European Plastics Converters Association (EUPC) agreed to the voluntary commitment “Vinyl 2010” in October 2001 to replace lead stabilizers. Several intermediate goals have therefore been established (basis: consumption in 2000):

  • 15 % reduction in 2005
  • 50 % reduction in 2010
  • 100 % reduction in 2015.5

The goal for 2010 was surpassed in 2008. The reduction of leadstabilizers was already at ca. 76% in 2010. At the same time, the research and development of alternative stabilizer systems in

recent years has made enormous stride at great financial cost.In addition to systems based on calcium/zinc, whose market share in Western Europe increased from 5% in 1994 to over 50% today, tin also plays an important role. Moreover, new developments utilize metal-free organic stabilizing systems.

The amount of thermal stabilizers used in mixtures has beenreduced in recent years through effective additives and more exact engineering processes. Recycled materials might contain cadmium and lead due to the recycling of older products. This is permitted by law in order to create incentives for the use of recycled materials.6 Directive 494/2011 by the EU Commission from 20 May 2011 regulated the use of recycled materials containing cadmium.


Approximately 70% of PVC produced is used in Europe to manufacture rigid products such as window profiles and pipes, which are distinguished by their longevity and weather resistance.

The remaining 30% covers soft applications. Plasticizersprovide PVC with special properties of use similar to those of rubber. This naturally hard material becomes flexible and elastic through plasticizers. At the same time, it retains its shape.

Soft PVC can be applied to a wide range of products in various ways. Pastes made of a mixture of PVC and plasticizers expand the range of possibilities, e.g. by means of expressive vinyl wallpaper or easy-to-clean flooring. Soft PVC is distinguished by its outstanding properties of use which offer a versatile range of possibilities. Flexible products such as artificial leather, weather-resistant roofing membranes, or flame-retardant cables enhance our lives and make them safer and more comfortable. In medical care, soft PVC applications have stood the test of time for decades. Blood bags, tube systems, and wound dressings are essential components of patient care. PVC products are even recommended for allergy sufferers due to their compatibility.

The most frequently used plasticizers are esters from phthalicacid. In terms of application, a change has taken place on the European market in recent years in favour of high-molecular weight plasticizers. The largest share is made up of DINP and DIDP.8 These substances have extensively replaced low-molecularweight plasticizers on the market such as DEHP, DBP, and BBP

Processing And Products

PVC can be processed into various products in a number of ways. The range extends fromheat-insulating, energy-saving windows to sturdy pipes and easy-to-clean floor coverings. Approximately seventy percent of PVC materials are used in the building sector, many of which are long-life products.


Extruder or Injection Moulding

PVC is one of the few polymers which can be processed thermo plasticallyand by means of pastes.14 Thermoplastic processestake place primarily on extruders or so-called screwpresses. The final products are pipes, profiles, sheets, tubes,and cables.15 Film and floor coverings are created by meansof calendar (rolling mills). Fittings and casings are producedin the injection moulding process and hollow bodies by blowmoulding.

Emulsion and micro-suspension PVC is applied as a paste tovarious soft PVC products such as tarpaulins, flooring, coverings,and artificial leather. As an alternative, rotation mouldingis used to shape dolls and balls.

A Wide Range of Products

PVC can be used in numerous products due to its outstandingproperties and therefore is an integral part of our lives.

In Germany, approximately 70% of all PVC applications are intendedfor the construction sector. In particular, this includeswindow profiles, pipes, floor coverings, and roofing membranes.

PVC windows are weather resistant, durable, easy to clean, economical,and recyclable at the end of their life cycles. Sturdypipes made of rigid PVC transport valuable drinking water,drain roofs, and dispose of sewage water. They can be easily,safely, and economically installed by means of structural andcivil engineering. Building products made of PVC are distinguishedespecially by their longevity: this is a decisive criterionfor selecting the appropriate material.

In the packaging sector PVC is found in special applicationssuch as blister packs, adhesive tapes, hollow bodies, and cups. Cables and wires with an insulation or coating made of soft PVC play a decisive role in the smooth operations of our daily lives in terms of energy supply, control functions, and communications. Protective undercoating, interior panelling, and cable harnesses inside vehicles and under the bonnet play an important role in the automotive sector.

In addition, medical products such as blood bags or tubes, office articles, garden

equipment and furniture, and tarpaulins are indispensable.

These examples alone demonstrate the versatile possibilities

of applications for PVC.


Versatile Material Properties

PVC is an all-around talent: it is hard and durable or soft andflexible as need be. Simple changes in the formula allow for practically any desired material property. Therefore, PVC exists

crystal-clear or colluded, electrically well-insulating or antistatic.

This durable plastic is largely resistant to chemicals,weather and abrasion, and harmless to human health. Moreover, the chlorine content makes the material highly flame retardant. Further advantages of the material include efficient production and easy processing as well as the material-saving manufacturing of consumer goods.


1.1.3    Characteristics of PVC

PVC, PE, PP and PS are called general purpose plastics. The features of the plasticare determined by the chemical composition and type of molecular structure (molecular formation: crystalline /amorphous structure). PVC has a unique amorphous structure with polar chlorine atoms in the molecular structure. Having chlorine atoms and the amorphous molecular structure are inseparably related. Although plastics seem very similar in the daily use context, PVC has completely different features in terms of performance and functions as compared with olefin plastics which have only carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecular structures.


(1)        Chemical stability

Chemical stability is a common featureamong substances, containing halogens such as chlorine and fluorine. This applies toPVC resins also, which furthermore possess fire retarding properties, durability, and oil/chemical resistance.

􀋙Fire retarding properties: PVC has an inherently superior fireretarding property due to its chlorine atomcomponents, and do not require addition offire retardants to its products. For example,the ignition temperature of PVC is as highas 455

􀋆and is a material with less risk forfire incidents since it is not ignited easily(Fig.1-13).

Furthermore, the heat radiation inburning is considerably low with PVC, whencompared with those for PE and PP, and ishard to spread fire to nearby materials evenwhile burning (Fig.1-14). Therefore, PVCis the most suitable plastic to be used inproducts requiring fire retarding propertiessuch as housing materials.



􀋙         Durability

Under normal conditions of use, the factormost strongly influencing the durability ofa material is resistance to oxidation withinthe air. PVC, having the molecular structurewhere chlorine atom is bound to every othercarbon chains, is very resistant to oxidativereactions, and maintains its performance almost semi-permanently. In contrast, other general purpose plastics with structures made up only of carbon and hydrogen are susceptible to deterioration by oxidation in extended use conditions.

According to measurements on underground PVC pipes by the Japan PVC Pipe & Fittings Association, a pipe used underground for 35 years showed no deterioration, and its strength remained the same as with new pipes (Fig.1-15).

(2)        Mechanical stability

PVC is a chemically stable material, which shows little change in the molecular structure, and also exhibits little change in the mechanical strength.

However, high-polymer material is a viscoelastic bodyand deformed by continuous application of exteriorforce, even if the applied force is well below its yield point. This is called creep deformation. Although

PVC is a viscoelastic body, its creep deformation isvery little compared with other plastics due to little molecular motion at ordinary temperature, in contrast to PE and PP, which have greater molecular motion in their amorphous sections. Through a joint research with the Kyoto Institute of Technology, it was found out that the service lives of rigid PVC pipes were over 50 years. Specifically, internal pressure creep tests revealed that rigid PVC pipes retain about three times the designed circumferential stress even after 50


(3)        Process ability and moldability

The process ability of a thermoplastic materialdepends largely on its melt viscosity. PVC is not meant for injection molding of large sized products, since its melt viscosity is comparatively high. On the other hand, the viscoelastic behavior of molten PVC is less dependent on temperature and is stable. Therefore PVC is suitable for complex shaped extrusion profiling (e.g., housing materials), as well as calendaring of wide films and sheets (e.g., agricultural films and PVC leather). The exterior surfaces of molded

PVC products are excellent, and displays superiorembossing performance – enabling a wide variety of surface treatments with textures ranging from enamel gloss to the completely DE lustered suede. Since PVC is an amorphous plastic with no phase transition, molded PVC products have high dimensional accuracy.

PVC also exhibits excellent secondary process ability in bending fabrication, welding, high-frequency bonding, and vacuum forming, as well as on-site workability. Paste resin processing such as slush molding, screen printing and coating is a convenient processing technique that is feasible only with PVC. These processing methods are used in flooring, wall covering, automobile sealants and undercoating.


(4)        Others (versatility in designing through compounding)

PVC has polar groups (chlorine), and is amorphous,therefore mixes well with various other substances. The required physical properties of end products (e.g., flexibility, elasticity, impact resistance, anti-fouling, anti-bacteria, anti-mist, fire retarding) can be freely designed through formulation with plasticizers and various additives, modifiers, and coloring agents. PVC is the only general purpose plastic that allows free, wide and seamless adjustment of the required physical properties of products such as flexibility, elasticity, and impact resistance, by adding plasticizers, additives, and modifiers.

Since the physical properties ofend products are adjustable through compounding, it requires only a few types of resin to cover all the applications of high-polymer materials (fiber, rigid and flexible plastic, rubber, paint, and adhesive). This controllability is also extremely beneficial recycling wise.

The polar groups in PVC contribute to ease in coloring, printing and adhesion, therefore PVC products do not require pretreatment, which enables a wide variety of designs. PVC is used in various scenes taking full advantage of its superior printability, adhesion properties andWeatherability. Patterns such as wood grain, marble, and metallic tones are possible. Familiar examples include wall coverings and floorings, housing materials, furniture, home electric appliances, or signboards and ads on airplanes, bullet trains, buses and trams.




(1)        Production safety

VCM, which is the intermediate raw material forPVC, has a boiling point of – 13.9and a flash point of – 78. Caution is required upon handling since it is a dangerous substance in gaseous form. The PVC industry in Japan handles VCM with utmost care at PVC manufacturing facilities and has safe working environments. No hazard has ever been brought to local communities. Neither has there been any deathincidence or sufferers due to improper manufacturing process control throughout the years.

(2)        Safety upon use

PVC is a chemically and mechanically stable materialwith excellent fire retarding properties, and is a safe plastic under normal conditions of use. Fig.1-19 is an excerpt of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)prepared by PVC manufacturers. The MSDS shows data for the safe use of PVC.


(3)        Evaluation of carcinogenicity

In 1974, cancer incidents were reported amongworkers who had been employed by the PVC industry in the U.S., and VCM were reported to be responsible.

As a result of an epidemiological survey, a very raretype of cancer (angiosarcoma) was identified in workers who had been exposed to high concentrations of VCM for an extended period of time.

Following this report, improvements of workenvironments were accelerated through closed system EDC/VCM manufacturing processes and automated cleaning of PVC polymerization reactors, in the U.S. and across of the world.

In Japan, a new guideline was introduced in 1975where the geometrical average was to be within 2ppm in the general work environments and within 5ppm inside the polymerization reactor. Subsequently, better process control technologies were introduced such as enhanced polymerization rates and recovery of unreacted VCM from the reactor. The PVC industry also worked on the reduction plan for hazardous air pollutants in cooperation with administrations There were once cancer incidents among workers who cleaned polymerization reactors for extended



(4)        Residual monomers in PVC

Trace amounts of unreacted VCM are found in PVC,but their concentrations are not a problem upon processing and use of PVC products. Food packaging and medical appliances require stringent safetymeasures; therefore the following specifications have been established.


1.2       History of Plastic

For more than 50 years, PVC has been very successful throughout the world. Today, this

versatile material is one of the most important plastic materials recognized internationally and proven on the market.

PVC has distinguished itself especially with its wide range of applications. PVC products are often cost-effective in terms of purchasing and maintenance. At the same time, they contribute more and more to sustainable development throughout their entire life cycle: this occurs by means of state-of-the-art manufacturing and production methods, the responsible use of energy and resources, cost-effective manufacturing and processing, as well as numerous recovery possibilities. This progress has led to a continuous increase in the demand for this plastic material. Moreover, through cost-effective PVC products, society saves money which can be spent on sound ecological and social investments.














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