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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF CARICA PAPAYA LEAF

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title Page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                              v

Table of Content                                                                                 vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1       The importance of Bioactive Constituent

1.2       Healing Property of Papaya

1.3       Aims and Objective

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review

2.1       Scientific Classification

2.2       Types

2.3       Cultivation

2.4       Uses

2.5       Health Benefits

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Materials and Method

3.1       Sample Collection

3.2       Sample Preparation

3.3       Phytochemical Screening

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Result and Discussion

4.1       Result

4.2       Discussion

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1       Conclusion

5.2       Recommendation

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Carica Papaya belonging to the caricaceae family is an effective medicinal herb that is used as a folk medicine for treatment of various diseases throughout the world including Bangladesh. The carica papaya leaf can be use to treat numerous diseases like warts, corus, sinuses, ecpema, cataneous  tubercules, glandular tumors, blood pressure, dyspepsia, constipation, amenorrhea, general debility, expel worms and stimulate reproductive organs and many as a result. Carica papaya can be regarded as a neutraceutical. The phytochemical screening of its leave aqueous extract revealed the presence of tannins (0.667%), flavoniods (7.262%), phytic acid (9.02%), oxalate (5.76%) and alkaloids (12.19%). The root is said to cure piles and yaws and root infusions are used for syphilis. Juices from papaya roots are used in some countries of Asia to ease urinary troubles. The phytochemical screening of its root aqueous extract revealed the presence of tannins (0.444%), flavonoids (5.7%), phytic acid (9.72%), oxalate (8.10%) and alkaloids (8.52%). Aqueous root extract is riches in detected phytochemical substance compared with aqueous leaves extract in carica papaya. The various phytochemical compounds detected are known to have beneficial uses in industry and medical science and also exhibit physiological activities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       Introduction

Pawpaw (Carica Papaya) is a plant that belongs to the family of caricaeae. It is herbaceous succulent plant with self supporting stem. It is a large tree like plant with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 meters tall with sparily arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The tree is usally unbranched. Originally derived from the southern part of Mexico, Carica papaya is a perennial plant.

Papaya is a powerhouse of nutrient and is available throughout the year. It is a rich source of threes powerful antioxidant vitamin C, vitamin A, and vitamin E; The minerals, magnesium and potassium; B vitamin pantothenic acid and folate and fiber. Product of higher plant origin has been known to be effective sources of chemotherapeutic agent without underlying effects. Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history the use of medicinal plant all over the world predates the introduction of antibiotics and other modern drugs. A medicine plant is any plant with one or more of its organ containing substances that can be used for these therapeutic purposes or which are the precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs. They are of great importance to the health individuals and communities.

1.1       The Importance of Bioactive Constituents

            The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and foods plant sometimes added to foods. Deliciously sweet with musky undertones and a soft, buffer like consistency, it is no wonder the papaya was reputably called the fruit of the angel by “Christopher” Columbus. Papaya plants have the major advantages of still being the most effective and cheaper alternative sources of drugs. The local use of natural plants as primary health remedies, due to their pharmacological properties is quite common in Asia, Latin, America and Africa.

1.2       Healing Properties of Papaya

 

         Increases quality of proteins in whole organism.

         Revitalize the human body and maintain energy and vitality.

         Encourages the renewal of muscle tissue.

         Supports cardiovascular system.

         Boosts up the immune system.

         Helps with the digestive system, by breaking down the proteins and supporting production of   digestive enzymes.

         Papaya can be used also externally as a treatment for skin wounds that doesn‘t heal quickly, for this anybody can be used papaya peel or ointments made out of papaya.

         Prevents the cataract formation.

 

         Due to high vitamin A, it lowers the risk of emphysema in smokers and passive smokers.

         Alleviates inflammation.

         Helps with the nausea and constipation.

         Can benefit people suffering colon cancer and other forms of cancers and aliments of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

1.2.1    Medicinal use

 

  1. Colon cancer: The fiber of papaya is able to bind cancer-causing toxins in the colon and keep them away from the healthy colon cells. These nutrients provide synergistic protection for colon cells from free radical damage to their DNA. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Protein enzymes including papain and chymopapain and antioxidant nutrients found inpapaya; including vitamin C, vitamins E, and beta-carotene, reduce the severity of the conditions such as asthma, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Vitamin C-rich foods, such as papaya, provide humans with protection against inflammatorypolyarthritis, a form of rheumatoid arthritis involving two or more joints. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Promote Lung Health: Eating vitamin A rich foods, such as papaya, help the lung to be healthy and save life. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Anti-Sickling: Activity Current research proves that papaya is having an anti-sickling activity. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Prevent Prostate Cancer: Men consuming lycopene-rich fruits and vegetables such as papaya, tomatoes, apricots, pink grapefruit, watermelon, and guava were 82% less likely to have prostate cancer compared to those consuming the least lycopene-rich foods. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Anticoagulant Effect: Injection of papian extract in a dog increases prothrombin and coagulation threefold. It is alsoclaimed that the enzyme eliminates necrotic tissues in chronic wounds, burns and ulcers.Papain is also of commercial importance in the brewery industry, in the food industry and in the textile industry. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)
  2. kidney failure: Papaya seed extract may have in toxicity-induced kidney failure. Evidently a kidney-transplant patient in London was cured of a post-operative infection by placing strips of papaya on the wound for 48 hours. Women in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and other countries have long used green papaya as an herbal medicine for contraception and abortion. Enslaved women in the West Indies were noted for consuming papaya to prevent pregnancies and thus preventing their children from being born into slavery. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013).

 

  1. Immunomodulatory: The involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms in several biological and pathological processes including ageing, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases has continued to fuel suggestions that processes can potentially be modulated by treatment with free-radical scavengers and antioxidant. The fermented papaya preparation has shown its ability to modulate oxidative DNA damage due to H2O2 in rat pheochromocytoma cells and protection of brain oxidative damage in hypertensive rats. It has also exhibited potential supportive role on oxidative inflammatory damage in cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C virus. The safety and antioxidative stress potential of papaya juice is found to be comparable to the standard antioxidant compound alpha tocopherol. The preparation containing yeast fermented papaya as one of the constituent has antioxidant actions and that it may be prophylactic food against age related and neurological diseases associated with free radicals. Bacteriostatic activity of papaya could be correlated to its scavenging action on superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, which could be part of the cellular metabolism of such enteropathogens. Bio-catalyzer, which contains yeast fermented papaya, may be useful as health foods against neural lipid peroxidation, traumatic epilepsy and ageing. Consumptions of guava and papaya fruits reduce oxidative stress and alter lipid profile. Thus, it could reduce the risk of disease caused by free radical activities and high cholesterol in blood. (Krishna, Paridhavi et al, 2008).

 

1.2.2    Industrial uses

Papaya is primarily a fresh-market fruit, and is used in drinks, jams, pectin, candies and as crystallised fruit. Green fruit may be cooked as a vegetable, as may the leaves, flowers and roots Papaya has several well-known industrial uses, notably for the enzyme papain (one of its four major constituent cysteine proteinases) which has properties similar to gastric pepsin. Producers induce latex to exude from longitudinal incisions made into unripe fruit; the papain purified from the extract is used in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and other manufacturing For example, the food industry uses papain in brewing, manufacturing baby food, and producing proteins for human and animal consumption. Papain is also used to shrink proof wool and silk, and in the bating process to make leathers more pliable. For some applications however, synthetic enzymes and enzymes from other sources are displacing the use of the natural papain. The latex from papaya has been used in manufacture of chewing gum. Oil from the fruit‘s many (200-1000) more or less spheroidal seeds (c. 2-5 mm × 3.5-6 mm) and other components of fruit and leaves have been used in cosmetics and soap. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

1.2.3    Cosmetic Benefits of Papaya

Rubbing the white pulp of raw papaya improves pimples as well as wrinkles. Papaya works as a good bleaching agent. It is an important ingredient in bath soaps, astringents, detergent bars and hand washes. Home Recipe for Papaya Skin Lightner Experts suggest that papaya can help in removing dead worn-out skin cells and replace it with healthy new cells, thereby lightening the color of our skin.(Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

 

 

1.2.4    Allergies and Side Effects

 Papaya is frequently used as a hair conditioner, but should be used in small amounts. Papaya releases a latex fluid when not quite ripe, which can cause irritation and provoke allergic reaction in some people. The latex concentration of unripe papayas is speculated to cause uterine contractions, which may lead to a miscarriage. Papaya seed extracts in large doses have a contraceptive effect on ratsand monkeys, but in small doses have no effect on the unborn animals.Excessive consumption of papaya can cause carotenemia, the yellowing of soles and palms, which is otherwise harmless. However, a very large dose would need to be consumed; papaya contains about 6% of the level of beta carotene found in carrots (the most common cause of carotenemia) (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

Traditional healers’ nave managed to find cure for certain disease conditions that have baffled western medicine for centuries such as antimicrobial drug resistance. 25% of these medicinal plants are known to be useful for the cure of gastrointestinal disorders ranging from peptic ulcers and abnormal cramps to diarrhea and dysentery. Papaya helps in the digestion of proteins as it is a rich source of proteolytic enzymes. Even papain a digestive enzymes found in papaya is extracted, dried as a powder and use as an aid in digestion. Ripe fruit consumed regularly helps in habitual constipation. It is also reported that papaya prevents premature aging. Papaya contributes to a healthy immune system by increasing your resistance to coughs and colds because of it vitamin A and C contents. All the nutrient of papaya as a whole improve cardiovascular system, protect against heart diseases, heart attacks, strokes and prevent colon cancer. These nutritional values of papaya help to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol. The unripe papaya contain terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins and steroids. Unripe fruit of papaya are used to treat high blood pressure, dyspepsia, constipation, amenorrhea general debility, expel worms and stimulate reproductive organs. Unripe pawpaw fruit is used as a remedy for ulcer and impotence.  Pawpaw has been utilized for the clearification of beer. The seed is used as intestinal worms expellant when chewed. The root is chewed and the juice swallowed for cough, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases.

1.3       Aims and Objectives

  1. To determine the uses of Carica Papaya
  2. To examine the phytochemical constituent
  3. To determine the healing properties of papaya
  4. To examine the family Carica Papaya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0       Literature Review

2.1       Scientific classification of Carica Papaya.

Kingdom                                 Plantae

(Unranked)                              Angiosperms

(Unranked)                              Eudicots

(Unranked)                              Rosids

Order                                       Brassicales

Family                                     Caricaceae

Genus                                      Carica

Species                                    C. Papaya

Binominal name

Carica Papaya

L National Gemplasm Resources laboratory, Beltsuille Maryland, USDA, ARS, National Genetic Piesource program retrieved December 2010

The papaya is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genius Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. It is native to the tropies of the Americas, perharpsmfrom southern Mexico and neighbouring central America. It was first cultivated in Mexico several centuries. Before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classical civilization. (\Papaya.www.hoot purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/papaya-ars.html)1987.

2.2       Types

The papaya is a large tree like plants with a single stem growing from 5 to 10m (16 to 33ft) tall with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne the leaves are large 50-70cm (20-28m) in diameter, deeply paliamately lobed with even lobes. Unusually for such large plant the trees are dioecious. The tree is usually unbranched unless lopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the plumeria but are much similar and wax like (canal ugr/life-sciences/item/6354-scientists-deciplier-fruit-tree-genome-for-the-first-time).

2.3       Cultivation

Papaya plants come in three sexes “Male”, ”Female” and “Hermaphrodite”. The male produce only pollen never fruit. The female will produce small, inedible fruits unless pollinated. The hermaphrodite can self pollinated since its flower contains both male stammers and female ovaries. Almost all commercial papaya orchards contain only hermaphrodites (www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/f-n-5.pdf).

2.4       Uses

Papaya can be used as a food, a cooking aid and in traditional medicine. The stem and bark may be used in rope production.

2.4.1    Traditional Medicine

Papaya leaves are made into teas, a treatment for malaria, antimalaria and antiplasmodial activity has been noted in some preparation of the plant, but mechanism is not understood and no treatment method based on these result has been scientifically proven. In belief it can raise platelet level in blood, papaya maybe used as a medicine for dengue fever. Papaya is marketed in tablet form to remedy digestive problem. A decoction formed by boiling the outer part of the roots is also used to cure dyspepsia (iitanji.u.p.20fou.DNgemenya.M.N (2008).

 

2.4.2    Medical Uses

            Carica papaya contains an enzyme known as papain which is present in the bark, leave, root and fruit. The milky juice is extracted, doied and used as a chewing gum for gigestive problems, toothpaste and meat tenderizers. It also contains many biological active compounds including chymopapain and papain which is thye ingredient that aids digestive system and again used in treatement of jaundice and arthritis.

Papaya leaf is used in herbal medicine to remove intestinal worms. Papaya leaf was less of the protein, dissolving papain than the fruit, so it is less likely to dissolve the worms but it contains tannins that the fruits does not. This tannin protects the intestine from reinfection tanning protein in the lining of the intestinal wall so that worms cannot attach themselves.

Papaya roots is used as poultice or prepared as decoction. Decoctions of pounded papaya roots are used as digestive tonic and to cure dyspepsia. Extracts from papaya root are used to abort early pregnancy and also used to treat insect bite.(Loliya,N.K.B. Manivannan, p.k.mishia; N. Pathak; S. Sriram; S.S.  Blande; S. Panneerdoss (March 2002) retrieved 2006-11-18.

2.5       Health Benefits

Papaya are rich sources of antioxidant nutrients such as carotenes, vitamin C and flavonoid; the B vitamins, Folate and pantothenic acid; and minerals potassium, copper and magnesium; and fiber. Together, these nutrients promote the health of the cardiovascular system and also provide protection against colon cancer. In addition, the papaya contains the digestive enzymes papain which is used like bromelain, similar enzymes found in pineapple to treat sport Injuries, other cause of trauma, and allergies (http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=47).

 

2.5.1    Protection against Heart Disease

Papaya maybe very helpful for the prevention of atherosclerosis and diabetic heart disease. Papayas are an excellent source of the powerful antioxidant vitamin C and vitamin A (through their concentration of pro-vitamin A carotenoid phytonutrients).

These nutrients help to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol. Only when cholesterol becomes oxidized it is able to stick to and build up in blood vessels walls, forming dangerous plagues that can eventually cause heart attack and strokes. One way in which dietary vitamin E and vitamin C may exert this effect is through their suggested association with a compound called paraoxonase, an enzyme that inhibits LDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol oxidation. Papaya is also a good source of fiber, which have been shown to lower high cholesterol levels. The folic acid found in the papaya is needed for the conversion of a substance called homocysteine into benign amino acids such as cysteine or methionine. If unconverted, homocysteine can directly damage blood vessel walls level get to high, is consider a significant risk factor for a heart attack or strokes. (http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=47)

2.5.2    Promotes digestive Health

The nutrients in papaya have also been shown to be helpful in the prevention of colon cancer. Papaya’s fiber is able to bind to cancer- causing toxins in the colon and keep them away from the health colon cells;. In addition, papaya folate, vitamin C, beta- carotene and Vitamin E have each been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer. These nutrients provides synergistic protection for colon cells from free radical damage to their DNA (http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=47)

 

 

 

 

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