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25 Most Beautiful Places in the World

» Maroon Bells, USA

Maroon Bells, USA

Located only about 10 miles from , Colorado, the are two 14,000-foot peaks in the Elk Mountains that are reflected in crystal-clear Maroon Lake, snuggled in a glacial valley. They are the crown jewels of the Rocky Mountains and by far one of the most photographed scenes in the country.

It is difficult to say when the timeless beauty of these two sentinels mirrored in the lake is more striking: In the summer, when every hiking trail takes you through fields of wild flowers, in the fall, when tall aspen trees dazzle with a rainbow of fall colors, or in the winter, when snow and ice silence the world. The best photo opportunities are from one of the many hiking trails – access by motor vehicles is limited. The lake is popular among fly-fishermen – even if they don’t catch anything, the beauty all around them is enough. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: nature guy/Fotolia

» Grand Canyon, USA

Grand Canyon, USA

The  is a steep, 1-mile-deep, and up to 18-mile-wide gash in the fabric of the world, an immense gorge carved by the Colorado River over the last 5,000 years. Its sheer size is breathtaking and although you can see only a small portion of it even from the best vantage point, its geology and its age fire the imagination. The layers of colorful rock show the passage of time and some of the rocks at the bottom are 1,8 billion years old.

There is a lot of life growing on the canyon’s steep sides – you can see more of it hiking the trails of the northern rim, where it is also less crowded. Most people limit their visit to the breathtaking views from the southern rim. Some of the most popular viewpoints are Yavapai Observation Station, Mary Colter’s Lookout Studio, and Mather Point. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Bon/Fotolia

» Blue Ridge Mountains, USA

Blue Ridge Mountains, USA

Located in the eastern United States and part of the massive Appalachians, the Blue Ridge Mountains stretch from their southernmost end in Georgia all the way northward to Pennsylvania. Between the Blue Ridge and the rest of the Appalachians lies the Great Appalachian Valley. When seen from a distance, the Blue Ridge Mountains appear blue – the trees that release a gas called isoprene are responsible for the bluish color and thus the mountains’ name.

Within the Blue Ridge Mountains are two large national parks: The Shenandoah and the Great Smoky Mountains. The best way to enjoy and get to know Blue Ridge is by taking the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile-long beautiful scenic highway that runs along the ridge together with the renowned Appalachian Trail and which connects the two parks. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Phils Photography/Fotolia

» Beautiful Places: Oia, Santorini, Greece

Beautiful Places: Oia, Santorini, Greece

Located on top of a cliff with a spectacular view of the Palea volcano, Nea Kameni, and the island of Thirassia, Oia is the most popular and arguably the most beautiful of all the picturesque villages of the beautiful Greek island of . Only about 11 km from Fira, on the north of the island, Oia will charm you with its traditional stone houses lining the narrow streets, breathtaking blue-domed churches, and sunbaked verandas.

While the village has its share of taverns, souvenir shops, and cafes, Oia is more quiet and laid-back than busy Fira and most people enjoy its quaint beauty by slowly exploring its narrow streets. Stroll through the village’s small port of Ammoudi by descending 300 steps down the cliff, or enjoy colorful galleries showcasing art from the many artists who fell in love with the village and made it their home. Oia, Santorini is considered by many one of the prettiest places in the world. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Photocreo Bednarek/Fotolia

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» Most beautiful places on Earth: Plitvice Lakes, Croatia

Most beautiful places on Earth: Plitvice Lakes, Croatia

Located about halfway between the Croatian capital Zagreb and Zadar on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, Plitvice Lakes are a magical world of living, moving water surrounded by ancient forests, 16 lakes linked by waterfalls, bridges natural and man-made, and 300 square kilometers of wild beauty full of bears, wolves, boars, and birds.

The difference in altitude between 1,280 meters at the highest point and 280 meters at the lowest creates a seemingly endless number of falls, big and small, that permanently fill the air with spray and fog. Wooden and natural walkways and hiking trails spin around and across the lake and a ferry on Lake Kozjak shuttles people between the upper and lower lakes. The lakes are beautiful all year round, but especially when mirroring magical fall colors or the lacy frozen branches of the surrounding trees. Next read: 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: twin designer/Fotolia

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»Interesting Places to Visit: Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia

Interesting Places to Visit: Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia

Salar de Uyuni, located high up in the Andes in southwest Bolivia at an altitude of 11,995 feet, is the largest salt flat in the world, covering over 4,086 square miles. It was once a prehistoric lake that dried up, leaving behind 11,000 square kilometers of otherworldly desert-like landscape made up of sparkling bright white salt, bizarre rock formations, and strange cacti-covered islands. The best spot to observe this surreal landscape is central Incahuasi Island.

There is not much wildlife in this fairly barren ecosystem, except for about 80 species of birds and the thousands of pink flamingos that come in November. The salt crust, between 7 and 66 feet deep, covers a sea of brine. The salt is very rich in lithium, accounting for up to 70 percent of the world’s reserves of the mineral. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Karol Kozlowski/Fotolia

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»Sossusvlei, Namibia

Sossusvlei, Namibia

Located in the Namibian Namib-Naukluft National Park in the southern part of the vast Namib Desert, Sossusvlei is a salt and clay pan surrounded by immense red dunes. Sossusvlei, loosely translated as “dead-end marsh” and about 60 km from the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, is where the dunes stop the water of the Tsauchab River from flowing any further; if there were any waters that is, something which happens very rarely.

Most of the time the pan, just like the rest of the Namib Desert, is bone dry for years. But in those years when the rains are exceptionally rich and the pan is filled with water, there is reason for celebration and photographers from all over the world come to see this magnificent spectacle: The immense red dunes, among the largest in the world, are reflected in a lake that lasts for no more than a year. While many plants and animals have adapted to the harsh conditions of Sossusvlei all year round, when the waters come thousands of birds flock to the marshy coast. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: tiagofernandez/Fotolia

 

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»Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

At the southern tip of the Andes in Chile’s Patagonia lies Torres del Paine National Park, a place with more than its fair share of nature’s majesty: It has soaring mountains, cold blue icebergs cleaving from ancient glaciers, bottomless lakes, spectacular geological formations, narrow fjords, deep rivers, ancient forests, and endless golden pampas covered with wild flowers and providing home to such rare wildlife as pumas and the llama-like guanacos.

The best way to see Torres del Paine is on foot following one of many famous tracks, but if you have to limit yourself to just a few iconic sites, visit the three majestic granite towers, or torres del paine, Los Cuernos, Grey Glacier, and French Valley. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: brizardh/Fotolia

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»Exciting Places to Visit: Victoria Falls, Zambia/Zimbabwe

Exciting Places to Visit: Victoria Falls, Zambia/Zimbabwe

Victoria Falls, aptly named Mosi-oa-Tunya – the Smoke that Thunders – by locals is a breathtaking spectacle of incomparable beauty and majesty. The largest water curtain in the world, this enormous waterfall on the Zambezi River on the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe can be heard from 40 kilometers away, as the waters of the normally placid Zambezi river plummet over the edge of the wide basalt cliff into the magnificent gorge 100 meters below.

The spray of the water can be seen from 50 km away as it rises 400 meters in the air, creating permanent clouds and endless rainbows. Across the falls is a basalt wall of the same height covered with dense jungle, offering magnificent views of the main falls and the number of continuous falls as the water zigzags through the series of gorges. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: ziggy/Fotolia

 

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» Most Beautiful Places in the World: Moraine Lake, Canada

Most Beautiful Places in the World: Moraine Lake, Canada

Located in the remote Valley of the Ten Peaks in the Canadian Rockies, Moraine Lake is an emerald beauty, a small, cold glacier-fed jewel surrounded by towering mountains, immense waterfalls, and ancient rock piles, so beautiful it takes breath away. As the glaciers melt, the water in the lake rises and changes its color.

It might take away some of its magic to know that the color is affected by the sediment brought by the glacial waters. The whole area is crossed by scenic hiking trails that offer different perspectives of the lake depending on your elevation or location. You can also enjoy its beauty from a kayak or canoe, or just by sitting on a rock at its bank. Take it all in, no photograph will ever give it justice. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Dan Breckwoldt/Fotolia

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» Awesome Places to Visit: Lake Bled, Slovenia

Awesome Places to Visit: Lake Bled, Slovenia

If you glimpse Lake Bled in Slovenia from one of the distant mountaintops, you will be convinced that you are seeing some magical, lost fantasy world of dragons and knights: A vivid emerald green lake with a tiny island in the middle with a church perched on its cliff and an ancient medieval castle clinging to its slopes, hugged on all sides by enormous mountains, snow-topped and covered with dark, green, ancient forests.

Lake Bled is just as beautiful as you get closer and is a popular Slovenian tourist destination that attracts those seeking romance on Bled Island, visitors enjoying a leisurely hike around the lake or rowing its placid waters, and young adventurers exploring the steep hiking trails of the surrounding Julian Alps and the Karavanke Mountains. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Kavita/Fotolia

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»Beautiful Places: Mauna Kea Beach, Hawaii, USA

Beautiful Places: Mauna Kea Beach, Hawaii, USA

Mauna Kea Beach is stunningly beautiful golden sand beach, one of the most beautiful of all the great beaches on the Big Island of Hawaii. Long and wide, the beach is fabulous for long walks but is even better for swimming as the sand slowly slopes out into the water, so entering it is easy even for children or beginners.

You can keep wading for quite a while until you reach waist-deep water. Snorkeling is also popular, but only at the two extreme beach ends where the beach is guarded by natural rock promontories. Because the beach is connected to the Mauna Kea Beach Hotel, it is never crowded, although parking is limited. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: yuru photo/Fotolia

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» Best places to visit in the world: Niagara Falls

Best places to visit in the world: Niagara Falls

are three massive waterfalls that form the border between Canada and the United States. The falls are located on the Niagara River between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The falls were formed at the end of the last ice age when the water from the Great Lakes broke through the Niagara Escarpment on the way to the Atlantic Ocean.

The falls are a hugely popular tourist destination and have attracted honeymooners, families, and daredevils of all kinds, from those who went down the falls in a barrel to those who stretched a wire over the falls and walked across it. The falls have inspired hundreds of artists to create wonderful art and are still inspiring the millions of people who come to admire the majesty of nature as well as its power and its magnificent beauty. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: CPQ/Fotolia

 

» Famous Places to Visit: Yellowstone National Park, USA

Famous Places to Visit: Yellowstone National Park, USA

Yellowstone National Park is the oldest national park in the world, consisting of 3,500 square miles of wild, untamed beauty left aside for the enjoyment of humankind, but also for its own protection. It is a recreation area that is spread across several states, from Wyoming to Idaho and Montana, featuring spectacular and diverse natural features – fast alpine rivers, a simmering volcano displaying its power in gushing geysers and hot springs, deep canyons, dense ancient forests, snow-covered mountaintops, breathtaking vistas, and magnificent trails.

And among all that beauty there is a whole world that calls it home – bears, elk, wolves, bison, and antelopes. The park is much more than a place to come and have fun, it is a precious national treasure. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Brad Pict/Fotolia

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»Most Beautiful Places in the World: Arches National Park, USA

Most Beautiful Places in the World: Arches National Park, USA

At an altitude of over 5,000 feet in the high desert of eastern Utah is a magical place of red rocks and blue skies. It is what we imagine the surface of Mars to look like, with more than 2,000 rocks in vivid reds and muted buffs precariously piled up on top of each other to form delicate bridges, pinnacles, and arches. The park stretches over 76,679 acres across the Colorado Plateau, with the Colorado River bordering it to the southeast.

The strange landscape is mostly the result of the salt composition of the underlying soil, the effects of pressure from the sediments, and the relentless work of wind and water. The best way to see the park is by following one of the many trails, which range from really difficult hikes to easy ones suitable for families. There is a ranger program that offers guided tours, imparting riches of information about the geology, history, and flora and fauna of this magnificent world.

25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Zack Frank/Fotolia

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» Famous Places to Visit: Amalfi Coast, Italy

Famous Places to Visit: Amalfi Coast, Italy

The Amalfi Coast is an extravagantly beautiful stretch of rugged coast in Campania, Italy, at the edge of the Sorrentine Peninsula. For about 50 kilometers, the coast looks like something a romantic artist might have conjured – sheer cliffs plunging into the azure sea, tiny golden beaches hidden in secluded coves, pastel sun-washed villages hugging the steep slopes of Mount Ravello, and fragrant orange groves competing for attention with ancient vineyards.

You can take a typical Mediterranean coastal road between the port of Salerno, famous Positano and Amalfi, and lovely Sorrento perched on the clifftop to enjoy the landscape in all its majesty, or you can take one of the many hiking trails that will take you past old villages, offer spectacular views, and introduce you to some fantastic quaint local restaurants and tavernas. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: dudlajzov/Fotolia

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»Places to Visit with Kids: Apenzell, Switzerland

Places to Visit with Kids: Apenzell, Switzerland

Apenzell is the most traditional of all the Swiss regions, a rural world where time has stopped, where culture and tradition are celebrated, and where the charming landscape of rolling green hills full of plump cows is guarded by the 8,200-foot Mount Säntis.

The village of Apenzell is the Switzerland of our imagination and in the fairytales of our childhood, with its lavishly carved chalets, carriages drawn by horses in full feathered headdresses, a busy village square where all the village business is conducted, richly painted emblems and panels on all of Appenzell’s buildings, and gnomes competing for space with flower boxes dripping with vivid red geraniums. There is always a festival going on, or a concert, wedding, or celebration in which everyone participates, and there are seemingly endless hiking trails that turn into magical cross-country trails when the winter throws its white blanket over everything. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: buehli9/Fotolia

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»Best places to visit in the world: Blue Lagoon, Iceland

Best places to visit in the world: Blue Lagoon, Iceland

The Blue Lagoon is a rare geothermal spa in Iceland located between Reykjavik and Keflavik International Airport in the heart of a lava field on the Reykjanes Peninsula. Even for Iceland, which is famous for its strange and curious landscapes, the Blue Lagoon, with its milky-white quiet waters, is a bizarre sight. The lagoon is man-made and fed by water from the Svartsengi, a nearby geothermal power plant.

Actually, the water that comes to the spa has a few jobs to do before being used for beauty and relaxation: superheated water is channeled from underground near a lava flow and is then used to run turbines and generate electricity. After passing through the turbines, the hot water and steam pass through a heat exchanger and provide hot water for a city water heating system. Only then is the water fed into the lagoon for medicinal and recreational purposes. The warm waters in the lagoon are rich in silica, sulfur, and other minerals and bathing in the Blue Lagoon is considered beneficial for certain skin conditions. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: planet johnson/Fotolia

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» Bora Bora, French Polynesia

Bora Bora, French Polynesia

Far, far away in the vast South Pacific lies a dreamlike island with a dormant volcano at its heart, covered by thick jungle, surrounded by an emerald necklace of tiny sand-fringed islands that form a turquoise lagoon hiding rich coral reefs and thousands of colorful fish. As you spot this magical place while landing in a small plane from nearby Tahiti, you become aware that you are reaching one of the most beautiful islands in the world, where luxury resorts compete with lavish nature to fulfill your every wish.

Many people come to  on their honeymoon to snuggle in one of the many thatch-roofed romantic villas perched over water, where room service is delivered by canoe. There is no place more romantic and more extravagantly beautiful than Bora Bora. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Martin Valigursky/Fotolia

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»Fiordland National Park, New Zealand

Fiordland National Park, New Zealand

According to Maori legends, the 14 fjords that form Fiordland National Park were created by a giant stonemason named Tu Te Rakiwhanoa, who cut out the deep valleys with his enormous adzes, which is as good an explanation as any for one of the most spectacular corners of the world, occupying over 1.2 million hectares at the southwestern end of the South Island of New Zealand.

The fjords could also be the product of relentless carving by glaciers over some 100,000 years, which the sea then filled as far as it could reach. On all sides, these canyon-like fjords are covered by waterfalls that tumble endlessly and thunderously, taking huge quantities of rainwater towards the sea. Huge granite mountains are dotted with emerald lakes, dense rainforests, and animals that do not exist anywhere else. Walking through Fiordland, it is easy to imagine the world as it looked thousands of years ago. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Rawpixel.com/Fotolia

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»Most Beautiful Places in the World: Geiranger Fjord, Norway

Most Beautiful Places in the World: Geiranger Fjord, Norway

In the land of hundreds of magnificent fjords, Geiranger is considered Norway’s most beautiful: A spectacular creation by glaciers, this fjord is about 15 km long and 1.5 km wide at its widest part. With almost vertical mountain sides and no habitable coast, the occasional abandoned mountain farms bear witness to the relentless efforts of humankind to conquer nature and gain a foothold. The most popular way of seeing the fjord is by ferry, but kayaking is as much fun.

You will pass by spectacular waterfalls that thunder down the steep mountain cliffs, creating a permanent veil of fog and endless rainbows. Another way of seeing the fjord is by taking the famous Trollstigen road, built in 1936 in an amazing feat of engineering, which snakes up steep mountain sides; narrow, occasionally protected by stone railings, and passing by massive waterfalls, it is nerve-wracking yet absolutely fascinating. The whole area is a dreamland for daredevils and adrenaline junkies, who find the steep cliffs a supreme challenge for climbing, rappelling, and ziplining. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Andrey Armyagov/Fotolia

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» Best places to visit in the world: Garden of the Gods, Colorado, USA

Best places to visit in the world: Garden of the Gods, Colorado, USA

A short drive from is a public city park that does not need any attractions – nature took care of that. Hundreds of immense red sandstone spires, bridges, and other precariously balanced rock formations are intersected by 15 miles of well-managed trails. As expected in a park with so many interesting rocks, rock climbing is very popular.

The park formations were formed out of bedded sandstone, limestone, and conglomerates by the forces that built nearby Pikes Peak massif, tilting it into a vertical position. It is easy to spot the remnants of marine fossils and even the fossils of dinosaurs. The largest rock formation is the 320-feet-tall Gateway Rock. Many animals have made the park their home – it is easy to see bighorn sheep, mule deer, and foxes as well as more than 130 species of birds. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: indy greek/Fotolia

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»Famous Places to Visit: Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Famous Places to Visit: Great Barrier Reef, Australia

The only living thing on Earth that can be seen from space, the Great Barrier Reef is immense. Located in northeastern Australia off the coast of Queensland, this 2,300-km-long complex ecosystem comprises more than 3,000 individual reef systems, coral cays, and hundreds of islands, big and small, with sparkling white sandy beaches.

While immensely beautiful on the surface, the true beauty of the reef is underwater, where there is a living world composed of more than 600 types of soft and hard coral, creating a colorful and mesmerizing home to endless numbers of species of tropical fish, sea stars, mollusks, turtles, sharks, and dolphins. This divers’ paradise can also be enjoyed snorkeling, in a glass-bottomed boat, sailing, from semi-submersibles, and just by plain swimming. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Anh Ngo/Fotolia

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» Beautiful Places: Joshua Tree National Park, USA

Beautiful Places: Joshua Tree National Park, USA

Where the two distinct desert ecosystems of , the high and low deserts of the Mojave and the Colorado, come together, they create a world totally its own. Protected as  this unique world features plants and animals whose lives are shaped by frequent drought, strong winds, and rare torrential rains.

Combined with fascinating geological features and a rich history, Joshua Tree National Park is a very special place that attracts wanderers and explorers. The Colorado Desert, part of the Sonoran Desert, is mostly covered by the abundant creosote bush and small stands of cholla cactus and spidery ocotillo. The higher, wetter, and cooler Mojave Desert is home to weirdly twisted and misshapen Joshua trees. The unique plant life is interspersed with equally unique geological formations. Mountains of exposed granite monoliths and twisted rocks, arroyos, alluvial fans, playas, bajadas, pediments, granites, aplite, and gneiss all weave a giant mosaic of rare beauty. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: patsetubal/Fotolia

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»Best places to visit in the world: Krabi, Thailand

Best places to visit in the world: Krabi, Thailand

Krabi is a lively resort town on the Andaman coast in southern Thailand. This very old settlement, now overtaken by tourism, has been shaped by limestone karsts jutting out of the dense mangrove forest and surrounded by vast sandy beaches. One of the city’s most popular destinations is Tiger Cave Temple, a Buddhist temple perched on a hilltop that can be reached by climbing a lot of stairs, but the views are worth the effort.

Rising out the water are Khao Kanab Nam, two slanting hills that form a popular local landmark. Busy and noisy, Krabi is best known as the gateway to the magnificent Andaman Sea islands and national parks that can be reached by ferries and boats

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The evolution of mobile telephony in Nigeria

The emergence of mobile telephony is obviously one of the major revolutions of communication in Nigeria. This is because no other technology has been so beneficial to all and sundry like the ubiquitous mobile phone. Its simplicity has facilitated its use by both literate and illiterate people, and it has remained one of the technologies to be so ready embraced by the poor.

Within the last few years of its introduction to Nigeria, the technology became commercially available almost immediately. Many young people were infected with the bug of GSM handsets to the extent that some spent all their savings just to acquire one. Now, mobile phones are no longer merely electronic gadgets possessed only by the rich, but now available for whoever cares to own.

In the early days of mobile system of communication in Nigeria, only the rich could actually afford the services. This period is termed the first generation of mobile telephony. The analog cellular was used, which basically allowed for voice communication only. This generation of mobile phones appeared not to exist in Nigeria since very few people really knew about cellular phones and was only available to a few percentage of the population. The use of land phone was still pertinent in the country oriented services. Analog cellular was, therefore, regarded as a precious object to possess and those who had it were highly regarded.

During this generation of mobile telecommunication, Nigerian phone users were confined to the use of fixed-phone communication system. It was therefore common sight to see long queue at phone boots, with everyone waiting for his or her turn, this is because only few could afford to own land line due to high cost to get connected, therefore callers opted for unit cards for public phone booths which were a bit affordable. Meanwhile, the rest of the developed world and many others in Africa had entered into another generation of mobile communication.

The emergence of digital personal communication system marked the beginning of another generation of the mobile phone termed the second generation. This generation offered users the convenience of the use of voice and SMS communications. While many African countries quickly embraced this generation, Nigeria had been so slow to indulge in it due to mainly bad leadership. As a result the technology was not introduced to the country until some six years back.

It was as if the introduction was all Nigerians had been waiting for, the technology was quickly embraced and though very expensive at the beginning it later became common article to possess. With time, the prices of cell phones and SIM Cards dropped considerably to such effect that SIM Packs were sold for almost free as more services providers were issued with license. The second generation opened the Nigerian economy to many opportunities; many benefited and are still enjoying the benefits that came with its introduction.

The first set of mobile phones sold in the Nigerian market at the inception of this generation had limited features. Most of the handsets could only be used for voice calls and SMS only, also the ringing tones were mostly monophonic. Gradually, as the mobile phone manufacturing industries improve on features of the phones being produced, so was Nigeria benefiting from this, and now her market is being flooded with many mobile handsets with improved features that include coloured screen, polyphonic ring tones, internet browsing etc.

This previous generation is obviously to be the stepping stone to the next generation termed the third generation (3G). Nigeria is now one of the most sought-after countries in Africa by multinational communication industries due to its ready market and therefore the country is on the threshold to the third generation of mobile phones. This generation offers the ability to transfer simultaneously voice, data and non-voice data such as down loading information, exchanging e-mail, and instant messaging. And again, another round of economic benefits is around and will put smiles to the faces of many Nigerians.

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Typical server-based communications systems do not include end-to-end encryption. reference
References
^ Computer network definition, archived from the original on 2012-01-21, retrieved 2011-11-12
^ “История о том, как пионер кибернетики оказался не нужен СССР” [The story of how a cybernetics pioneer became unnecessary to the USSR]. ria.ru (in Russian). МИА «Россия сегодня». 2010-08-09. Retrieved 2015-03-04. Главным делом жизни Китова, увы, не доведенным до практического воплощения, можно считать разработку плана создания компьютерной сети (Единой государственной сети вычислительных центров – ЕГСВЦ) для управления народным хозяйством и одновременно для решения военных задач. Этот план Анатолий Иванович предложил сразу в высшую инстанцию, направив в январе 1959 года письмо генсеку КПСС Никите Хрущеву. Не получив ответа (хотя начинание на словах было поддержано в различных кругах), осенью того же года он заново направляет на самый верх письмо, приложив к нему 200-страничный детальный проект, получивший название ‘Красной книги’. [One can regard the magnum opus of Kitov’s career as his elaboration of the plan – unfortunately never brought into practical form – for the establishment of a computer network (the Unified State Network of Computer Centres – EGSVTs) for the control of the national economy and simultaneously for the resolution of military tasks. Anatolii Ivanovich presented this plan directly to the highest levels, sending a letter in January 1959 to the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev. Not receiving a reply (although supported in various circles), in the autumn of the same year he again sent a letter to the very top, appending a 200-page detailed project plan, called the ‘Red Book’]
^ Isaacson, Walter (2014). The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution. Simon and Schuster. pp. 237–246.
^ “Inductee Details – Paul Baran”. National Inventors Hall of Fame. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
^ “Inductee Details – Donald Watts Davies”. National Inventors Hall of Fame. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
^ Roberts, Larry; Marrill, Tom (October 1966). Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers. Fall AFIPS Conference.
^ Chris Sutton. “Internet Began 35 Years Ago at UCLA with First Message Ever Sent Between Two Computers”. UCLA. Archived from the original on March 8, 2008.
^ Gillies, James; Cailliau, Robert (2000). How the Web was Born: The Story of the World Wide Web. Oxford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 0192862073.
^ C. Hempstead; W. Worthington (2005). Encyclopedia of 20th-Century Technology. Routledge.
^ Bennett, Richard (September 2009). “Designed for Change: End-to-End Arguments, Internet Innovation, and the Net Neutrality Debate” (PDF). Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. p. 11. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
^ Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks Archived 2007-08-07 at the Wayback Machine., Robert M. Metcalfe and David R. Boggs, Communications of the ACM (pp 395–404, Vol. 19, No. 5), July 1976.
^ a b Spurgeon, Charles E. (2000). Ethernet The Definitive Guide. O’Reilly & Associates. ISBN 1-56592-660-9.
^ [1], The Disadvantages of Wired Technology, Laura Acevedo, Demand Media.
^ “Bergen Linux User Group’s CPIP Implementation”. Blug.linux.no. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
^ A. Hooke (September 2000), Interplanetary Internet (PDF), Third Annual International Symposium on Advanced Radio Technologies, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-13, retrieved 2011-11-12
^ “Define switch”. WWW.Wikipedia.com. Retrieved April 8, 2008.
^ “What bridge devices and bridging do for computer networks”.
^ a b D. Andersen; H. Balakrishnan; M. Kaashoek; R. Morris (October 2001), Resilient Overlay Networks, Association for Computing Machinery, retrieved 2011-11-12
^ “End System Multicast”. project web site. Carnegie Mellon University. Archived from the original on February 21, 2005. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
^ For an interesting write-up of the technologies involved, including the deep stacking of communica
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Typical server-based communications systems do not include end-to-end encryption.
Typical server-based communications systems do not include end-to-end encryption. These systems can only guarantee protection of communications between clients and servers, not between the communicating parties themselves. Examples of non-E2EE systems are Google Talk, Yahoo Messenger, Facebook, and Dropbox. Some such systems, for example LavaBit and SecretInk, have even described themselves as offering “end-to-end” encryption when they do not. Some systems that normally offer end-to-end encryption have turned out to contain a back door that subverts negotiation of the encryption key between the communicating parties, for example Skype or Hushmail.

The end-to-end encryption paradigm does not directly address risks at the communications endpoints themselves, such as the technical exploitation of clients, poor quality random number generators, or key escrow. E2EE also does not address traffic analysis, which relates to things such as the identities of the end points and the times and quantities of messages that are sent.

Views of networks Edit

Users and network administrators typically have different views of their networks. Users can share printers and some servers from a workgroup, which usually means they are in the same geographic location and are on the same LAN, whereas a Network Administrator is responsible to keep that network up and running. A community of interest has less of a connection of being in a local area, and should be thought of as a set of arbitrarily located users who share a set of servers, and possibly also communicate via peer-to-peer technologies.

Network administrators can see networks from both physical and logical perspectives. The physical perspective involves geographic locations, physical cabling, and the network elements (e.g., routers, bridges and application layer gateways) that interconnect via the transmission media. Logical networks, called, in the TCP/IP architecture, subnets, map onto one or more transmission media. For example, a common practice in a campus of buildings is to make a set of LAN cables in each building appear to be a common subnet, using virtual LAN (VLAN) technology.

Both users and administrators are aware, to varying extents, of the trust and scope characteristics of a network. Again using TCP/IP architectural terminology, an intranet is a community of interest under private administration usually by an enterprise, and is only accessible by authorized users (e.g. employees).[41] Intranets do not have to be connected to the Internet, but generally have a limited connection. An extranet is an extension of an intranet that allows secure communications to users outside of the intranet (e.g. business partners, customers).[41]

Unofficially, the Internet is the set of users, enterprises, and content providers that are interconnected by Internet Service Providers (ISP). From an engineering viewpoint, the Internet is the set of subnets, and aggregates of subnets, which share the registered IP address space and exchange information about the reachability of those IP addresses using the Border Gateway Protocol. Typically, the human-readable names of servers are translated to IP addresses, transparently to users, via the directory function of the Domain Name System (DNS).

Over the Internet, there can be business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C) and consumer-to-consumer (C2C) communications. When money or sensitive information is exchanged, the communications are apt to be protected by some form of communications security mechanism. Intranets and extranets can be securely superimposed onto the Internet, without any access by general Internet users and administrators, using secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology.

See also Edit

Comparison of network diagram software
Cyberspace
History of the Internet
Network simulation
Network planning and design
Network traffic control
Minimum-Pairs Protocol

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Main article: Computer security Network security Network security

Network Security

Main article: Computer security
Network security
Network security consists of provisions and policies adopted by the network administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, modification, or denial of the computer network and its network-accessible resources.[36] Network security is the authorization of access to data in a network, which is controlled by the network administrator. Users are assigned an ID and password that allows them access to information and programs within their authority. Network security is used on a variety of computer networks, both public and private, to secure daily transactions and communications among businesses, government agencies and individuals.

Network surveillance Edit
Network surveillance is the monitoring of data being transferred over computer networks such as the Internet. The monitoring is often done surreptitiously and may be done by or at the behest of governments, by corporations, criminal organizations, or individuals. It may or may not be legal and may or may not require authorization from a court or other independent agency.

Computer and network surveillance programs are widespread today, and almost all Internet traffic is or could potentially be monitored for clues to illegal activity.

Surveillance is very useful to governments and law enforcement to maintain social control, recognize and monitor threats, and prevent/investigate criminal activity. With the advent of programs such as the Total Information Awareness program, technologies such as high speed surveillance computers and biometrics software, and laws such as the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act, governments now possess an unprecedented ability to monitor the activities of citizens.[37]

However, many civil rights and privacy groups—such as Reporters Without Borders, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the American Civil Liberties Union—have expressed concern that increasing surveillance of citizens may lead to a mass surveillance society, with limited political and personal freedoms. Fears such as this have led to numerous lawsuits such as Hepting v. AT&T.[37][38] The hacktivist group Anonymous has hacked into government websites in protest of what it considers “draconian surveillance”.[39][40]

End to end encryption Edit
End-to-end encryption (E2EE) is a digital communications paradigm of uninterrupted protection of data traveling between two communicating parties. It involves the originating party encrypting data so only the intended recipient can decrypt it, with no dependency on third parties. End-to-end encryption prevents intermediaries, such as Internet providers or application service providers, from discovering or tampering with communications. End-to-end encryption generally protects both confidentiality and integrity.

Examples of end-to-end encryption include HTTPS for web traffic, PGP for email, OTR for instant messaging, ZRTP for telephony, and TETRA for radio.

Typical server-based communications systems do not include end-to-end encryption. These systems can only guarantee protection of communications between clients and servers, not between the communicating parties themselves. Examples of non-E2EE systems are Google Talk, Yahoo Messenger, Facebook, and Dropbox. Some such systems, for example LavaBit and SecretInk, have even described themselves as offering “end-to-end” encryption when they do not. Some systems that normally offer end-to-end encryption have turned out to contain a back door that subverts negotiation of the encryption key between the communicating parties, for example Skype or Hushmail.

The end-to-end encryption paradigm does not directly address risks at the communications endpoints themselves, such as the technical exploitation of clients, poor quality random number generators, or key escrow. E2EE also does not address traffic analysis, which relates to things such as the identities of the end points and the times and quantiti

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Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take.

Routing

Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take. For example, from node 1 to node 6 the best routes are likely to be 1-8-7-6 or 1-8-10-6, as this has the thickest routes.
Routing is the process of selecting network paths to carry network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including circuit switching networks and packet switched networks.

In packet switched networks, routing directs packet forwarding (the transit of logically addressed network packets from their source toward their ultimate destination) through intermediate nodes. Intermediate nodes are typically network hardware devices such as routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. General-purpose computers can also forward packets and perform routing, though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables, which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. Thus, constructing routing tables, which are held in the router’s memory, is very important for efficient routing.

There are usually multiple routes that can be taken, and to choose between them, different elements can be considered to decide which routes get installed into the routing table, such as (sorted by priority):

Prefix-Length: where longer subnet masks are preferred (independent if it is within a routing protocol or over different routing protocol)
Metric: where a lower metric/cost is preferred (only valid within one and the same routing protocol)
Administrative distance: where a lower distance is preferred (only valid between different routing protocols)
Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time. Multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths.

Routing, in a more narrow sense of the term, is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network. Structured addresses allow a single routing table entry to represent the route to a group of devices. In large networks, structured addressing (routing, in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured addressing (bridging). Routing has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet. Bridging is still widely used within localized environments.

Network service Edit

Network services are applications hosted by servers on a computer network, to provide some functionality for members or users of the network, or to help the network itself to operate.

The World Wide Web, E-mail,[29] printing and network file sharing are examples of well-known network services. Network services such as DNS (Domain Name System) give names for IP and MAC addresses (people remember names like “nm.lan” better than numbers like “210.121.67.18”),[30] and DHCP to ensure that the equipment on the network has a valid IP address.[31]

Services are usually based on a service protocol that defines the format and sequencing of messages between clients and servers of that network service.

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SONET/SDH Synchronous optical networking computer institute
SONET/SDH
Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers. They were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications from a variety of different sources, primarily to support real-time, uncompressed, circuit-switched voice encoded in PCM (Pulse-Code Modulation) format. However, due to its protocol neutrality and transport-oriented features, SONET/SDH also was the obvious choice for transporting Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) frames.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode Edit
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a switching technique for telecommunication networks. It uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing and encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells. This differs from other protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite or Ethernet that use variable sized packets or frames. ATM has similarity with both circuit and packet switched networking. This makes it a good choice for a network that must handle both traditional high-throughput data traffic, and real-time, low-latency content such as voice and video. ATM uses a connection-oriented model in which a virtual circuit must be established between two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins.

While the role of ATM is diminishing in favor of next-generation networks, it still plays a role in the last mile, which is the connection between an Internet service provider and the home user.[20]

Cellular standards Edit
There are a number of different digital cellular standards, including: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), cdmaOne, CDMA2000, Evolution-Data Optimized (EV-DO), Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), Digital AMPS (IS-136/TDMA), and Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN).

A network can be characterized by its physical capacity or its organizational purpose. Use of the network, including user authorization and access rights, differ accordingly.

Nanoscale network
A nanoscale communication network has key components implemented at the nanoscale including message carriers and leverages physical principles that differ from macroscale communication mechanisms. Nanoscale communication extends communication to very small sensors and actuators such as those found in biological systems and also tends to operate in environments that would be too harsh for classical communication.[22]

Personal area network
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers, printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs, scanners, and even video game consoles. A PAN may include wired and wireless devices. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters.[23] A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and FireWire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically form a wireless PAN.

Local area network
A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a home, school, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings. Each computer or device on the network is a node. Wired LANs are most likely based on Ethernet technology. Newer standards such as ITU-T G.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing wiring, such as coaxial cables, telephone lines, and power lines.[24]

The defining characteristics of a LAN, in contrast to a wide area network (WAN), include higher data transfer rates, limited geographic range, and lack of reliance on leased lines to provide connectivity. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at data transfer rates up to 100 Gbit/s, standardized by IEEE in 2010.[25] Currently, 400 Gbit/s Ethernet is being developed.

A LAN can be connected to a WAN using a router.

Home area network
A home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of personal computers and accessories, such as printers and mobile computing devices. An important function is the sharing of Internet access, often a broadband service through a cable TV or digital subscriber line (DSL) provider.

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A communication protocol is a set of rules for exchanging

A communication protocol is a set of rules for exchanging information over a network. In a protocol stack (also see the OSI model), each protocol leverages the services of the protocol layer below it, until the lowest layer controls the hardware which sends information across the media. The use of protocol layering is today ubiquitous across the field of computer networking. An important example of a protocol stack is HTTP (the World Wide Web protocol) running over TCP over IP (the Internet protocols) over IEEE 802.11 (the Wi-Fi protocol). This stack is used between the wireless router and the home user’s personal computer when the user is surfing the web.

Communication protocols have various characteristics. They may be connection-oriented or connectionless, they may use circuit mode or packet switching, and they may use hierarchical addressing or flat addressing.

There are many communication protocols, a few of which are described below.

IEEE 802 Edit
IEEE 802 is a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks. The complete IEEE 802 protocol suite provides a diverse set of networking capabilities. The protocols have a flat addressing scheme. They operate mostly at levels 1 and 2 of the OSI model.

For example, MAC bridging (IEEE 802.1D) deals with the routing of Ethernet packets using a Spanning Tree Protocol. IEEE 802.1Q describes VLANs, and IEEE 802.1X defines a port-based Network Access Control protocol, which forms the basis for the authentication mechanisms used in VLANs (but it is also found in WLANs) – it is what the home user sees when the user has to enter a “wireless access key”.

Ethernet Edit
Ethernet, sometimes simply called LAN, is a family of protocols used in wired LANs, described by a set of standards together called IEEE 802.3 published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Wireless LAN Edit
Wireless LAN, also widely known as WLAN or WiFi, is probably the most well-known member of the IEEE 802 protocol family for home users today. It is standardized by IEEE 802.11 and shares many properties with wired Ethernet.

Internet Protocol Suite Edit
The Internet Protocol Suite, also called TCP/IP, is the foundation of all modern networking. It offers connection-less as well as connection-oriented services over an inherently unreliable network traversed by data-gram transmission at the Internet protocol (IP) level. At its core, the protocol suite defines the addressing, identification, and routing specifications for Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and for IPv6, the next generation of the protocol with a much enlarged addressing capability.

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computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network

Overlay network Edit

A sample overlay network
An overlay network is a virtual computer network that is built on top of another network. Nodes in the overlay network are connected by virtual or logical links. Each link corresponds to a path, perhaps through many physical links, in the underlying network. The topology of the overlay network may (and often does) differ from that of the underlying one. For example, many peer-to-peer networks are overlay networks. They are organized as nodes of a virtual system of links that run on top of the Internet.[18]

Overlay networks have been around since the invention of networking when computer systems were connected over telephone lines using modems, before any data network existed.

The most striking example of an overlay network is the Internet itself. The Internet itself was initially built as an overlay on the telephone network.[18] Even today, each Internet node can communicate with virtually any other through an underlying mesh of sub-networks of wildly different topologies and technologies. Address resolution and routing are the means that allow mapping of a fully connected IP overlay network to its underlying network.

Another example of an overlay network is a distributed hash table, which maps keys to nodes in the network. In this case, the underlying network is an IP network, and the overlay network is a table (actually a map) indexed by keys.

Overlay networks have also been proposed as a way to improve Internet routing, such as through quality of service guarantees to achieve higher-quality streaming media. Previous proposals such as IntServ, DiffServ, and IP Multicast have not seen wide acceptance largely because they require modification of all routers in the network.[citation needed] On the other hand, an overlay network can be incrementally deployed on end-hosts running the overlay protocol software, without cooperation from Internet service providers. The overlay network has no control over how packets are routed in the underlying network between two overlay nodes, but it can control, for example, the sequence of overlay nodes that a message traverses before it reaches its destination.

For example, Akamai Technologies manages an overlay network that provides reliable, efficient content delivery (a kind of multicast). Academic research includes end system multicast,[19] resilient routing and quality of service studies, among others.

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computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network

Routers Edit

A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections
A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing the routing information included in the packet or datagram (Internet protocol information from layer 3). The routing information is often processed in conjunction with the routing table (or forwarding table). A router uses its routing table to determine where to forward packets. A destination in a routing table can include a “null” interface, also known as the “black hole” interface because data can go into it, however, no further processing is done for said data, i.e. the packets are dropped.

Modems Edit
Modems (MOdulator-DEModulator) are used to connect network nodes via wire not originally designed for digital network traffic, or for wireless. To do this one or more carrier signals are modulated by the digital signal to produce an analog signal that can be tailored to give the required properties for transmission. Modems are commonly used for telephone lines, using a Digital Subscriber Line technology.

Firewalls Edit
A firewall is a network device for controlling network security and access rules. Firewalls are typically configured to reject access requests from unrecognized sources while allowing actions from recognized ones. The vital role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in cyber attacks.

Network structure Edit
Network topology is the layout or organizational hierarchy of interconnected nodes of a computer network. Different network topologies can affect throughput, but reliability is often more critical. With many technologies, such as bus networks, a single failure can cause the network to fail entirely. In general the more interconnections there are, the more robust the network is; but the more expensive it is to install.

Common layouts Edit

Common network topologies
Common layouts are:

A bus network: all nodes are connected to a common medium along this medium. This was the layout used in the original Ethernet, called 10BASE5 and 10BASE2. This is still a common topology on the data link layer, although modern physical layer variants use point-to-point links instead.
A star network: all nodes are connected to a special central node. This is the typical layout found in a Wireless LAN, where each wireless client connects to the central Wireless access point.
A ring network: each node is connected to its left and right neighbour node, such that all nodes are connected and that each node can reach each other node by traversing nodes left- or rightwards. The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) made use of such a topology.
A mesh network: each node is connected to an arbitrary number of neighbours in such a way that there is at least one traversal from any node to any other.
A fully connected network: each node is connected to every other node in the network.
A tree network: nodes are arranged hierarchically.
A fat tree network: a tree with increasing bandwidth towards the root
Note that the physical layout of the nodes in a network may not necessarily reflect the network topology. As an example, with FDDI, the network topology is a ring (actually two counter-rotating rings), but the physical topology is often a star, because all neighboring connections can be routed via a central physical location.

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