Available Balance
computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network

Repeaters and hubs

A repeater is an electronic device that receives a network signal, cleans it of unnecessary noise and regenerates it. The signal is retransmitted at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters. With fiber optics, repeaters can be tens or even hundreds of kilometers apart.

A repeater with multiple ports is known as an Ethernet hub. Repeaters work on the physical layer of the OSI model. Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal. This can cause a propagation delay that affects network performance and may affect proper function. As a result, many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row, e.g., the Ethernet 5-4-3 rule.

Hubs and repeaters in LANs have been mostly obsoleted by modern switches.

Bridges Edit
A network bridge connects and filters traffic between two network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model to form a single network. This breaks the network’s collision domain but maintains a unified broadcast domain. Network segmentation breaks down a large, congested network into an aggregation of smaller, more efficient networks.

Bridges come in three basic types:

Local bridges: Directly connect LANs
Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers.
Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote devices to LANs.
Switches Edit
A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams (frames) between ports based on the destination MAC address in each frame.[16] A switch is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the frames to the physical ports involved in the communication rather than all ports connected. It can be thought of as a multi-port bridge.[17] It learns to associate physical ports to MAC addresses by examining the source addresses of received frames. If an unknown destination is targeted, the switch broadcasts to all ports but the source. Switches normally have numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches.

Multi-layer switches are capable of routing based on layer 3 addressing or additional logical levels. The term switch is often used loosely to include devices such as routers and bridges, as well as devices that may distribute traffic based on load or based on application content (e.g., a Web URL identifier).

Rate This Content
computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network

article: Wireless network
Terrestrial microwave – Terrestrial microwave communication uses Earth-based transmitters and receivers resembling satellite dishes. Terrestrial microwaves are in the low gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Relay stations are spaced approximately 48 km (30 mi) apart.
Communications satellites – Satellites communicate via microwave radio waves, which are not deflected by the Earth’s atmosphere. The satellites are stationed in space, typically in geosynchronous orbit 35,400 km (22,000 mi) above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, data, and TV signals.
Cellular and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies. The systems divide the region covered into multiple geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area.
Radio and spread spectrum technologies – Wireless local area networks use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. IEEE 802.11 defines a common flavor of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology known as Wifi.
Free-space optical communication uses visible or invisible light for communications. In most cases, line-of-sight propagation is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices.
Exotic technologies Edit
There have been various attempts at transporting data over exotic media:

IP over Avian Carriers was a humorous April fool’s Request for Comments, issued as RFC 1149. It was implemented in real life in 2001.[14]
Extending the Internet to interplanetary dimensions via radio waves, the Interplanetary Internet.[15]
Both cases have a large round-trip delay time, which gives slow two-way communication, but doesn’t prevent sending large amounts of information.

Network nodes Edit
Main article: Node (networking)
Apart from any physical transmission media there may be, networks comprise additional basic system building blocks, such as network interface controllers (NICs), repeaters, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, modems, and firewalls. Any particular piece of equipment will frequently contain multiple building blocks and perform multiple functions.

Network interfaces Edit

An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in.
A network interface controller (NIC) is computer hardware that provides a computer with the ability to access the transmission media, and has the ability to process low-level network information. For example, the NIC may have a connector for accepting a cable, or an aerial for wireless transmission and reception, and the associated circuitry.

The NIC responds to traffic addressed to a network address for either the NIC or the computer as a whole.

In Ethernet networks, each network interface controller has a unique Media Access Control (MAC) address—usually stored in the controller’s permanent memory. To avoid address conflicts between network devices, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) maintains and administers MAC address uniqueness. The size of an Ethernet MAC address is six octets. The three most significant octets are reserved to identify NIC manufacturers. These manufacturers, using only their assigned prefixes, uniquely assign the three least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce.

Repeaters and hubs Edit
A repeater is an electronic device that receives a network signal, cleans it of unnecessary noise and regenerates it. The signal is retransmitted at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters. With fiber optic

Rate This Content
computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network thopology

Main article: Network topology
The physical layout of a network is usually less important than the topology that connects network nodes. Most diagrams that describe a physical network are therefore topological, rather than geographic. The symbols on these diagrams usually denote network links and network nodes.

Network links Edit
Further information: data transmission
The transmission media (often referred to in the literature as the physical media) used to link devices to form a computer network include electrical cable, optical fiber, and radio waves. In the OSI model, these are defined at layers 1 and 2 — the physical layer and the data link layer.

A widely adopted family of transmission media used in local area network (LAN) technology is collectively known as Ethernet. The media and protocol standards that enable communication between networked devices over Ethernet are defined by IEEE 802.3. Ethernet transmits data over both copper and fiber cables. Wireless LAN standards use radio waves, others use infrared signals as a transmission medium. Power line communication uses a building’s power cabling to transmit data.

Wired technologies Edit

Fiber optic cables are used to transmit light from one computer/network node to another
The orders of the following wired technologies are, roughly, from slowest to fastest transmission speed.

Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems, office buildings, and other work-sites for local area networks. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire surrounded by an insulating layer (typically a flexible material with a high dielectric constant), which itself is surrounded by a conductive layer. The insulation helps minimize interference and distortion. Transmission speed ranges from 200 million bits per second to more than 500 million bits per second.
ITU-T G.hn technology uses existing home wiring (coaxial cable, phone lines and power lines) to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network
Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for all telecommunication. Twisted-pair cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs. Ordinary telephone wires consist of two insulated copper wires twisted into pairs. Computer network cabling (wired Ethernet as defined by IEEE 802.3) consists of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized for both voice and data transmission. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 10 billion bits per second. Twisted pair cabling comes in two forms: unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP). Each form comes in several category ratings, designed for use in various scenarios.

2007 map showing submarine optical fiber telecommunication cables around the world.
An optical fiber is a glass fiber. It carries pulses of light that represent data. Some advantages of optical fibers over metal wires are very low transmission loss and immunity from electrical interference. Optical fibers can simultaneously carry multiple wavelengths of light, which greatly increases the rate that data can be sent, and helps enable data rates of up to trillions of bits per second. Optic fibers can be used for long runs of cable carrying very high data rates, and are used for undersea cables to interconnect continents.
Price is a main factor distinguishing wired- and wireless-technology options in a business. Wireless options command a price premium that can make purchasing wired computers, printers and other devices a financial benefit. Before making the decision to purchase hard-wired technology products, a review of the restrictions and limitations of the selections is necessary. Business and employee needs may override any cost considerations.[13]

Wireless technologies Edit

Computers are very often connected to networks using wireless links
Main article: Wireless network
Terrestrial microwave – Terrestrial

Rate This Content
computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network

A computer network may be used by security hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from accessing the network via a denial-of-service attack.

Network packet Edit

Main article: Network packet
Computer communication links that do not support packets, such as traditional point-to-point telecommunication links, simply transmit data as a bit stream. However, most information in computer networks is carried in packets. A network packet is a formatted unit of data (a list of bits or bytes, usually a few tens of bytes to a few kilobytes long) carried by a packet-switched network. Packets are sent through the network to their destination. Once the packets arrive they are reassembled into their original message.

Packets consist of two kinds of data: control information, and user data (payload). The control information provides data the network needs to deliver the user data, for example: source and destination network addresses, error detection codes, and sequencing information. Typically, control information is found in packet headers and trailers, with payload data in between.

With packets, the bandwidth of the transmission medium can be better shared among users than if the network were circuit switched. When one user is not sending packets, the link can be filled with packets from other users, and so the cost can be shared, with relatively little interference, provided the link isn’t overused. Often the route a packet needs to take through a network is not immediately available. In that case the packet is queued and waits until a link is free.

network facilitates interpersonal communications allowing users to communicate efficiently and easily via various means: email, instant messaging, online chat, telephone, video telephone calls, and video conferencing. A network allows sharing of network and computing resources. Users may access and use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer or use of a shared storage device. A network allows sharing of files, data, and other types of information giving authorized users the ability to access information stored on other computers on the network. Distributed computing uses computing resources across a network to accomplish tasks.

A computer network may be used by security hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from accessing the network via a denial-of-service attack.

Network packet Edit

Main article: Network packet
Computer communication links that do not support packets, such as traditional point-to-point telecommunication links, simply transmit data as a bit stream. However, most information in computer networks is carried in packets. A network packet is a formatted unit of data (a list of bits or bytes, usually a few tens of bytes to a few kilobytes long) carried by a packet-switched network. Packets are sent through the network to their destination. Once the packets arrive they are reassembled into their original message.

Packets consist of two kinds of data: control information, and user data (payload). The control information provides data the network needs to deliver the user data, for example: source and destination network addresses, error detection codes, and sequencing information. Typically, control information is found in packet headers and trailers, with payload data in between.

With packets, the bandwidth of the transmission medium can be better shared among users than if the network were circuit switched. When one user is not sending packets, the link can be filled with packets from other users, and so the cost can be shared, with relatively little interference, provided the link isn’t overused. Often the route a packet needs to take through a network is not immediately available. In that case the packet is queued and waits until a link is free.

Rate This Content
computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections between nodes (data links.) These data links are established over cable media such as wires or optic cables, or wireless media such as WiFi.

Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes.[1] Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, application-specific communications protocols are layered (i.e. carried as payload) over other more general communications protocols. This formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably.

Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others. Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network’s size, topology, traffic control mechanism and organizational intent. The best-known computer network is the Internet.

History Edit

See also: History of the Internet
The chronology of significant computer-network developments includes:

In the late 1950s, early networks of computers included the U.S. military radar system Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE).
In 1959, Anatolii Ivanovich Kitov proposed to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union a detailed plan for the re-organisation of the control of the Soviet armed forces and of the Soviet economy on the basis of a network of computing centres, the OGAS.[2]
In 1960, the commercial airline reservation system semi-automatic business research environment (SABRE) went online with two connected mainframes.
In 1963, J. C. R. Licklider sent a memorandum to office colleagues discussing the concept of the “Intergalactic Computer Network”, a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users.
In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth College developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer to route and manage telephone connections.
Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran, and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. Davies pioneered the implementation of the concept with the NPL network, a local area network at the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) using a line speed of 768 kbit/s.[3][4][5]
In 1965, Western Electric introduced the first widely used telephone switch that implemented true computer control.
In 1966, Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts published a paper on an experimental wide area network (WAN) for computer time sharing.[6]
In 1969, the first four nodes of the ARPANET were connected using 50 kbit/s circuits between the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah.[7] Leonard Kleinrock carried out theoretical work to model the performance of packet-switched networks, which underpinned the development of the ARPANET.[8][9] His theoretical work on hierarchical routing in the late 1970s with student Farouk Kamoun remains critical to the operation of the Internet today.
In 1972, commercial services using X.25 were deployed, and later used as a

Rate This Content
computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections between nodes (data links.) These data links are established over cable media such as wires or optic cables, or wireless media such as WiFi.

Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes.[1] Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, application-specific communications protocols are layered (i.e. carried as payload) over other more general communications protocols. This formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably.

Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others. Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network’s size, topology, traffic control mechanism and organizational intent. The best-known computer network is the Internet.

History Edit

See also: History of the Internet
The chronology of significant computer-network developments includes:

In the late 1950s, early networks of computers included the U.S. military radar system Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE).
In 1959, Anatolii Ivanovich Kitov proposed to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union a detailed plan for the re-organisation of the control of the Soviet armed forces and of the Soviet economy on the basis of a network of computing centres, the OGAS.[2]
In 1960, the commercial airline reservation system semi-automatic business research environment (SABRE) went online with two connected mainframes.
In 1963, J. C. R. Licklider sent a memorandum to office colleagues discussing the concept of the “Intergalactic Computer Network”, a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users.
In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth College developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer to route and manage telephone connections.
Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran, and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. Davies pioneered the implementation of the concept with the NPL network, a local area network at the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) using a line speed of 768 kbit/s.[3][4][5]
In 1965, Western Electric introduced the first widely used telephone switch that implemented true computer control.
In 1966, Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts published a paper on an experimental wide area network (WAN) for computer time sharing.[6]
In 1969, the first four nodes of the ARPANET were connected using 50 kbit/s circuits between the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah.[7] Leonard Kleinrock carried out theoretical work to model the performance of packet-switched networks, which underpinned the development of the ARPANET.[8][9] His theoretical work on hierarchical routing in the late 1970s with student Farouk Kamoun remains critical to the operation of the Internet today.
In 1972, commercial services using X.25 were deployed, and later used.

Rate This Content
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ONLINE CLEARANCE SYSTEM

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ONLINE CLEARANCE SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Introduction
  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the study
  • Objectives of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Limitations
  • Significance of the study
  • Definition of terms

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Role of information technology in the academic system

2.2 Data and information

2.3 Computer based information systems

2.4 Databases

 

CHAPTER THREE

Description and analysis of the existing system

3.1 General analysis of the existing system

3.2 Method of data collection

3.4 Organizational structure

3.5 Input analysis

3.6 Process Analysis

3.7 Output analysis

3.8 Information flow diagram

3.9 Problems of the existing system

3.10 Justification of the new system

 

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEMS DESIGN

4.1 Design standards

4.2 Output specification

4.3 Input specification and design

4.4 File design

4.5 Procedure chart

4.6 System flowcharts

4.7 System specification

4.8 Program flowcharts

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, RECOMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

REFRENCES

 

APPENDICES

Appendix A Welcome page

Appendix B Home page

Appendix C Input forms

Appendix D Output forms

Appendix E Codes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Clearance is a status granted individuals, typically members of the military, university graduates and employees of governments and their contractors, allowing them access to classified information, i.e. state secrets. The term “clearance” is also sometimes used in private organizations that have a formal process to vet employees for access to sensitive information. A clearance by itself is normally not sufficient to gain access; the organization must determine that the cleared individual has a “need to know” the information. No one is supposed to be granted access to classified information solely because of rank or position, but once a clearance is obtained, access to certain information or gain of freedom will be granted.

As many universities have choosing to pursue the dynamic educational options available online. The advantages of e-learning are many. As people of all ages and backgrounds become increasingly reliant on the internet for information, online learning becomes more convenient and efficient here the need for an online clearance system. The skills needed to access and comprehend information online are becoming commonplace, and the flexibility of wireless computing means that any coffee shop, airport or bedroom can become a classroom. Online courses, registrations, clearance have few, if any scheduling restrictions, well-integrated learning resources and competitive degree options, with an online clearance system.

The changing online college landscape now includes online clearance system, traditional undergraduate and general studies programs. However, career learning is still the most popular online training option.

 

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Caritas university, Amorji nike Enugu is a private University approved by the federal Government of Nigeria on Dec 16 2004. It was officially opened on Jan 21,2005 by the Federal minister for education, Prof . Fabian Osuji.  It is the second catholic university founded by Rev. Fr. Prof  E.M.P Edeh. The school is managed by the congregation of Sisters of Jesus the Saviour, a religious congregation of nuns founded by him. The school operates the faculty system and presently has four faculties; Engineering, Environmental, Management and social sciences and natural science

In Universities like Caritas, there is need for automated method of keeping data, more so a greater need for an online clearance system. This would go a long way in alleviating the various problems and stress involved in the manual method of clearance. Moreover, the issue of delayed youth service as a result of inability to complete the tedious manual process of clearance would be curtailed.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The processes of clearing students after their graduation requires that the students be cleared in various departments and information units. Among which are:

  • Library fines and overdue or lost library materials from the University
  • Departmental Dues
  • Infirmary and bookstore charges
  • Residence hall damage charges
  • Return of athletic equipment
  • Student Union Fee
  • Bursary and all other charges

For a graduating student to carry out his \ her clearance from all these departments, it normally takes a lot of time and a lot of processes and delays in clearing the student for youth service as well as collection of statement of result. Hence it became imperative for an online clearance system to eliminate the shortcomings of the manual system in place.

 

1.4  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this project include:

  • To effectively and efficiently process students clearance
  • To provide a reliable and transparent system devoid of personal inclinations and interest
  • To provide borderless access
  • To ensure prompt clearance
  • To alleviate the problems and stress of travelling and queuing up of students during clearance.

1.5  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work is limited to clearance system for graduating students from Caritas University. The software developed will be carried out using HTML, Visual Basic and Ms Access to manage both the database and at the same time make the software online.

 

1.6      LIMITATIONS

This project covers all aspect of online clearance system using Caritas University as a case study. However, the following were the constraints:

Time constraints: Due to time constraint, the web – page developed covers only clearance from various departments by the graduating students.

Financial constraints:  It would cost a lot to develop a full web – based clearance system.

Some documents were considered confidential and were not made available.

 

1.7  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The project work will help in a good number of ways to ease the queuing system in the university as the online clearance system will help students to achieve what ever they want to achieve without coming to the various offices for clearance.

Clear advantages of Internet information processing over those of traditional manual system are higher yields. Online clearance system allows the users to check their clearance status as whether they are in any way indebted to the school, fill and submit their clearance form, and obtain their clearance letter. There are many other advantages of online clearance system and some of them are listed below.

o       It saves a lot of time.

o       It is very convenient to use it right from the bedroom, office or anywhere in the World.

o       Information processing are very fast and  delays can be avoided.

o       It is inexpensive to students and school management.

  • Help the school in reducing costs such as labour and stationary.

 

1.8  DEFINITION OF TERMS

Computer Network: Computer Network is a system that connects two or more computers together using a communication link.

World Wide Web: World Wide Web simply called www is the most important tool of the Internet. It was created in the late

1980s in Europe and was used limitedly in academic cycle.

Clearance: Official certification of blamelessness, trustworthiness, or suitability for graduation and issue of certificates in degree course.

Databases:  A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.

File Transfer:   Any kind of computer file can be sent via the Internet from one Internet user to another. Table of accounts on spreadsheets, design by a graphic artists, music sound files etc, can all be exchanged in this way.

Web Brower: This is a special kind of software that processes hypertext mark-up language (HTML) document. In other words, a web browser is a computer program that interprets HTML command to collect, arranged and display the parts of a web page.

Web Site:  A website is a collection of many interconnected web pages organized by a specific college, organization company etc, containing web pages (good and commodities) on the Internet. Websites are stored on web servers. There are many websites and thousand of HTML pages on each web site. A web site is a treasure of information and entertainment.

Hyperlinks: Hyperlinks are highlighted words and phrase you find on web documents that you can click on as to jump to some other documents or Internet services.

Online:  Connected via a computer attached to or available via a central computer network.

Offline: Disconnected from computer network; describes a computer terminal or peripheral device disconnected from a computer network.

System: Set of computer components that is, an assembling of hardware, software and peripherals functioning together.

 

 

 

Rate This Content
World War II a War Of Blood
February 8, 2018
2

World War 2

The origins of the Second World War are generally viewed as being traced back to the First World War (1914-1918). In that war Germany under the ultra-nationalistic Kaiser Wilhelm II along with its allies, had been defeated by a combination of the United Kingdom, United States, France, Russia and others.

The war was directly blamed by the victors on the miltant nationalism of the Kaiser’s Germany; it was Germany that effectively started the war with an attack on France through Belgium.

France, which had suffered a previous defeat at the hands of Prussia (a state that merged one year later with others to form Germany) in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, demanded revenge for its financial devastation during the First World War (and its humiliation in the earlier war) ensured that the various peace treaties, specifically the Treaty of Versailles imposed tough financial reparations and restrictions on Germany.

A New Republic

A new democratic German republic, known as the Weimar Republic, came into being. After some success it was hit by hyperinflation and other serious economic problems.

Right wing nationalist elements under a variety of movements, but most notably the Nazi Party of Adolf Hitler, sought to blame Germany’s “humiliating” status on the harshness of the post-war settlement, on the weakness of democratic government, and on the Jews, whom it claimed possessed a financial stranglehold on Germany.

Hitler was appointed Reichskanzler (Chancellor) on January 30, 1933, by the aged President von Hindenburg.

Hitler’s government exercised much of its power through the special emergency powers possessed by the President under the constitution.

For almost six years from 1939 to 1945 Britain fought the toughest war it had ever experienced. World War II was total war – every person, every business, every service was involved.

SoldierBritain did not fight alone, the war also involved many countries. World War II involved 61 countries with 1.7 billion people (three quarters of the world’s population).

Fifty million people lost their lives and hundreds of millions people were injured.

How did the Second World War start?

After World War One ended in 1918, Germany had to give up land and was banned from having armed forces.

In 1933 the German people voted for a leader named Adolf Hitler, who led a political party in Germany called the National Socialists or Nazis. Hitler promised to make his country great again and quickly began to arm Germany again and to seize land from other countries.

Shortly before 5am on Friday 1st September, 1939, German forces stormed the Polish frontier. Tanks and motorised troops raced into the country over ground, supported by Stuka dive bombers overhead. A total of 1.25 million Germans soldiers swept into Poland

When did World War Two begin?

World War Two in Europe began on 3rd September 1939, when the Prime Minister of Britain, Neville Chamberlain, declared war on Germany. It involved many of the world’s countries.

Click on the play button below to hear Chamberlain’s speech (now the full speech)

Rate This Content
TONER REFILL 300 ONLY TONER REFILL 300 ONLY
December 25, 2017
1

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

 

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

TONER REFILL 300 RS ONLY

CONTACT

9715732786

 

Rate This Content
Introduction of Data Structures and Algorithms
November 11, 2017
0

Tips for working through the examples

As with most books you get out what you put in and so we recommend that in
order to get the most out of this book you work through each algorithm with a
pen and paper to track things like variable names, recursive calls etc.
The best way to work through algorithms is to set up a table, and in that
table give each variable its own column and continuously update these columns.
This will help you keep track of and visualise the mutations that are occurring
throughout the algorithm. Often while working through algorithms in such
a way you can intuitively map relationships between data structures rather
than trying to work out a few values on paper and the rest in your head. We
suggest you put everything on paper irrespective of how trivial some variables
and calculations may be so that you always have a point of reference.
When dealing with recursive algorithm traces we recommend you do the
same as the above, but also have a table that records function calls and who
they return to. This approach is a far cleaner way than drawing out an elaborate
map of function calls with arrows to one another, which gets large quickly and
simply makes things more complex to follow. Track everything in a simple and
systematic way to make your time studying the implementations far easier.

The Outline

We have split two part of topic
Part 1: Provides discussion and pseudo-implementations of common and uncommon data structures; and
Part 2: Provides algorithms of varying purposes from sorting to string operations.
The reader doesn’t have to read the book sequentially from beginning to end: chapters can be read independently from one another. We suggest that in part 1 you read each chapter in its entirety, but in part 2 you can get away with just reading the section of a chapter that describes the algorithm you are
interested in.
Each of the chapters on data structures present initially the algorithms concerned with:

The Outline
We have split two part of topic
Part 1: Provides discussion and pseudo-implementations of common and uncom-
mon data structures; and
Part 2: Provides algorithms of varying purposes from sorting to string operations.

The reader doesn’t have to read the book sequentially from beginning to end: chapters can be read independently from one another. We suggest that in part 1 you read each chapter in its entirety, but in part 2 you can get away with just reading the section of a chapter that describes the algorithm you are
interested in.
Each of the chapters on data structures present initially the algorithms con-
cerned with:

Rate This Content