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25 books by billionaires that will teach you how to run the world.
April 21, 2018

Learn how the super wealthy and successful achieved the impossible, in their own words.
Whether you want to launch an empire or become the best in your field, who better to consult than those who have achieved the peak of professional and financial success?
That’s why we’ve rounded up 25 books by self-made billionaires. From the business insights of Bill Gates to the leadership lessons of Richard Branson, the wisdom collected in these pages extends far beyond the classroom.
Learn how these masters of industry achieved the impossible, in their own words.
‘The Virgin Way’ by Richard Branson
Although Branson confesses he’s never read a book on leadership, his nearly 50-year entrepreneurial career has taught him a thing or two about building a business.
In “The Virgin Way,” the billionaire founder of Virgin Group offers lessons on management and entrepreneurialism » , including the importance of listening to others and hiring the right people. Branson is honest about his successes as well as his failures, such as underestimating Coke’s influence when he tried to launch Virgin Cola in the 1990s.
Overall, the book is a compelling glimpse into the life of someone who’s never shied away from a challenge.

‘Onward’ by Howard Schultz
After resigning as Starbucks CEO in 2000, Schultz returned to the post in 2008, just as the company was struggling through a financial crisis. “Onward” details how the billionaire brought the global coffee chain back to life.
Readers will learn how Schultz made tough decisions — like temporarily shutting down more than 7,000 US stores — in order to help Starbucks grow without neglecting its core values.
They’ll learn, too, about Schultz as a person, as he weaves together his unique business strategy with anecdotes about growing up in Brooklyn, New York. It’s an honest and passionate recounting that will inspire entrepreneurs and everyone else to be brave in the face of adversity.

‘How to Win at the Sport of Business’ by Mark Cuban
In “How to Win at the Sport of Business,” Dallas Mavericks owner and “Shark Tank” investor Cuban fleshes out his best insights on entrepreneurialism from his personal blog » .
He writes candidly about how he progressed from sleeping on his friends’ couches in his 20s to owning his own company and becoming a multibillionaire. It’s a story of commitment and perseverance — Cuban writes that even though he didn’t know much about computers, he beat his competition because he spent so much time learning about the software his company sold.

‘The Essays of Warren Buffett’ by Warren Buffett
The 86-year-old chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway is considered one of the greatest investors in history.
This book is a collection of Buffett’s letters to Berkshire Hathaway shareholders. Each one explains a different facet of his business and investment philosophies. While the topics might seem complex, the billionaire’s writing is easy to read, and he often explains concepts through personal anecdotes.

‘Business @ the Speed of Thought’ by Bill Gates
With a net worth of $75 billion » , Forbes estimates the Microsoft founder is the richest person in the world. In “Business @ the Speed of Thought,” Gates explains how business and technology are inextricably linked.
Using examples from companies like Microsoft and GM, Gates suggests that businesses see technology as a way to enhance their operations. While the book was initially published in 1999, many of Gates’ insights remain
accurate and relevant today » .

‘Bloomberg by Bloomberg’ by Michael Bloomberg
Published in 1997, five years before he became mayor of New York City, Bloomberg’s autobiography details how he built a media empire.
He guides readers through the highlights of his career: how he rose to success at Salomon Brothers, how he was fired from Salomon Brothers in 1981, and how he used part of his severance pay to create the company that is now Bloomberg LP. The book is chock-full of valuable, honest insights on leadership and management, all based on Bloomberg’s personal experience.

‘Zero to One’ by Peter Thiel
“Zero to One” starts from the controversial premise that ” competition is for losers » ” and that entrepreneurs should instead aim to create monopolies.
Thiel, a founder of PayPal and the data-analytics firm Palantir, highlights the importance of building something new and taking over the market, as opposed to simply adding to what’s already out there. Regardless of whether you agree with Thiel’s philosophy, the book is a clear read with tons of ideas worth discussing.

‘Call Me Ted’ by Ted Turner
While Turner has led multiple entrepreneurial ventures, he’s perhaps best known as the founder of the first 24-hour cable-news channel, CNN, and as the former owner of the Atlanta Braves.
In his autobiography, he outlines his unconventional path to success, from getting expelled from Brown University to running his father’s billboard company to turning a small news station into a media empire.
The book also features personal stories about Turner’s relationship with his father and the actress Jane Fonda, all of which paint a full picture of the dynamic billionaire.

‘Think Like a Champion’ by Donald Trump
“Think Like a Champion” is a collection of the president-elect and real-estate mogul’s essays on personal and professional success.
Each one combines anecdotes from his own experience with inspirational advice on everything from learning from your mistakes to confronting your fears. Acknowledging his own tendency toward self-promotion, he tells readers to “toot your own horn” when you deserve it.

‘The First Billion Is the Hardest’ by T. Boone Pickens
“The First Billion Is the Hardest” tells the story of how the now 87-year-old chairman of BP Capital Management overcame personal and professional challenges to achieve tremendous success.
The narrative takes readers all the way from Pickens’ experience as a “corporate raider” in the 1980s to his late-life rebranding as an advocate for America’s energy independence. Each chapter starts with a ” Booneism » ,” or a few words of wisdom on winning in life and business. Example: “I learned early on that you play by the rules. It’s no fun if you cheat to win.”

‘Soros on Soros’ by George Soros
That Soros survived the Holocaust to become one of the world’s most brilliant investors is no small miracle. Readers learn about his career path in “Soros on Soros,” which is technically two extended interviews that combine personal anecdotes with theories on finance and politics.
Soros is honest about his successes and failures as founder and chairman of Soros Fund Management, and is hardly shy about submitting controversial opinions. It’s a compelling read, whether you’re interested in learning more about Soros himself or global finance and policy.

‘Direct from Dell’ by Michael Dell
Dell dropped out of college at 19 » to found PC Limited, the business that is now Dell Computer Corp. At 27, he became the youngest CEO of a Fortune 500 company.
In “Direct from Dell,” the billionaire entrepreneur explains how he grew his business and the theory behind his unique management style. It’s an inspiring rags-to-riches story that also offers valuable leadership lessons.

‘Built from Scratch’ by Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank
In “Built from Scratch,” Marcus and Blank chronicle how they changed their fate and turned their dreams into reality. After the two were fired from a home-improvement chain called Handy Dan in 1978, they decided to pursue their idea of creating a discount store. It was called The Home Depot.
The book details the company’s founding and growth, and the authors draw on their own experience to provide meaningful lessons for any business leader, including the importance of knowing your customer and giving back to the community

‘What I Know for Sure’ by Oprah Winfrey
Few people have a better understanding of passion and dedication than Winfrey. Born into poverty, she launched a career as a talk-show host, actress, and media mogul.
“What I Know for Sure” is a collection of her columns in O, the Oprah Magazine. Each one offers a different life lesson on topics including joy, gratitude, and power, often based on her personal experience.

‘Ralph Lauren’ by Ralph Lauren
Fashion designer Ralph Lauren grew up as Ralph Lipschitz » , the son of Jewish immigrant parents living in the Bronx. The idea for Polo Ralph Lauren was born when he attended a polo match as a young man and was captivated by “high society” style.
In his autobiography, he shares his personal history, the inspiration behind his work, and beautiful photographs.

‘Steering Clear’ by Peter G. Peterson
At 89, Peterson has had a long and storied career, which includes stints as US secretary of commerce, chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers, and cofounder of private-equity firm Blackstone Group.
He’s also the founder and chairman of the Peter G. Peterson Foundation, which focuses on raising awareness about fiscal challenges that the US faces.
In “Steering Clear,” published in 2015, Peterson makes the case that we need to take immediate action to reduce long-term debt in the US, projected to hit record highs in the near future. He juxtaposes prose with charts and graphs that illustrate the issue, and offers potential solutions to the problem, including closing loopholes in the tax code.
In the book’s introduction, Peterson explains why addressing this issue isn’t just economic good sense: “This country has given my family and me — and millions of others — unequaled opportunities to dream and to prosper. And together we have a profound obligation to try to pass on the same opportunity to future generations.”

‘Simply Rich’ by Richard DeVos
DeVos’ rags-to-riches autobiography details his transition from Depression-era Michigan schoolboy to multibillionaire cofounder of direct-selling company Amway.
The book weaves together stories about DeVos’ personal and professional lives, focusing in particular on the way his Christian upbringing and values paved the way for his success.
Impressions of Amway as a company are mixed — it’s been the subject of investigation » for having a pyramid-like structure, although the Federal Trade Commission has ruled that the company’s activities are legal. But as one fan of the book says » , “Whether you like the company or not, you can’t argue DeVos’ inspiring story.”

‘How Did You Do It, Truett?’ by S. Truett Cathy
To many Americans, Cathy’s invention of the chicken sandwich and founding of fast-food chain Chick-fil-A make him a modern hero.
In “How Did You Do It, Truett?” Cathy, who died in 2014, describes his rise to success, starting from the days when he worked behind the counter at the Dwarf Grill in Georgia.
At 95 pages, it’s a relatively short read, and the book includes a number of inspirational business and leadership lessons for aspiring entrepreneurs.

‘Charles Schwab’s New Guide to Financial Independence’ by Charles Schwab
According to Schwab, founder of Charles Schwab Corp., anyone can be a wise investor. All you need to do is learn the basics and apply them in an investing strategy.
In “New Guide to Financial Independence,” a revised edition of a book published in 2007, Schwab teaches readers how to set investment goals, monitor their performance, and plan for retirement. His main argument is that, when it comes to investing, doing nothing is the worst thing you can do.
While the lessons in it are applicable to anyone, the book is a helpful road map for beginning investors, breaking down complicated concepts into simpler pieces

‘Fooling Some of the People All of the Time’ by David Einhorn
In this book, Einhorn tells his side of a six-year financial saga.
Here’s the short version:. In 2002, Einhorn, founder of Greenlight Capital, thought he’d uncovered flawed accounting practices at Allied Capital and started short selling Allied’s stock. That didn’t work, as the stock climbed. Einhorn tried to expose Allied’s unethical behavior, even approaching the US Securities and Exchange Commission, but the SEC ended up investigating him as well. Ultimately, Allied settled with the SEC in 2008 and the accusations were never substantiated.
The book is heavy on detail, and one critic says » that some parts read like Einhorn’s angry rant. But it nonetheless offers some compelling insights into the general drama that often unfolds on Wall Street.

‘Margin of Safety’ by Seth Klarman
Instead of succumbing to the latest trends, Klarman, CEO and president of the Baupost Group, encourages readers to understand the rules and logic behind investing.
Specifically, he advocates and explains the rationale behind value investing, a method developed by Benjamin Graham that involves investing in securities trading at a price lower than their intrinsic value. The book takes its title from Benjamin Graham’s advice » to always invest with a margin of safety.
“Margin of Safety,” no longer in print, now sells for as much as $1,000 on Amazon.

‘Made in America’ by Sam Walton
“Made in America,” by the founder of Walmart, is one of Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos’ favorite books » .
Readers get a glimpse into both Walton’s personality and the effort it took for him to build what is now the largest retailer in the world.
One reader calls the book ” wonderfully folksy » ” — others say it’s solid inspiration » for those looking to start their own business.

‘Shoe Dog’ by Phil Knight
Nike cofounder Knight retired as the chairman of Nike in June 2016. In “Shoe Dog,” published April 2016, he tells the fascinating story of how he built the world’s biggest athletic company » .
Knight takes readers along on his personal journey to success, starting from his pivotal decision at age 24 to go the entrepreneurial route instead of joining the corporate world.
Longtime venture capitalist Brad Feld » calls the book the “best memoir I’ve ever read by a business person” and a “must read” for any founder.

‘Behind the Cloud’ by Marc Benioff
This 2009 book details how Salesforce’s founder, chairman, and CEO launched the cloud software company, now worth roughly $50 billion » , in 1999.
Woven throughout the story are some 111 of Benioff’s management tips, from “integrate philanthropy from the beginning” to “have the courage to pursue your innovation — before it is obvious to the market.”
In January 2016, Benioff suggested in a Tweet that he might be working on a sequel » : “Beyond the Cloud.”

‘How Google Works’ by Eric Schmidt and Jonathan Rosenberg
In 2014, Eric Schmidt, Google’s executive chairman and former CEO, and Jonathan Rosenberg, former senior vice president of products, published this compilation of insights from their experience building the company.
Readers learn the meaning and importance of “smart creatives,”

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Dinosaurs went out 232 million years ago with a bang and came back in a bang, says study.
April 21, 2018

Scientists all around the world strongly believe that it was an asteroid impact 66 million years ago that could have eroded dinosaurs. But never known fact is how these creatures managed to become the most dominant species on the earth. A new study conducted by researchers at the Bristol University has now found the answer to this million dollar question.
According to the researchers, it was another mass extinction event that might have happened around 232 million years ago which resulted in the rise of dinosaurs. During the study, researchers learned that dinosaurs arose in the early Triassic period, about 245 million years ago, but they remained rare until a mass extinction event which happened 13 million years later.
The team found that before 232 million years ago, the planet witnessed a sharp rise in carbon dioxide levels due to an increased number of volcanic eruptions. Researchers refer to this particular event as Kamenskim pluvial episodes, and during this period, the temperature on the planet rose steadily causing acid rains which eventually led to the extinction of many pre-dinosaur species.
Unlike other living beings, dinosaurs made use of these conditions completely, and they slowly diversified. Expanding their dominance all around the planet, they later emerged as the most dominant predators which the earth has ever witnessed. The study report is now published in the journal Nature Communications .
“The discovery of the existence of a link between the first diversification of dinosaurs and a global mass extinction is important. The extinction didn’t just clear the way for the age of the dinosaurs, but also for the origins of many modern groups, including lizards, crocodiles, turtles, and mammals – key land animals today,” said Mike Benton, the study’s co-author.
During the study, researchers analyzed rocks located in an Italian mountain range known as the Dolomites. Scientists succeeded in finding dinosaur footprints in these rocks, and it helped them to establish the point in time when they became dominant.
Later, the scientists compared these footprints with the first dinosaur fossils discovered from Argentina and Brazil. Further analysis of these fossils revealed that dinosaurs became prevalent in Brazil and Argentina at the same time which indicates that the explosion has happened globally.
“We were excited to see that the footprints and skeletons told the same story. We had been studying the footprints in the Dolomites for some time, and it’s amazing how clear cut the change from ‘no dinosaurs’ to ‘all dinosaurs’ was,” said Massimo Bernardi, lead author of the study.
The evidence is provided to match the two events – the mass extinction, called the Carnian Pluvial Episode, and the initial diversification of dinosaurs, said researchers. The point of explosion of dinosaurs matches the end of the Carnian Pluvial Episode, a time when climates shuttled from dry to humid and back. It was long suspected that this event had caused upheavals among life on land and in the sea.
In 2015, dating of rock sections and measurement of oxygen and carbon values provided the missing link showing that there were massive eruptions in western Canada, represented today by the great Wrangellia basalts.
There were four pulses of warming and climate perturbation, all within a million years or so. This must have led to repeated extinctions. reasoned out co-author Piero Gianolla from the University of Ferrara.

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The Mystery of Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea

Jules Verne was born at Nantes in 1828, and occupies a unique place in the history of literature because he was one of the first writers to make systematic use in fiction of accurate scientific knowledge. After his schooldays Jules Verne went to Paris to study law, but he gave more attention to writing plays than to his legal work. In any way, Verne was also a great traveller. At the beginning of the 60s he made a tour of Scotland, followed by a visit to London, and later he and his brother crossed from Liverpool to the United States. They also determined to go round the world in the shortest possible time, and not long afterwards this idea took form in Verne’s famous novel Round the World in Eighty Days, which achieved an extraordinary success.

Verne’s most famous books were based on scientific ideas, but his vivid imagination led him to describe achievements that seemed improbable at the time he wrote,  but  it is remarkable how many of his ideas have been realized almost completely. The most amazing book in this respect was Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, in which the exploits of the famous Captain Nemo and his submarine Nautilus were vividly described.

I’ve often wondered where Verne has taken the idea for the title of his most famous novel. Perhaps the answer lies hidden in the equally famous novel of Miguel de Cervantes, when Don Quixote says he wanted to “travel fast, and get quickly to the place where this giant is.”

Don Quixote says:

“But what I propose to do,  is to travel fast,  and get quickly to the place where this giant is,  and,  presently after my arrival,  to cut off his head, and settle the princess peaceably in her kingdom, and that instant to return and see that sun that enlightens my senses; to whom I will make such an excuse, that she shall allow my delay was necessary; for she will perceive that all redounds to the increase of her glory and fame, since what I have won, do win, or shall win, by force of arms, in this life, proceeds wholly from the succour she affords me, and from my being hers.”

And Sancho replied:

“Ah! quoth Sancho, how is your worship disordered in your head!   Pray, tell me, sir,  do you intend to take this journey for nothing! and will you let slip so considerable a match as this, when the dowry is a kingdom, which, as I have heard say, is above twenty thousand leagues in circumference, and abounding in all things necessary or the support of human life, and bigger than Portugal and Castile together?”

Twenty thousand leagues “in circumference” became Twenty Thousand Leagues “Under the Sea.” So, I think, perhaps the mystery of the title of one of the most famous novels of Verne is revealed. Maybe it’s not a great mystery, but because Sancho quotes almost entirely the title of Verne’s novel, and it is related to the journey of Don Quixote “to the place where this giant is,” this makes the Spanish source not only possible but also highly likely.


The Life and Exploits of Don Quixote de la Mancha.  In Four Volumes, London, Smith & Holborn, 1840, Vol. I,  p. 52.




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10 Unspoken Marriage Rules You Must Follow

Every married person knows to be faithful, stay truthful and be there for her partner through good times and bad—they’re in the wedding vows, after all. But most seasoned couples would admit that some unspoken rules are vital for getting past rough patches and growing stronger as a couple. Here, experts share 10 of the less apparent (but just as important) marriage rules to live by.

  1. Don’t criticize your partner’s parents or friends.You know how it is—your family can tick you off but no one else had dare speak ill of them. That’s why you should tread carefully with your in-laws and your husband’s dearest friends. “Even when he’s venting to you, your contributions can put him on the defensive,” explainsLeslieBeth Wish, EdD, a Florida-based psychologist and licensed clinical social worker. “When you take position A, you prompt your partner to take position B.” Instead, says Dr. Wish, put yourself in his position so that you can empathize with him.
  2. Tell your spouse about any ex encounters. Whether you get a Facebook friend request or run into an old flame at your kid’s soccer game, keeping the newsto yourself could backfire, despite having zero feelings for the ex. “If there’s nothing to hide, why hide it?” says Deb Castaldo, PhD,a couples and family therapist and professor at Rutgers University School of Social Work in New Brunswick, NJ. “That leads to an air of secrecy and dishonesty,” she says. Just clue in your hubby matter-of-factly: Try, “I knew it was only a matter of time before old boyfriends came out of the woodwork on Facebook. I got a friend request from one and ignored it.” Or, “I saw my ex in the mall today. His kids are cute. Glad to see his life turned out nicely.”
  3. Keep unsolicited advice to yourself. Offer your support, lend your ear, but avoid speaking in an “I know what’s best” tone. “We give advice because we’re trying to be helpful, but it’s seen as criticism when we offer too many corrections,” says Harriet Lerner, PhD, clinical psychologist and author of Marriage Rules: A Manual for the Married and the Coupled Up. This goes for everything from your husband’s outfit choices to how he deals with a work issue. Give your spouse space to make decisions and gain confidence through trial and error—and ask that he do the same for you, says Dr. Lerner. “What matters in a relationship is not that things get done ‘right,’ but that two people are dedicated to contributing to each other’s happiness.”
  4. Don’t take charge all the time.Whether you fold all the laundry because you don’t like how your husband does it or you manage the finances because you don’t think he’s as careful, you may feel more at ease doing all the work. But stop! “The spouse who does the rescuing can become tired of that role,” says Dr. Wish—and resentful that everything is on her shoulders, even if she volunteered for that burden. Get in the habit of asking your partner, “What do you think works best here?”or telling him, “I could use a hand cleaning out the pantry.” These requests will foster the idea that you’re teammates.
  5. Don’t bring up past arguments.Or at least put a statute of limitations on them. “People repeat ancient disagreements because they haven’t resolved the problem,” says Dr. Castaldo. Letting things fester often causes marriages to break down, she says. It’s important to address issues as they happen and come to some sort of a resolution—agreeing to disagree counts. “Leave it there, and respect each other’s opinion,” she says.
  6. Choose your battles, but don’t stifle your feelings.“There’s going to be toothpaste globs here and Post-it notes there; that’s human nature,” says Dr. Wish. “You have to be able to say, ‘this isn’t important.'” Or if it is, speak up. “Tell your partner why it bothers you and that you’d like to work on a solution,” suggests Dr. Wish. You’d be surprised what you could learn about each other. For instance, your husband may not leave dirty dishes in the sink anymore if you explain that your childhood home was piled high with plates and you were stuck washing them. It’s also important to understand that he’s not plotting to upset you every time he’s sloppy or forgetful. A simple request like: “Honey, it’d be great if you could pick up the dry cleaning while you’re out” beats getting mad that he didn’t offer to help with errands.
  7. Don’t post private thoughts or photos publicly.You may not want to be tagged in a politically charged rant he starts or he may not want you to share photos of the kids. And you each deserve the other person’s respect for those wishes. “Discuss the ground rules regarding posting about yourself, as a couple and about the other person,” says Dr. Castaldo. And no matter what, don’t take your grievances with your husband to the masses for support. “It’s destructive to air conflicts on Facebook,” she warns.
  8. Log off.When your attention is focused elsewhere, your spouse is bound to feel unimportant. So make quality time a top priority and restrict tech gadget use if necessary, says Dr. Wish. “Pay attention to the concept of ratio: How much time am I spending doing this compared to how much time I’m spending with my family?” she says. Create a rule that works for your household and stick to it, whether it’s no devices at the dinner table, shutting down phones at 8 p.m. or going gadget-free on weekend afternoons.
  9. Don’t use the “D” word (divorce, that is).Even in the heat of an argument, avoid threatening to pack your bags or head to the lawyer’s office. Besides the “D” word being downright hurtful, repeated warnings may result in a spouse calling the other’s bluff. “We act as if the intensity of our anger gives us license to say or do anything,” says Dr. Lerner. “But threatening divorce is never useful, and it only makes the probability of separation more likely.”
  10. Be each other’s number one.In other words, be wary of outsider influence, like a friend putting relationship-threatening ideas in your head or work or hobbies competing for your attention. “Happy couples have just as much conflict as those who divorce, but they know ways to get through it,” says Dr. Castaldo. “A couple has to have a strong boundary around themselves and they can’t allow anybody to get in between.”


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Key Study Skills Tools to Achieve Academic Success

While college is certainly a time to have fun, make new friends and learn about yourself and the person you would like to become, we can’t forget about the real reason for attending an institution of higher education — academics.

In order to help ensure that your academic studies receive the attention they deserve, we’ve compiled a number of useful tips from some of our student guide pages and past blog posts. With this advice in your back pocket, you can hopefully tackle homework assignments, midterms and finals with ease and embark on the path to academic success.

1. Find out what kind of studying works best for you.

While there are some people for whom studying in groups works, it’s not for everyone. Don’t make the mistake of thinking that just because you’re chatting with a group of classmates, you’re studying for your upcoming exam. Studying is often best done alone, and in a quiet place. Your college library is just one of the many quiet study spaces you can make use of on campus.

2. Schedule classes around your habits.

While early morning classes may be right for some people, they’re certainly not right for everyone. If you’re not a morning person, do not sign up for 8 a.m. classes! A very common mistake students make in the first semester of college is scheduling classes for when they are least productive. If you’re trying to achieve academic success and your brain isn’t fully active until after noon, make sure that you’re not doing any heavy thinking before then.

3. Consider listening to books.

Depending on your class load and college major, you may have bitten off more than you’re used to in terms of reading. If you find yourself strapped for time, rather than read each book, simply put on your headphones and listen to the book on tape while doing something else. While this may not be available for college textbooks, it works great for novels.

4. Set goals for yourself.

A good way to start off each semester is by setting an academic goal for yourself. Have you always wanted to make the dean’s list? Do you want to raise your GPA by a few points? Make it happen! And the goals don’t always have to be about grades. Finally take on that tough language course you’ve been putting off, or commit to a club that you’ve been thinking about joining. Success in college depends a great deal on the individual — make your goals work for you.

5. Rewrite your notes.

When studying for finals, many students simply reread their notes enough times to feel like they’ve retained as much as they possibly could. Paving a path toward success on college exams means taking it a step further — rewrite your notes, by hand! For some reason, the physical act of writing out the information helps you retain and organize it in your mind. And if you happen to be a good notetaker, it’ll be even easier!

6. Don’t procrastinate.

I know it’s difficult when we are inundated with so many opportunities for distraction (TwitterFacebook, etc.), but resist the urge to procrastinate! Whether it comes to studying, scheduling your classes for next semester or buying books, you are best off diving in right away. You’re going to have to take care of your academic responsibilities at one point or another, so take some initiative and save yourself the stress of scrambling to finish everything at the last minute.

7. Balance work with play.

Knowing how to achieve academic success in college doesn’t just mean knowing how to get good grades. On the other hand, “playing hard” doesn’t just mean going to parties. You have to know how to keep yourself fulfilled both emotionally and creatively. Make sure that you have a healthy outlet for whatever creative juices are flowing inside of you — paint, keep a journal, join a fencing class — whatever! Just make sure it keeps you happy and gives you something to look forward to outside of academics.


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DETERMINATION(ne of the driving forces that can encourage you to keep moving forward towards your goals )

Determination is one of the driving forces that can encourage you to keep moving forward towards your goals despite every obstacle in your way. It isn’t the only thing you’ll need, but you will find that a great deal of determination will help you succeed in whatever you want to do. Determination means doing whatever it takes to keep forging ahead.


Think of any goal you have ever achieved that was worthwhile. Was it as simple as just doing it? Chances are, it required are great deal of determination. Any goal that you deem “worthwhile” was probably outside of your comfort zone, and required you to push forward.

  1. To accomplish your goal, you needed to find something that you never did before.
  2. You needed to ask yourself questions you never asked before.
  3. You needed to find answers you never found before.
  4. What you lacked in knowledge, you made up in discipline to succeed.

Determination helped you stick to the goal at hand. You focused on one step at a time even when the task seemed overwhelming.

A Mixture

Determination is a drive and an encouragement from within. It gives you the strength to look towards the goal at the finish even when you might be at the start. It drives you from where you are to where you choose to be. Despite the odds, when you feel it is important enough, your determination gives you the hunger to accomplish it. Through purpose, passion, knowledge, incentives, belief, faith, clarity on end results, and of course discovering your “why” you can achieve whatever it is you set out to do.

Paul J. Meyer says: “Construct your determination with Sustained Effort, Controlled Attention, and Concentrated Energy. Opportunities never come to those who wait… they are captured by those who dare to attack.”

Hard work, a Little Luck

Determination is illustrated well in the movie Pursuit of Happyness. Chris Gardner is determined to succeed at the brokerage firm where he is interning. There is a part in the movie where he realizes he can save eight minutes a day by not hanging up the phone between calls. Eight minutes is a big deal in the long run: think about how that adds up over time! Chris realized sales is a numbers game and he wanted to make it through his call sheet faster than everyone else. He was determined to finish at a certain time so he could pick up his child in time to wait in line at the homeless shelter to get a safe, warm place to stay overnight. After dinner, he would play with his son, then put him to bed and study for his brokerage exam and go to bed and get ready to do it all over again.

Chris showed firm determination to get himself and his son to a better place. He didn’t take the easy way, instead he forced himself to be better and do better.

Strong Determination

Get determined by defining why you are doing what you are doing. When you give meaning to the task at hand, it suddenly changes from being a task at hand to a purpose that will fill you with determination. Remember too that determination is not only a facet of your career, but it also helps determine your character. Those who others perceive as being determined are often the first choices for teams, special projects, and friendships.

As you go about finding your own source of determination, I invite you to like my page Oluwarotimmy Research Innovation

I encourage you to enjoy life daily.


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How to make it in Life (Success in life)

Just What Is the Meaning of Success?

What does it mean to really succeed in life? Does it mean having lots of money? Maybe it means jet-setting around the world, hobnobbing with the rich-and-famous, and partying like a rockstar. Or, maybe it means living a charitable life devoted to service and helping the less-fortunate in the world meet some basic human needs like food, water, or shelter.

No matter how you look at it, success can mean many different things to many different people. It’s a little bit different for each individual person. We don’t all want success with the exact same things. We don’t all want the exact same amount of money or prestige, but there are certainly some resounding themes to what succeeding in life means.


Succeeding in this “Thing” Called Life

Not too long ago, I wrote a book called The Silk Merchant – Ancient Words of Wisdom to Help you Live a Better Life Today. The story is about a man named Pontus, a silk merchant, who lived two thousand years ago. The tale chronicles his life living in the shadows of his half-brother, Tiberius, the King.

Tiberius was the son that was born in wedlock, with nearly every opportunity afforded to him in life. But, Pontus, was the bastard-child who’s mother was discarded by the king and forced to live in poverty. However, the story details just how success met the two brothers in different ways, and just what the meaning of success was to each of them.

To Tiberius, success meant a unification of the three kingdoms, to pillage and plunder his enemies, and to seek his will at all costs. Nothing was sacred to him other than gold. However, to Pontus, who grew up with no silver spoon in his mouth, succeeding in life could only be done in one way: through persistence.


Understanding the Foundational Meaning of Success

I won’t spoil the entire back story of The Silk Merchant here, but the book chronicles Pontus’s journey in life and his discovery of the success laws. Of course, you can imagine just how different even two half-brothers’ lives could be when one was handed all the money, power, and influence in the world on a silver platter and the other had to work tooth-and-nail for it.

The point, however, is that, regardless of your specific definition of success, to truly succeed in life, you must abide by a certain set of rules. This “Success Code” if you will, should be the framework that you govern your life by. Because, succeeding in life isn’t easy; we all know that by now. But, what we fail to do are make the proper sacrifices that are required of us for long-term success.


Success Laws to Govern Our Lives

When we fail to live by the success laws, we tend to look to the short-term gain over our long-term name. We tend to take the easy way out. We throw in the towel and look for the path of least resistance because that’s how the human mind is designed to operate. The mind is habitual; basal if you will. It operates on innate desires for pleasure that are rooted in our genetic code.

But, it’s our job to override that desire for instant-pleasure and live life according to the success laws. We can’t simply take the easy way out because we’re afraid of the long and arduous journey littered with obstacles that need to be overcome in order to live the life that we truly desire.

Yet, when we’re struggling to pay the bills, who can think of launching a business that would take years to get off the ground before we can even see a decent paycheck? When we can’t afford to enjoy life our minds have a funny way of moving us out of pain and into pleasure. We don’t want to suffer. Human beings weren’t made to just survive, we were made to thrive.

But, although we were meant to thrive, the mind has a funny way of putting what it wants into the short-term perspective and not into the long-term perspective. What do I mean? Well, let’s take cigarette smoking for example. Everyone knows that cigarette smoking is bad for them, yet they still do it. Why is that? The mind is doing more to avoid pain than gain pleasure in the short term, not in the long term.

The cigarette smoker won’t quit smoking because their mind has associated smoking with pleasure in the short term. Once that cigarette hits their mouths and they take that first drag, it’s instantaneous pleasure. Even if they know, somewhere in the back of their minds that cigarette smoke can kill them in the long term, they’ve associated more pain to quitting in the short term than they have to the potential pain and illness it will cause them in the long term.


How to Succeed Using the Success Laws

So, we’re not all perfect. Whether we smoke cigarettes or we have some other vice, we all want something out of life. But, usually when we’re pushing towards a goal, we fail or we simply give up. Yes, we do more to avoid pain than we do to gain pleasure. However, what we must do in order to succeed doesn’t involve taking the easy road. In fact, it involves taking a windy and twisty road that could lead to dead-ends in many places.

This is when the foundational laws of success can help to guide us. They can offer a beacon of shining light in a sea of dreaded waters. They’re the GPS system for helping us find our way when we’re lost. As long as you abide by the success laws, you can succeed in life, no matter what that success means to you.

So, what exactly are these success laws? 


Success Law #1 – Love

Whatever success means to you in life, you must come from a platform of love. Love is the strongest type of vibrational energy in existence, and anyone who approaches their daily tasks and rituals from a platform of love will succeed. This might sound obscure to you if you’re unable to see the deeper meaning in things.

However, through experiential knowledge, we gain an understanding of just how people succeed in life when they come from a platform of love. The actor who loves his job and puts his all into it, succeeds when they don’t give up. The business owner who loves his customers, his products, or his services, and delivers them, not from a platform of greed, but of love, succeeds in the long term when they don’t give up.

Love is the foundational core to all that we do; it’s the concrete foundation to the skyscraper of success. If you have hate in your heart, immediately replace it with love. Why? Hate can take up so much of our mental, emotional, and spiritual resources, that it can completely stop us dead in our tracks from succeeding. Fill your heart with love every day and you’ll watch how success unfolds over time.


Success Law #2 – Faith

Not just religious faith. This is faith in good things to come. It weaves together the invisible with the visible. It calls into action the Law of Attraction that simply states that we will move towards what we believe in. If we believe at the core that we can succeed, whatever that success means to us, we will. When we don’t believe, we can’t do so.

So many people out there will simply say that they can’t succeed in life because they don’t have the right amount of opportunity, money, connections, or anything else. But faith is the belief that, no matter what your situation is, you will be able to succeed. It’s telling yourself that you can overcome any obstacles that are thrown in your way on the path to success.

How you implement the law of faith is entirely up to you. But the more fervently you believe, the more you’re likely to move towards that which you believe in. Now, this doesn’t mean you should ignore your problems. It means that you should solve your problems but focus on the bigger picture; believe even when there’s no reason for you to believe.

When Thomas Edison was inventing the first commercially-viable electric lightbulb he had the faith and belief that he would succeed, eventually. It took him over 10,000 failures to get it right. Could you imagine failing at something 10,000 times yet still pursuing it with gusto? Sometimes, that’s just what it takes.


Success Law #3 – Gratitude

The third law of success involves gratitude. It means that you should happily succeed rather than succeed to be happy. You can’t base your entire life and self-worth on some monetary dollar amount. You can’t tell yourself that you’re worthless if you don’t have a million dollars in the bank (or euros, pounds, or whatever other currency amounts to a great sum of money in today’s economy).

Having gratitude and being grateful allows you to approach things differently. It allows you to move along the pathway to success with a different perspective. You can’t focus on missed opportunities, fears, worries, and anxieties. Be happy for what you have, and be grateful that you’re not in a worse situation than you are now. There are far more people out there that are suffering more than you.

Look to those that are less fortunate than you on your road to succeed in life, whatever that success might mean to you. As soon as you start doing this, you’ll not only experience life on a higher level, but you’ll find some peace-of-mind. Gratitude helps to fill our mind, body, and spirit with an ease of comfort, like a breeze on a summer’s day that lasts longer than expected.


Success Law #4 – Integrity

When we want to succeed, some want to do so at all costs. We’ve all had this battle in our minds. Should we take the easy way out, even if no one is looking? Do we look to the short-term gain and sacrifice our long-term name? Integrity is an important law of success, and one that every individual should live by.

We’ve all seen the notable and successful in business fall from grace due to a momentary lapse in integrity. But how many others fail to reach the top due to a lack of integrity from the get-go? Always do things the honest way if you want to succeed in the long term. Sure, taking a shortcut might give you some short-term boost on the road to success, but karma will come back around and spite you.

Don’t ever sacrifice your integrity for anything. Your word should be your bond in life if you want to succeed. Our entire civilization is rooted in this law. Don’t take it for granted no matter what.


Success Law #5 – Contribution

Contribution might not seem like a law of success to some people, but it’s just as important as the other laws are. Why is that? Well, when you contribute, you send a message to your mind telling you that there’s more than enough. But, beyond that, you’re also shifting the focus from a solitary-oriented position to a network-oriented position in success.

This mental shift not only helps those that are less fortunate, but it also helps your mind to realize that there’s more than enough to go around and that more is on the way. Many people don’t value contribution. They don’t value the importance of giving to others when striving to achieve whatever successes they desire in life. But it’s as important.

Without contribution, you can’t succeed in the long term. You have to contribute to others whenever you can. Even if you don’t have the money to give to others, give your time, which is far more valuable than money. When you start contributing to others, it will open up a whole new world of perspective that can help build a greater foundation for success in life.


Success Law #6 – Family

Family is one of the most important things that we have in life. And, in life, we only get one family. We mustn’t squander our relationships with our family due to petty disputes. No matter what it is, the importance of family is paramount. When there’s relationship stress or internal family conflicts, succeeding at something in life becomes remarkably difficult.

Don’t take family for granted. A harmonious family is integral to success in any area of life. You can’t succeed if you’re spending all of your mental, emotional, spiritual, and even physical faculties entangled with your family. Your mind has difficulty processing an overall advancement in any area of life when so many of its resources are tackling internal strife.


Success Law #7 – Restraint

To succeed in life, you have to practice restraint. This applies to all areas of your life, whether it’s financial restraint in the overspending of money, relationship restraint in being true and faithful, business restraint in being honest to customers, clients, employees, and partners, and so on. The list can go on and on. Restraint is something that must be rigorously practiced if you want to succeed in life.

But the fundamental success law of restraint also boils down to our desire for instant gratification and pleasure that’s akin to all human beings. We’re pleasure-driven animals; it’s instinctive in us to want to satisfy our urges immediately. Think about the impatience of the population as a whole – we want what we want and we want it now, whether it’s high-speed internet, prompt service at restaurants, or anything else; we live in a “now” society.

So, being able to override our internal psychology is akin to succeeding at anything. If you want to shoot for long-term success you must practice restraint in every area of your life. This goes for anything that you could overindulge in from alcohol, to cigarettes, to prescription drugs, to food, and so on.


Success Law #8 – Focus

On the other end of the spectrum from restraint lies focus. When we’re able to focus our mind’s eye on something, we can draw it nearer to us. Think about a car that you’ve recently purchased or leased in the past. Suddenly, once the transaction has been completed, you see that car everywhere. Do you think that it’s because, somehow, mystically or magically, more people purchased that car suddenly after you decided to do so? Of course not.

This is an example of the mind’s ability to focus on something and begin to see it everywhere. When we don’t focus on things, we fail to see see them or draw them nearer. Furthermore, focus is an important law of success because, without it, we couldn’t inch closer to our hopes and dreams with each passing day. Focus allows us to succeed over the long term, not in the short term. And, when someone lacks focus, they lack the ability to succeed in any area of their life.

Success in any area of life has a lot to do with your ability to focus on something so wholeheartedly that it becomes almost like an obsession. Find something positive that you want to achieve and focus all of your energy and your efforts on it, and you will be astounded how you’ll come closer and closer to that goal over time.


Success Law #9 – Commitment

As you can imagine, commitment is integral to success in any area of life. Giving up is not an option. When the going gets tough, that’s when you have to buckle down. No matter what you want to achieve in life, it’s not going to be easy, especially if that achievement is something that’s notable. Doing something worthwhile is going to be hard and living the life of your dreams isn’t simple, which is why so many people desire it.

Many people start out with goals in life only to give up a short while later. They want to make more money, lose weight, get a better job, have a more fulfilling relationship, and so on, but oftentimes they’re unwilling to do what it takes to attain that. But, for the person that can remain steadfast and committed, eventually, boundless possibilities await. Stay committed to your hopes and your dreams and don’t give up.

When J.K. Rowling was working a menial secretarial job while writing her first Harry Potter book, she certainly stayed committed. In fact, she was so committed to writing that book that she was doing so during her regular work hours, which caused her boss to fire her. Over the course of seven years she suffered through a divorce, the death of her mother, and living on government-assisted welfare, but she stayed committed. And we know how successful that book turned out for her.


Success Law #10 – Forgiveness

In life, we must learn to forgive. This is integral to success because if we can’t forgive, we can’t move on. No matter what the situation is, you can forgive but not necessarily forget. When you forgive, you let go of the hatred that holds us back and takes up our precious mental resources. So, you must learn to forgive.

As much as most people want to believe that succeeding in life only amounts to monetary success, it’s far more than that. And, at the heart of a person that’s successful, is a heart that’s pure and forgiving. You can’t achieve ay notable successes when you harbor anger and resentment in your soul and your spirit. Learn to let it go and live a more carefree and success-driven life.


Success Law #11 – Action

One of the biggest and most important ingredients to succeeding in life is action. Without action, there is no recipe for success. And, action most certainly is an integral ingredient in the successful life. You must learn to take action, no matter how small that action is. Small actions strung together result in remarkable transformations over time. Get accustomed to taking action in your life. Don’t allow little things to fester into bigger problems due to tendencies for procrastination.

Most of us in life are merely hindered by our inability to take action. We can’t succeed when we’re sitting stagnant and not moving closer towards our hopes and our dreams over time. One of the biggest ingredients of success is the ability to consistently take action day-in and day-out. If you don’t find yourself taking action, then you might either not want something bad enough or you’re stifled by bad habits that are holding you back.

Break the pattern by deciding what you want in life and why you really want it.Set some goals and move towards them each and every single day and learn how to manage your time. Eventually, you’ll succeed, but it won’t happen over night.


Success Law #12 – Be Present

Last but not least in the success laws is to be present. When we can be present we can learn to enjoy the journey. By living in the moment we can concentrate on the here-and-now and not worry so much about the past or fret over the future. What’s important is right now. If you can learn to be present you can begin to appreciate the ride.

Remember, succeeding in life isn’t just about the destination, it’s about the journey. The journey is what’s going to make us into better persons.

However, most people have difficulty with being present. If you fit this description, take up meditation or enroll in a yoga class. Learn the skills of how to control your breath and your thoughts so that they serve you in the present moment in time. By worrying and being anxious, you’re only going to materialize those worries into physical ailments due to the stress hormonesthat wreak havoc on our bodies. When you have mental anxieties, those anxieties can translate into physical illnesses.


What Does Success Mean to You?

I would love to hear what success means to you. Feel free to comment on this article below. If you feel like this article was an insightful read, please share it with your friends or loved ones.


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This is to notify all the Nigerian students that there are Project Topics and Materials for the following Departments;

This is to notify all the Nigerian students that there are Project Topics and Materials for the following Departments;

  1. Department of Business Administration
  2. Department of Purchasing and Supplying
  3. Department of Marketing
  4. Department of Economics
  5. Department of Public Admin
  6. Department of Accountancy/Accounting
  7. Department of Banking and Finance
  8. Department of Mass Communication
  9. Department of Office Technology and Management
  10. Department of Computer Science
  11. Department of Science Laboratory and Technology
  12. Department of Micro-Biology
  13. Department of Bio-Chemistry
  14. Department of Applied Science
  15. Department of Architectural Technology
  16. Department of Estate Management
  17. Department of Building Technology
  18. Department of Civil Engineering
  19. Department of Mechanical Engineering
  20. Department of Computer Engineering
  21. Department of Electronic Engineering






  1. The Impact of Environmental factors on business performance (A case study of West African Portland Cement EwekoroOgun State)
  2. The Impact of Training on Employees Performance (A case Study of Nigeria Breweries Ilesa, Osun State)
  3. The Impact of Materials Management in Organization productivity (A case Study of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc)
  4. The effect of Advertising on organization profitability (A case Study of Nigeria Bottling Company)
  5. The effect of Organizational conflict on organization performance (A case study of Selected Services Industry in Lagos Metropolis)
  6. The effect of Adequate Budgeting on overall performance of small scale business (A case study of Selected (SMES) Ibadan North Local Government, Oyo State
  7. The Role of Microfinance bank in Rural Development (A case Study of Sagamu Microfinance Bank, SagamuOgun State
  8. The Impact of Effective Customer satisfaction on Brand Loyalty (A case Study of International Breweries Ilesa, Osun State)
  9. Advertising as a promotional Strategies of a product (A case study of Hypo Bleach Abeokuta, Ogun State)
  10. The effects of economic management incentives on workers behaviours (A case study of Diamond Banks Nigeria Plc.)
  11. Corporate social responsibility on a manufacturing company
  12. The Impact of Exchange rate variations on aggregate demand in Nigeria.
  13. Effective utilization of management by objective in Nigeria organization (A case study of First Bank Nigeria Plc.)
  14. Managing industrial disputes in the Nigeria Polytechnic System (A case study of Osun State Polytechnic, Iree and College of Technology EsaOke)
  15. An Evaluation of the Effects of Manpower training and development in Nigeria services organization
  16. Multi National companies and their social responsibilities in their host communities (A case study of Shell Company)
  17. Influence of Informal group on organization productivity in Nigeria
  18. Motivational Imperatives in services Industries in Nigeria (A case Study of Lautech Teaching Hospital Ogbomosho)
  19. Survival Strategies for small scale bakery in Nigeria (A case Study of Eniola Bread Iree)
  20. Investigation of government industrial policy on small business development (A case study of Boripe Local government Osun State)
  21. Corporate social responsibility in Nigeria’s telecommunication sectors (A case study of Globacom Nigeria Ltd)
  22. Effect of motivation and training on workers’ performance (a case study of access bank plc)
  23. The role of ratio Analysis in business Decision (A Case study of Oluwarotimmy Computer Institute Ota)
  24. Effectiveness of pricing and profit planning in Nigeria organization (A performance appraisal of some selected manufacturing organization)
  25. Marketing Research as a tool for increased profitability in service industry (A Case Study of NICON Insurance Company Plc.)
  26. The Impact of E-procurement on Organization Performance (A case study of Premier Hotel Ibadan, Oyo State)
  27. The Impact of Management Planning and Control on Organization Productivity (A case study of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc. Ibadan)
  28. The Impact of Personal Selling on Sales Volume of An Organization (A case study of Nigeria Breweries Plc. Ibadan, Oyo State
  29. The management of Bad Debt on Microfinance Bank (A case study of Ospoly Microfinance Bank, Iree)
  30. Effect of occupational stress on an employee’s productivity(A Case Study Of United Bank For Africa Nigeria Plc.)
  31. Communication As A Tool For Achieving Job Performance In An Organization (A Case Study Of Elephant Flour Mills, Ogbomoso)


  1. Newspaper Readership among the students of Osun State University
  2. The Position of Newspaper vendors on availability and circulation of Newspaper (A case study of Newspaper Vendor Association of Osun State Chapter)
  3. Advertisement as a promotional strategy of a product (A case study Hypo Bleach Abeokuta Ogun State)}
  4. The role of mass media on educational development (A case study of BCOS and Nigeria Tribune)
  5. The role of Television and Radio on rural development on rural development (A case Study of Iree Community Ota Ogun State)
  6. The impact mass media on childhood socialization (A case study of selected primary school in Osun State)
  7. The effect of Advertising on organization profitability (A case Study of Nigeria Bottling Company)
  8. Attitudes of Audience towards Yoruba News Presentation on Television
  9. The effect of Internet Social Media on the academic Programme of the Students of Osun State Polytechnic, Iree
  10. The role of Nigerian Media in promoting responsibility and accountability in Government
  11. Role of Entertainment Television in shaping Social Behaviour among Teenagers
  12. Impact of internet services on journalism
  13. Traditional Media of Communication as tools for effective rural development
  14. The role of Broadcast Media in Mobilising women for Political participation
  15. Role of Radio in national development (A case study of Radio Nigeria)
  16. The social effect of advertising on the Nigeria students (A case study of Student of Osun State Polytechnic, Iree
  17. The role of Community Relations on the corporate image of an organization (A case study of Nigeria Breweries Ilesha, Osun State)
  18. The use of state Broadcast media as propaganda Machinery by state government
  19. The role of Public relations in crisis Management (A case study case study of Boripe Local government
  20. The Impact of Print media in creating Awareness Against Drug Abuse A case Study of Health Column of Nigeria Tribune.
  21. Communication As A Tool For Achieving Job Performance In An Organization (A Case Study Of Elephant Flour Mills, Ogbomoso)


  1. The relevance of Debt Management to the corporate survival of financial Institution (A case study of First Bank of Nigeria Plc.)
  2. The role of ratio Analysis in business Decision (A Case study of Oluwarotimmy Computer Institute Ota)
  3. Effectiveness of pricing and profit planning in Nigeria organization (A performance appraisal of some selected manufacturing organization)
  4. An appraisal of accounting system in the public sector (A case study of Board of Internal Revenue Ogun State)
  5. The impact of public accountant in the implementation of accountability, probity and transparency in the federal civil services (A case study of the ministry of education Osun State)
  6. Taxation and its effect on the Nigeria economy (A case study of Osun State tax system)
  7. The impact of internal control system on revenue generation (A case study of Power Holding of Nigeria)
  8. The impact of internal control system on the financial management in Nigeria banks.
  9. The Impact of Exchange rate variations on aggregate demand in Nigeria.
  10. An investigation into problem of cash transfer and deposit in commercial bank
  11. Corporate Governance and Financial Performance of Banks: A case study of Listed Banks In Nigeria
  12. Relevance of Debt Management to the corporate survival of financial institution
  13. The Effects of Accounting Information on Decision Making Process In an Organization (A case study of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc.)
  14. Role of Financial statement in investment decision making (A case study of first bank of Nigeria Plc.)
  15. The Activities of Securities and Exchange Commission and the growth of Nigerian Capital Market
  16. The Causes and Effect of Fraud in Bank­ing Industry
  17. The Effect of Corporate Government on the conduct of Banks Directors and Management of Banks in Nigeria (A case study of United Bank for African)
  18. The Impact of Internal Control System on the financial management in Nigeria banking institution
  19. The Impact of Public Sectors Accounting In Nigeria Financial Control System (A case study of Ifelodun Local Government
  20. The impact of Cost control system in Nigeria manufacturing Industry



  1. Appraisal of the economics implications of electronic banking in Nigeria (A case study of Diamond Bank)
  2. Credit management and the inadequate of bad debt in Nigeria money deposit banks (A case study of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc.)
  3. A critical assessment of the survival strategy deposit money banks in a depressed economy (A case study of First Bank Nigeria Plc)
  4. Effect of motivation and training on workers’ performance (a case study of access bank plc)
  5. The Role of Microfinance bank in Rural Development (A case Study of Sagamu Microfinance Bank, SagamuOgun State)
  6. The impact of internal control system on the financial management in Nigeria banks.
  7. The Impact of Exchange rate variations on aggregate demand in Nigeria.
  8. Effect of occupational stress on an employee’s productivity(A Case Study Of United Bank For Africa Nigeria Plc.)






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The Oxford English Dictionary Added ‘Trans*.’ Here’s What the Label Means

Precious Brady Davis says that she uses the label trans* to describe herself because it’s “undefinable.” While that may be true in some senses, the experts at the Oxford English Dictionary have still given it their best shot.

Trans* is one of many new words related to sexuality and gender that the OED announced it has added on April 3, which also includes terms like ambisexual, asexual, bi-gender and heterosocial. It’s a collection that reflects our “increasingly complex understanding of these two distinct aspects of human experience,” says OED lexicographer Jonathan Dent. And trans* is a good example of how layered it can get.

“I don’t want to be defined just by one label,” says Davis, a deputy press secretary for the Sierra Club in the Midwest. “And that’s whattrans* does: it creates many.”

When said out loud, some refer to the term as “trans asterisk.” Others call it “trans star.” Here’s the definition, per the OED.

trans*: originally used to include explicitly both transsexual and transgender, or (now usually) to indicate the inclusion of gender identities such as gender-fluid, agender, etc., alongside transsexual and transgender.

The asterisk at the end of the word is known as a wildcard in search lingo, a tool you can use to search for a batch of words that begin the same way. If you typed “trans*” into the OED’s advanced search field, for example, the results would include every word that begins with those five letters, regardless of what comes after: transaction,transfix, transient and several hundred more.

Based on Dent’s research, people in the LGBTQ community started using trans* as an umbrella term in the 1990s, as a way to “cover a wide range of identities” that do not conform to “traditional notions” about gender. At the time, some of the more common terms did in fact start that way (transgender, transsexual). Others, like crossdresser, didn’t. But the term trans* came to encompass those too.

Susan Stryker, an associate professor of gender and women’s studies at the University of Arizona, jokes that when said out loud, trans*should be pronounced “trans whatever.” More seriously, she says the term provides “a way of pointing to a somewhat related class of phenomena without having to articulate exactly what that is” or get into “fine-grain distinctions.” Over the years, as labels have proliferated and discussions about gender have evolved, the asterisk has taken on deeper meaning. People refer to the notion that there are only two fixed genders — man and woman — as the gender binary. Plenty of transgender people see themselves as fitting in this binary, just assigned to the wrong category based on their anatomy at birth. But an increasing number of people describe themselves as non-binary. They might feel that neither category fits and they have no gender at all (agender) or they might feel that that both apply (bi-gender) or they might feel that their gender can change over time (gender fluid). The asterisk has functioned as a way be inclusive those identities, too.

For people like Davis, there is clearly a freedom that comes with this inexactitude. Trans* is not just a term that can include all kinds of people; it can also describe a single person who sees themselves in all kinds of categories. If she tells someone she’s a transgender woman or even trans, “that comes with a wide range of assumptions,” she says, including the notion that she might totally reject the gender she was assigned at birth. Adding the asterisk is a way to be “free” of expectations and constraints, to symbolize that a person’s gender is “always morphing and changing,” she says.

Sam Killermann, an educator who travels the college circuit speaking about these topics, says that trans* can also serve as a term that refers to everyone who is not cisgender. (That label describes the vast majority of people who feel like the gender they were assigned at birth suits them just fine.) It has a more empowering ring, he says, than to simply say non-cisgender — the same way it might feel empowering to use people of color rather than non-white. “Let’s describe something by what it is,” Killermann says, “not by what it isn’t.”

Not everyone is a fan. Some people feel like this expansive view is forcing the term trans* on sexual and gender minorities who might not want to be under that umbrella, or who live in cultures where gender is thought about in different ways—similar to how someonemight say they reject the label Hispanic because they are Peruvian-American. Other people feel like it’s redundant, that the word transcan do all the same jobs without the difficult-to-pronounce symbol attached. “Some people think of it as trendy and cutting edge and insider,” Stryker says, “and some think it’s obnoxious.”

Being added to the OED is a form of recognition. Lexicographers typically only define words that they think have staying power. Stryker says she noticed trans* taking off in the 2000s and that it’s both rising and falling in popularity these days. Some people think it’s misguided or passé and are moving away from it. But others are embracing it because “it does address this need to denote or designate something that is hard to classify,” she says, likening it togender-neutral descriptors like Mx. (an alternative to Mr. or Mrs.) and Latinx (an alternative to Latino or Latina).

“It’s become a sponge that absorbs new uses that are brought into it,” Stryker says. And at the very least, “it’s the site of a lot of discussion.”

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Perk Plastik is a powerful prepaid debit card that you can load with real money from converted Perk Points. With Perk Plastik, you can spend your Perk Points virtually anywhere! Get the Perk Wallet app to get started!

Now that I’ve earned Perk Points, what do I do with them?
Visit our extensive Rewards Catalog either on your Perk apps or on Perk.com and redeem for rewards. Keep earning Perk Points to redeem for a bigger reward! You can also enter Sweepstakes for chances to earn $10,000 and other great prizes!

Additional Questions?
Visit our Help Center for answers!

Did you know that if you do not earn Perk Points or Tokens within 30 days, your Perk balance will reset to zero? Don’t miss out!
It’s been a few days since you logged into Perk

Perk is the best rewards platform out there. So get back to it!

See you soon!
Team Perk

Hi mohammad,

Just a quick reminder that we need a few more details about you before we can activate your account. This will only take a minute, but does mean we can run a better network for our entrepreneurs & investors.

شما در هر بخش که گفتید..
در بخش شماره یک ب عنوان یک بنر قرار داد میبندید..ولی چیزی بیش از یک بنره
و مبلغ قرار داد نسبت به تعداد بنرها کم هست..اگه مبلغ رو بیشتر میکنید که ما در خدمتیم..
‫در ۱۵ مهر ۱۳۹۶، ساعت ۱۶:۲۳‏، Kaprila Publishers‏

Best wishes,

Customer Service Team

Hey Perkstar!

It’s been a few days since you logged into Perk. We want you to earn as many rewards as your heart desires!

How do I earn rewards?
Start by downloading our apps where you can choose to earn easy Perk Points based on your interests. Watch Perk.TV or Viggle.TV on your desktop or complete offers!

What is the Perk Plastik Debit Card?
Perk Plastik is a powerful prepaid debit card that you can load with real money from converted Perk Points. With Perk Plastik, you can spend your Perk Points virtually anywhere! Get the Perk Wallet app to get started!

Now that I’ve earned Perk Points, what do I do with them?
Visit our extensive Rewards Catalog either on your Perk apps or on Perk.com and redeem for rewards. Keep earning Perk Points to redeem for a bigger reward! You can also enter Sweepstakes for chances to earn $10,000 and other great prizes!

Additional Questions?
Visit our Help Center for answers!

Did you know that if you do not earn Perk Points or Tokens within 30 days, your Perk balance will reset to zero? Don’t miss out!
It’s been a few days since you logged into Perk

Perk is the best rewards platform out there. So get back to it!

See you soon!
Team Perk

Hi mohammad,

Just a quick reminder that we need a few more details about you before we can activate your account. This will only take a minute, but does mean we can run a better network for our entrepreneurs & investors.

شما در هر بخش که گفتید..
در بخش شماره یک ب عنوان یک بنر قرار داد میبندید..ولی چیزی بیش از یک بنره
و مبلغ قرار داد نسبت به تعداد بنرها کم هست..اگه مبلغ رو بیشتر میکنید که ما در خدمتیم..
‫در ۱۵ مهر ۱۳۹۶، ساعت ۱۶:۲۳‏، Kaprila Publishers‏

Best wishes,

Customer Service Team

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