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IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Occupational Stress occurs in a wide range of work circumstances but is often made worse when employees feel they have little support from supervisors and colleagues and where they have little control over work or how they can cope with its demands and pressures. Work stress is recognized world-wide as a major challenge to workers ‘health and the healthiness of their organizations. Workers who are stressed are also most likely to be unhealthy, poorly motivated, less productive and less effective at work and their organizations are less likely to be successful in a competitive market. Stress can be brought about by pressures at home and at work (Kausaret al., 2006).

Organizations cannot usually protect their workers from stress arising outside of work, but they can protect them from stress that arises through work. Occupational stress can be a real problem to the organization as far as its workers are concerned. Good management and good work organizations are the best forms of stress prevention. If employees are already stressed, their managers should be aware of it and know how to help in order to get the best out of their employees. Poor work organization that is, the

Most of time of our lives spent at work, job stress is widely experienced and so pervasive, that it’s been found to effect people in every sector. Employees’ in health sector spend most of their time at work, that’s why they are directly targeted by stress; due to this their productivity at workplace decreases greatly. Now the days, stress is considered as an important factor, which is rapidly increasing the absenteeism rate of employers and employees. This happens more in the public sector, where 50 percent of employers reported stress related absence.

The main causes of stress are work overloads, management styles, non-work factors such as relationships with family and workplace associates. In public sector, job security is considered more common cause of stress in recent years. Cost on absence in public sector due to stress is reported more than the cost incurred in the private sector. In public sector cost reported due to stress is 800 pound per employee a year, while in private sector; it is reported 446 pound per employee per year (Miller & Phipps, 2011). Over a few years, job stress is considered to be a worldwide problem and increasing steadily in the U.S. and other nations where the industry is growing rapidly. Poor salary packages, long working hours, mistreatment of supervisors with employees, are the major causes of creating stress in employees. Job stress produces large number of undesirable effects for both individual and organization. The incidents of hyper tension and heart attacks are the severe problems related to stress. India, Russia, China, Brazil, Turkey and other eastern European countries are the emerging countries in which stress is rapidly growing. Job stress affects not only the employees’ but also the organizations in the monetary and non-monetary costs. These costs are used to recover the work and health related injuries. Monetary cost is used to recover the health of employees and lower productivity and absenteeism of employees’ is recovered by non-monetary costs.

During the life span of an individual, job period is very important because it is directly linked with the stress. In those organizations where employees are not treated accordingly least satisfaction and high stress level are common observations. Stress is very harmful for human body, it increases blood pressure, sugar, suppression of immune system, decreased digestive system activity and reduced urine output. Stressful employees caught serious diseases that result in low productivity. In case of health sector, stress and the mental issues are becoming the major areas of study at workplace in almost every organization. The health sector is very sensitive and pivotal segment in economy where employees perform their duties almost 24 hours a day, than under these conditions it is impossible for them to perform their task that results in decrease of productivity.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Over a few years, occupational stress is considered to be a worldwide problem and increasing steadily in the Nigeria and other nations where the industry is growing rapidly. It has been noticed that the employees in banking sector has been undergoing the stress in higher rate and has certain impact on productivity .Thus suggesting the organisation in which they have to concentrate more and improve the necessary areas for reducing stress among employees in organization.

Poor salary packages, long working hours, mistreatment of supervisors with employees, are the major causes of creating stress in employees. Job stress produces large number of undesirable effects for both individual and organization. The incidents of hyper tension and heart attacks are the severe problems related to stress. India, Russia, China, Brazil, Turkey and other eastern European countries are the emerging countries in which stress is rapidly growing. Job stress affects not only the employees’ but also the organizations in the monetary and non-monetary costs. These costs are used to recover the work and health related injuries. Monetary cost is used to recover the health of employees and lower productivity and absenteeism of employees’ is recovered by non-monetary costs.

 

1.3       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What are the causes of Occupational stress in the Banking sector?
  2. What the effects of Occupational stress in the Banking sector?
  3. Are there any impact of occupational stress have on employee productivity?
  4. Are there any significant relationship between occupational stress and employees productivity?
  5. What are the major factors influence stress?

 

1.4       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To determine the causes of job stress in the Banking sector.
  2. To analyze the effects of job stress in the Banking sector.
  3. To identify the impact of occupational stress on employee productivity
  4. To study the relationship between stress factors and employee’s productivity
  5. To analyze the major factors influence stress
  6. To suggest ways to reduce stress among employees & increase productivity

 

1.5       STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES

For the purpose of this research work, some provisional statements are made to provide solution to the problem identified. The research hypothesis for this study is centered on the Null and Alternative hypothesis as shown below;

Ho:      There is no significant relationship between Occupational Stress and Employees Productivity.

Hi:       There is significant relationship between Occupational Stress and Employee Productivity.

 

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY          

This study is done to find out the occupational stress of the employees in the work place and how it affects the productivity of the employees in “Banking Sectors”. The study is vital as the healthy, satisfied and stress-less physicians and supporting staff are more focused towards patients concerns who might be the valuable assets for an organization. This study is will highlight the major stress factors which are contributing to decreasing employees productivity at job. This study is helpful for the employees’ of United Bank for Africa to analyze the stress factors, which are creating stress in them and to improve the health. This study will also helps to know the importance of occupational stress in the banks.

 

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this research work will cover the impact of Occupational Stress on employee’s productivity with a special reference to the banking sectors a case study of United  Bank for Africa Plc.

 

1.8       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

In the course of this research work, the researcher was faced with some constraints which placed a limit to the ability and performance of the researcher. The researcher encountered the following constraints among others.

  1. Financial Constraint: The researcher needed a lot of money to travel to collect the necessary data from the firm. Money was also required to visit secondary data sources such as the internet, libraries, professional bodies, and so on.
  2. Lack of Co-Operation: The unco-operative attitudes of many employees of the firm under study were not encouraging. Some of them were so biased and prejudiced that did not care to understand the purpose of the research. This resulted to their failure to provide sufficient information required for proper completion of the study.
  3. Time Pressure: Time allowed was not enough for through completion of the research, in consideration of the fact we were also facing other academic studies during the semester.

 

1.9       DEFINITION OF TERMS

  1. Employees:This can be referred to as a paid worker working in an organization, that is, person employed for wages or salary, especially at nonexecutive level. An individual who works part-time or full-time under a contract of employment, whether oral or written, express or implied, and has recognized rights and duties. Also called worker.
  2. Banks: A place where money and any other valuables things are kept. A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
  3. Productivity:This isthe relative efficiency of economic activity that is, the amount of products or services produced compared to the amount of goods and labor used to produce it.
  4. Stress: Stress is a condition of physical and psychological mental disorder which occurs in a situation of pressure, when resources are unable to fulfill the demand of an individual.
  5. Occupational Stress:Occupational stress is stress involving work. Occupational stress is a major hazard for many workers. Increased workloads, downsizing, overtime, hostile work environments, and shift work are just a few of the many causes of stressful working conditions.
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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF CARICA PAPAYA LEAF

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title Page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                              v

Table of Content                                                                                 vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1       The importance of Bioactive Constituent

1.2       Healing Property of Papaya

1.3       Aims and Objective

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review

2.1       Scientific Classification

2.2       Types

2.3       Cultivation

2.4       Uses

2.5       Health Benefits

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Materials and Method

3.1       Sample Collection

3.2       Sample Preparation

3.3       Phytochemical Screening

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Result and Discussion

4.1       Result

4.2       Discussion

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1       Conclusion

5.2       Recommendation

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Carica Papaya belonging to the caricaceae family is an effective medicinal herb that is used as a folk medicine for treatment of various diseases throughout the world including Bangladesh. The carica papaya leaf can be use to treat numerous diseases like warts, corus, sinuses, ecpema, cataneous  tubercules, glandular tumors, blood pressure, dyspepsia, constipation, amenorrhea, general debility, expel worms and stimulate reproductive organs and many as a result. Carica papaya can be regarded as a neutraceutical. The phytochemical screening of its leave aqueous extract revealed the presence of tannins (0.667%), flavoniods (7.262%), phytic acid (9.02%), oxalate (5.76%) and alkaloids (12.19%). The root is said to cure piles and yaws and root infusions are used for syphilis. Juices from papaya roots are used in some countries of Asia to ease urinary troubles. The phytochemical screening of its root aqueous extract revealed the presence of tannins (0.444%), flavonoids (5.7%), phytic acid (9.72%), oxalate (8.10%) and alkaloids (8.52%). Aqueous root extract is riches in detected phytochemical substance compared with aqueous leaves extract in carica papaya. The various phytochemical compounds detected are known to have beneficial uses in industry and medical science and also exhibit physiological activities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       Introduction

Pawpaw (Carica Papaya) is a plant that belongs to the family of caricaeae. It is herbaceous succulent plant with self supporting stem. It is a large tree like plant with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 meters tall with sparily arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The tree is usally unbranched. Originally derived from the southern part of Mexico, Carica papaya is a perennial plant.

Papaya is a powerhouse of nutrient and is available throughout the year. It is a rich source of threes powerful antioxidant vitamin C, vitamin A, and vitamin E; The minerals, magnesium and potassium; B vitamin pantothenic acid and folate and fiber. Product of higher plant origin has been known to be effective sources of chemotherapeutic agent without underlying effects. Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history the use of medicinal plant all over the world predates the introduction of antibiotics and other modern drugs. A medicine plant is any plant with one or more of its organ containing substances that can be used for these therapeutic purposes or which are the precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs. They are of great importance to the health individuals and communities.

1.1       The Importance of Bioactive Constituents

            The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and foods plant sometimes added to foods. Deliciously sweet with musky undertones and a soft, buffer like consistency, it is no wonder the papaya was reputably called the fruit of the angel by “Christopher” Columbus. Papaya plants have the major advantages of still being the most effective and cheaper alternative sources of drugs. The local use of natural plants as primary health remedies, due to their pharmacological properties is quite common in Asia, Latin, America and Africa.

1.2       Healing Properties of Papaya

 

         Increases quality of proteins in whole organism.

         Revitalize the human body and maintain energy and vitality.

         Encourages the renewal of muscle tissue.

         Supports cardiovascular system.

         Boosts up the immune system.

         Helps with the digestive system, by breaking down the proteins and supporting production of   digestive enzymes.

         Papaya can be used also externally as a treatment for skin wounds that doesn‘t heal quickly, for this anybody can be used papaya peel or ointments made out of papaya.

         Prevents the cataract formation.

 

         Due to high vitamin A, it lowers the risk of emphysema in smokers and passive smokers.

         Alleviates inflammation.

         Helps with the nausea and constipation.

         Can benefit people suffering colon cancer and other forms of cancers and aliments of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

1.2.1    Medicinal use

 

  1. Colon cancer: The fiber of papaya is able to bind cancer-causing toxins in the colon and keep them away from the healthy colon cells. These nutrients provide synergistic protection for colon cells from free radical damage to their DNA. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Protein enzymes including papain and chymopapain and antioxidant nutrients found inpapaya; including vitamin C, vitamins E, and beta-carotene, reduce the severity of the conditions such as asthma, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Vitamin C-rich foods, such as papaya, provide humans with protection against inflammatorypolyarthritis, a form of rheumatoid arthritis involving two or more joints. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Promote Lung Health: Eating vitamin A rich foods, such as papaya, help the lung to be healthy and save life. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Anti-Sickling: Activity Current research proves that papaya is having an anti-sickling activity. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Prevent Prostate Cancer: Men consuming lycopene-rich fruits and vegetables such as papaya, tomatoes, apricots, pink grapefruit, watermelon, and guava were 82% less likely to have prostate cancer compared to those consuming the least lycopene-rich foods. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

  1. Anticoagulant Effect: Injection of papian extract in a dog increases prothrombin and coagulation threefold. It is alsoclaimed that the enzyme eliminates necrotic tissues in chronic wounds, burns and ulcers.Papain is also of commercial importance in the brewery industry, in the food industry and in the textile industry. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)
  2. kidney failure: Papaya seed extract may have in toxicity-induced kidney failure. Evidently a kidney-transplant patient in London was cured of a post-operative infection by placing strips of papaya on the wound for 48 hours. Women in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and other countries have long used green papaya as an herbal medicine for contraception and abortion. Enslaved women in the West Indies were noted for consuming papaya to prevent pregnancies and thus preventing their children from being born into slavery. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013).

 

  1. Immunomodulatory: The involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms in several biological and pathological processes including ageing, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases has continued to fuel suggestions that processes can potentially be modulated by treatment with free-radical scavengers and antioxidant. The fermented papaya preparation has shown its ability to modulate oxidative DNA damage due to H2O2 in rat pheochromocytoma cells and protection of brain oxidative damage in hypertensive rats. It has also exhibited potential supportive role on oxidative inflammatory damage in cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C virus. The safety and antioxidative stress potential of papaya juice is found to be comparable to the standard antioxidant compound alpha tocopherol. The preparation containing yeast fermented papaya as one of the constituent has antioxidant actions and that it may be prophylactic food against age related and neurological diseases associated with free radicals. Bacteriostatic activity of papaya could be correlated to its scavenging action on superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, which could be part of the cellular metabolism of such enteropathogens. Bio-catalyzer, which contains yeast fermented papaya, may be useful as health foods against neural lipid peroxidation, traumatic epilepsy and ageing. Consumptions of guava and papaya fruits reduce oxidative stress and alter lipid profile. Thus, it could reduce the risk of disease caused by free radical activities and high cholesterol in blood. (Krishna, Paridhavi et al, 2008).

 

1.2.2    Industrial uses

Papaya is primarily a fresh-market fruit, and is used in drinks, jams, pectin, candies and as crystallised fruit. Green fruit may be cooked as a vegetable, as may the leaves, flowers and roots Papaya has several well-known industrial uses, notably for the enzyme papain (one of its four major constituent cysteine proteinases) which has properties similar to gastric pepsin. Producers induce latex to exude from longitudinal incisions made into unripe fruit; the papain purified from the extract is used in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and other manufacturing For example, the food industry uses papain in brewing, manufacturing baby food, and producing proteins for human and animal consumption. Papain is also used to shrink proof wool and silk, and in the bating process to make leathers more pliable. For some applications however, synthetic enzymes and enzymes from other sources are displacing the use of the natural papain. The latex from papaya has been used in manufacture of chewing gum. Oil from the fruit‘s many (200-1000) more or less spheroidal seeds (c. 2-5 mm × 3.5-6 mm) and other components of fruit and leaves have been used in cosmetics and soap. (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

1.2.3    Cosmetic Benefits of Papaya

Rubbing the white pulp of raw papaya improves pimples as well as wrinkles. Papaya works as a good bleaching agent. It is an important ingredient in bath soaps, astringents, detergent bars and hand washes. Home Recipe for Papaya Skin Lightner Experts suggest that papaya can help in removing dead worn-out skin cells and replace it with healthy new cells, thereby lightening the color of our skin.(Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

 

 

 

1.2.4    Allergies and Side Effects

 Papaya is frequently used as a hair conditioner, but should be used in small amounts. Papaya releases a latex fluid when not quite ripe, which can cause irritation and provoke allergic reaction in some people. The latex concentration of unripe papayas is speculated to cause uterine contractions, which may lead to a miscarriage. Papaya seed extracts in large doses have a contraceptive effect on ratsand monkeys, but in small doses have no effect on the unborn animals.Excessive consumption of papaya can cause carotenemia, the yellowing of soles and palms, which is otherwise harmless. However, a very large dose would need to be consumed; papaya contains about 6% of the level of beta carotene found in carrots (the most common cause of carotenemia) (Aravind, Debjit et. al, 2013)

Traditional healers’ nave managed to find cure for certain disease conditions that have baffled western medicine for centuries such as antimicrobial drug resistance. 25% of these medicinal plants are known to be useful for the cure of gastrointestinal disorders ranging from peptic ulcers and abnormal cramps to diarrhea and dysentery. Papaya helps in the digestion of proteins as it is a rich source of proteolytic enzymes. Even papain a digestive enzymes found in papaya is extracted, dried as a powder and use as an aid in digestion. Ripe fruit consumed regularly helps in habitual constipation. It is also reported that papaya prevents premature aging. Papaya contributes to a healthy immune system by increasing your resistance to coughs and colds because of it vitamin A and C contents. All the nutrient of papaya as a whole improve cardiovascular system, protect against heart diseases, heart attacks, strokes and prevent colon cancer. These nutritional values of papaya help to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol. The unripe papaya contain terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins and steroids. Unripe fruit of papaya are used to treat high blood pressure, dyspepsia, constipation, amenorrhea general debility, expel worms and stimulate reproductive organs. Unripe pawpaw fruit is used as a remedy for ulcer and impotence.  Pawpaw has been utilized for the clearification of beer. The seed is used as intestinal worms expellant when chewed. The root is chewed and the juice swallowed for cough, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases.

1.3       Aims and Objectives

  1. To determine the uses of Carica Papaya
  2. To examine the phytochemical constituent
  3. To determine the healing properties of papaya
  4. To examine the family Carica Papaya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0       Literature Review

2.1       Scientific classification of Carica Papaya.

Kingdom                                 Plantae

(Unranked)                              Angiosperms

(Unranked)                              Eudicots

(Unranked)                              Rosids

Order                                       Brassicales

Family                                     Caricaceae

Genus                                      Carica

Species                                    C. Papaya

Binominal name

Carica Papaya

L National Gemplasm Resources laboratory, Beltsuille Maryland, USDA, ARS, National Genetic Piesource program retrieved December 2010

The papaya is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genius Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. It is native to the tropies of the Americas, perharpsmfrom southern Mexico and neighbouring central America. It was first cultivated in Mexico several centuries. Before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classical civilization. (\Papaya.www.hoot purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/papaya-ars.html)1987.

2.2       Types

The papaya is a large tree like plants with a single stem growing from 5 to 10m (16 to 33ft) tall with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne the leaves are large 50-70cm (20-28m) in diameter, deeply paliamately lobed with even lobes. Unusually for such large plant the trees are dioecious. The tree is usually unbranched unless lopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the plumeria but are much similar and wax like (canal ugr/life-sciences/item/6354-scientists-deciplier-fruit-tree-genome-for-the-first-time).

2.3       Cultivation

Papaya plants come in three sexes “Male”, ”Female” and “Hermaphrodite”. The male produce only pollen never fruit. The female will produce small, inedible fruits unless pollinated. The hermaphrodite can self pollinated since its flower contains both male stammers and female ovaries. Almost all commercial papaya orchards contain only hermaphrodites (www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/f-n-5.pdf).

2.4       Uses

Papaya can be used as a food, a cooking aid and in traditional medicine. The stem and bark may be used in rope production.

2.4.1    Traditional Medicine

Papaya leaves are made into teas, a treatment for malaria, antimalaria and antiplasmodial activity has been noted in some preparation of the plant, but mechanism is not understood and no treatment method based on these result has been scientifically proven. In belief it can raise platelet level in blood, papaya maybe used as a medicine for dengue fever. Papaya is marketed in tablet form to remedy digestive problem. A decoction formed by boiling the outer part of the roots is also used to cure dyspepsia (iitanji.u.p.20fou.DNgemenya.M.N (2008).

 

2.4.2    Medical Uses

            Carica papaya contains an enzyme known as papain which is present in the bark, leave, root and fruit. The milky juice is extracted, doied and used as a chewing gum for gigestive problems, toothpaste and meat tenderizers. It also contains many biological active compounds including chymopapain and papain which is thye ingredient that aids digestive system and again used in treatement of jaundice and arthritis.

Papaya leaf is used in herbal medicine to remove intestinal worms. Papaya leaf was less of the protein, dissolving papain than the fruit, so it is less likely to dissolve the worms but it contains tannins that the fruits does not. This tannin protects the intestine from reinfection tanning protein in the lining of the intestinal wall so that worms cannot attach themselves.

Papaya roots is used as poultice or prepared as decoction. Decoctions of pounded papaya roots are used as digestive tonic and to cure dyspepsia. Extracts from papaya root are used to abort early pregnancy and also used to treat insect bite.(Loliya,N.K.B. Manivannan, p.k.mishia; N. Pathak; S. Sriram; S.S.  Blande; S. Panneerdoss (March 2002) retrieved 2006-11-18.

2.5       Health Benefits

Papaya are rich sources of antioxidant nutrients such as carotenes, vitamin C and flavonoid; the B vitamins, Folate and pantothenic acid; and minerals potassium, copper and magnesium; and fiber. Together, these nutrients promote the health of the cardiovascular system and also provide protection against colon cancer. In addition, the papaya contains the digestive enzymes papain which is used like bromelain, similar enzymes found in pineapple to treat sport Injuries, other cause of trauma, and allergies (http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=47).

 

2.5.1    Protection against Heart Disease

Papaya maybe very helpful for the prevention of atherosclerosis and diabetic heart disease. Papayas are an excellent source of the powerful antioxidant vitamin C and vitamin A (through their concentration of pro-vitamin A carotenoid phytonutrients).

These nutrients help to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol. Only when cholesterol becomes oxidized it is able to stick to and build up in blood vessels walls, forming dangerous plagues that can eventually cause heart attack and strokes. One way in which dietary vitamin E and vitamin C may exert this effect is through their suggested association with a compound called paraoxonase, an enzyme that inhibits LDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol oxidation. Papaya is also a good source of fiber, which have been shown to lower high cholesterol levels. The folic acid found in the papaya is needed for the conversion of a substance called homocysteine into benign amino acids such as cysteine or methionine. If unconverted, homocysteine can directly damage blood vessel walls level get to high, is consider a significant risk factor for a heart attack or strokes. (http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=47)

2.5.2    Promotes digestive Health

The nutrients in papaya have also been shown to be helpful in the prevention of colon cancer. Papaya’s fiber is able to bind to cancer- causing toxins in the colon and keep them away from the health colon cells;. In addition, papaya folate, vitamin C, beta- carotene and Vitamin E have each been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer. These nutrients provides synergistic protection for colon cells from free radical damage to their DNA (http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=47)

 

 

 

 

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CONSTRUCTION OF COLUMN FINISHING USING P.O.P IN MODERN BUILDING

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1       Background of the study.

Plaster of Paris (POP) is chemically hemihydrates of calcium sulfate (Ca SO41/2 H2O). It is produced by calcination heating of gypsum, a di-hydrate of caocium sulfate (Ca SO42 H2O). It has applications in construction industry, ceramic industry, sculptures, chalk pieces, medical (dental and surgical) etc. Most of the units producing POPs are in small scale sector with capacity ranging 10-20 TD, only a small number of units are in large scale sector 100-200TD.

POP units use both thermal (wood, coal and diesel) and electrical energy for the production of POP(Plaster Of Paris).The electricity consumption is only 5% of total energy used thus the cost of producing POP depends on the cost of thermal energy, which is increasing every month. On an average a rotary kiln calciner uses about 300 kg of wood per ton .The monthly average energy consumption is of the order of 15000 kWh per ton. Since energy used is in thermal form, it makes sense to use concentrating solar power technology to generate required process heat. Maximum numbers of POP manufacturing units are based in western Rajasthan.

This region has clear sun shine for about 300-320 days in a year. Solar resource map show that this region receives more than 6 kWh per day, which shows suitability of the site. The Indian CST industry has developed good expertise to tap the solar thermal energy with 40 to 70% efficiency, using tracking type concentrators.

If we assume efficiency of collection as 60% then each meter square of concentrator will generate around 4 kWh in a day with dual axis true parabolic concentrators. Even a fixed focus Scheffler dish can generate about 40 kwh in a day. Salman and Khraishi studied the decomposition of lime and gypsum using solar energy. Narendra et al proposed use of solar energy in calcininggypsum, however, actual experiments were simulated with electrical energy. Present paper reports results of experiments done to calcine gypsum for production of POP using a commercial parabolic solar concentrator of 4 sqm and a proposed commercial method for production of POP using solar thermal energy.

 

 

 

 

1.2       Statement of the problem

            In nowadays building construction, P.O.P contractors are commonly encountering in the wake of not knowing broadly on the installation of Plaster of Paris. The study is to provide broader view on the installation of Plaster of Paris.

 

1.3       Aim and objectives

The aims and objectives of the study work include the following:

  1. To ascertain the benefits of having or construction of column finishing using P.O.P in modern building.
  2. To ascertain the work of construction of column using P.O.P in modern building
  3. To ascertain materials require for the construction of columns finishing using P.O.P in modern building.
  4. To classify the columns based on types of reinforcement, loadings and slenderness ratios.
  5. Providing necessary information on the historical background of plaster of Paris thereby, giving the reader of this research work a brief on how the plaster of Paris came into existence.

 

1.4       Justification of the Study

Construction of column finishing using Plaster of Paris in modern building is quite demanding and yet necessary. A Plaster of Paris Column finishing is not only needed in building Construction for beautification and decoration alone but also serves other purposes like thermal insulator, heat-proofing material,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

2.0       Literature Review

2.1       History of Plaster of Paris

In the early period of 1600s century Egyptians discovered the extraction of plaster of Paris from gypsum, while later on the Greeks started the use of this plaster of Paris for their construction purposes basically in their tombs and homes construction. The first scientific study on plaster was realized in 1768 by a French scientist named Lavoisier. In 1887,

Le Chatelier (2007), another prominent French scientist, was the first to study the hydration mechanisms of plaster. And then, plaster gradually became a fascinating research subject for scientists. In ancient India and China, renders in clay and gypsum plasters were used to produce a smooth surface over rough stone or mud brick walls.

History seems to indicate that, despite the name, plaster of Paris was invented by the Egyptians. It was used as an artistic decoration in many Egyptian tombs, and the Greeks picked up the technique, using plaster in their own homes, temples, and works of art. Paris became synonymous with this type of plaster in the 1600s, the large deposit of gypsum made it easy to produce plaster of Paris. The substance was also used extensively in fireproofing; giving Parisian homes a distinctive appearance.

Plaster decoration was widely used in Europe in the middle Ages where, from the mid-13th century, gypsum was used for internal and external plaster. Hair was employed as reinforcement, with additives to assist setting or plasticity including malt, urine, beer, milk and eggs. In the 14th century, decorative trowelled plaster, called pargeting was used in South-East England to decorate the exterior of timber-framed buildings. This is a form of incised, molded or modeled ornament, executed in lime putty or mixtures of lime and gypsum plaster. During this same period, terracotta was reintroduced into Europe and was widely used for the production of ornament. In the 1700’s, Paris was already the “capital of plaster” (“Plaster of Paris”) since all the walls of wooden houses were covered with plaster, as a protection against fire.

 

2.1.1    Plaster of Paris usage in Art & Architecture

Artists use plaster of Paris to create sculpture, make decorative items and as a painting surface. The Greeks and Romans used plaster to create replicas of their more famous artworks. The Egyptians perfected plaster casting methods and used them to make casts of the heads of the dead in order to recreate their likenesses. The use of finely ground gypsum plaster to create decorative molding was popular during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Painting in fresco is the process of painting on a thin layer of wet plaster of Paris. A well known example of fresco work is Michelangleo’s ceiling in the Sistine Chapel.

Plaster of Paris trim, medallions and friezes etc are used to bring a touch of old-world class, modern patterns & customized artwork to transform the plain ceilings/walls into desired designs to add value and sanctity to the building. Ceiling medallions made of plaster and wood were common accents in government buildings and upper class homes centuries ago.

According to house (learners dictionary of American English 2016) defines Plaster of Paris as a white powdery substance used as a base for gypsum plasters and as a material for mixing with water to make fine or decorative casts.

According to concise English dictionary,it defines it as a hard plaster produced when mixed with water: a fully hydrated form of calcium sulphate.

Etymology: 15th century: from medieval Latin plastrumparisiense, originally made from the plaster of Paris (gypsum).

Encyclopedia Britannica(2015) defines Plaster of Paris as a quick setting gypsum plaster consisting of a fine while powder (calcium surphate Hemihydrate) which hardens when moistened and allowed to dry

The plaster of Paris, is a white binder produced from gypsum by removing water of crystallization .This is done by heating the raw gypsum at temperatures of the order of 120-180℃. This removal of water is described by equation [1]

CaSO4.2H2O+ΔH→βCaSO4.1/2H2O+3/2H2O (1) ΔH=597,200kJ/ton=142,600kcal/T=165.9kWh/T

 

2.1.2    Advantages and Disadvantages of Plaster of Paris

Advantages of Plaster of Paris

  • Durable and hard
  • Fire resistant
  • Sound resistant
  • Fast installation
  • Easy to repair
  • Light weight
  • Inexpensive
  • Excellent substratefor paint, fabric and wood
  • Quick setting 5 – 10 minutes initial set
  • Mixes easily with water
  • Crack resistant
  • Produces hard, smooth, chip resistant finish

 

Disadvantages of Plaster of Paris

  • Not resistant to water
  • Untreated face paper can encourage mold growth
  • Not structural
  • Reflects sound
  • Lacks intrinsic character

 

According to Narenda Kumar (2013); states that the gypsum is a mineral available all over the world, it is also produced as a byproduct of fertilizer industry. In India the largest deposits are in Rajasthan followed by Tamilnadu, Jammu, Gujrat,UP, MP and West Bengal. The gypsum is used in the manufacture of hydraulic cements, ammonium sulfate fertilizer, sulphuric acid, and reclamation of acidic soil for agricultural purpose. Chemically gypsum is CaSO4.2H2O, and has a molecular weight of 177.17

 

2.1.3    Plaster of Paris as Core Ingredient for its Made ups:

S.N Sami Sameer 2013: views Plaster of Paris as core raw material used for the making of Plaster of Paris Tile, Boarders, Trims, Medallions and Misc Made ups. It is a sculpting material with a variety of decorative and practical applications. Plaster of Paris is inexpensive and simple to work with. It can be used to decorate a finished product with paint or embellish it with beads, stones and wire.

2.1.4    Uses of Plaster of Paris

Common uses for plaster of Paris include making castings for other artistic mediums, creating sculptures and making home décor objects. The Plaster of Paris is used in the following fields,

  • Castings
  • Architecture & Art
  • Fireproof
  • Filling small cracks in plaster surfaces
  • Large or small castings
  • Hobby and art projects

 

  1. Castings: One common use for plaster of Paris is to make decorative castings to be used as embellishments, jewelry charms and pendants. Select a flexible plastic mold from a craft store and apply a generous coating of a release agent to the mold before pouring the mixed plaster of Paris into it. Release agents can be common household supplies, such as petroleum jelly or nonstick cooking spray. Without a release agent, the plaster of Paris will be difficult to remove from the mold and will often break. Allow the plaster to set up in the mold for one hour, and then remove it. The molded plaster is still soft enough at this point to trim away any excess material from around the edges. Allow the cast piece to dry for at least 24 hours before decorating it.
  2. Art & Architecture:Plaster of Paris is used by artists for producing sculptures and decorative items and as a painting surface since ages. Today Plaster of Paris is being widely used in making abstract arts, canvas, sculptured paintings, wall paintings, decorative ceilings etc.The Greeks and Romans used plaster to create replicas of their more famous artworks. The Egyptians perfected plaster casting methods and used them to make casts of the heads of the dead in order to recreate their likenesses. The use of finely ground gypsum plaster to create decorative molding was popular during the 18th and 19th centuries. Painting in fresco is the process of painting on a thin layer of wet plaster of Paris.Raised plaster stenciling added architectural elegance to stately homes and government buildings at the turn of the century. Artisans created beautiful plaster designs on the walls and ceilings of the White House in 1905. Raised plaster stenciling or relief stenciling is an elegant way to perk up any space. The designs can delicately accent wall and ceiling trims or add style to outdoor urns and furniture.

Figure 1: Art and Architecture

 

2.2       Plaster of Paris; Review of Manufacturing Processes

According to Narenda Kumar (2013); states that the gypsum is a mineral available all over the world, it is also produced as a byproduct of fertilizer industry. In India the largest deposits are in Rajasthan followed by Tamilnadu, Jammu, Gujrat,UP, MP and West Bengal. The gypsum is used in the manufacture of hydraulic cements, ammonium sulfate fertilizer, sulphuric acid, and reclamation of acidic soil for agricultural purpose. Chemically gypsum is CaSO4.2H2O, and has a molecular weight of 177.17

 

2.2.1    Product Description and Application

Plaster of Paris is produced from Gypsum, which is a naturally occurring crystal of calcium sulphate (CaSO4.2H2O). Gypsum is created from the evaporation of sea water that is trapped in

lagoons of subsoil and is usually found in mountains. The impure gypsum (that it is found in the subsoil) can have different color variations, such as grey, brown or red. The pure however plaster color is white. It can be quarried in different parts of the world in slightly different forms. Plaster is made from gypsum by grinding it to powder and then gently heating it to drive off some, or all, of the water of crystallization.

Chemically, Plaster of Paris is calcium sulphate having molecular formula CaSo4½H2O. It is a white hygroscopic powder very slightly soluble in water particularly at high temperature. It is widely used in the manufacture of models in pottery industry, for making ornamental castings, plaster boards and chalk crayons, etc. Other uses of this cheap commodity are for building decoration as wall plaster and floor cement and dentist plaster. It is also used as orthopedic plaster in surgery for setting of broken bones, etc.

 

2.3       Manufacturing Plaster Of Paris Items

The Process Flow:

Plaster of Paris is used as an important raw material for making Tiles/ boarders, Trims, medallions, frieze, miscellaneous made-ups and decorative items etc. The whole process of making Plaster of Paris decorative items is described below:

  1. Mold Oiling: The process begins by initially applying an oil mixture on to the surface of the mould before pouring the liquid paste of the plaster of Paris. This oil mixture is used as a separating medium in order to easily extract the set Plaster of Paris shape (tiles, boarders, medallions, frieze etc) from the Mould. The oil mixture is prepared with the help of different ingredients, such as diesel, cooking oil, cutting oil, Mobile oil, water and Soap.
  2. Re-hydration (Filling of Mold with Plaster of Paris): To make the paste of the plaster of Paris, water is added with plaster of Paris powder & mixed homogeneously with hands till a slurry paste is achieved, which is then ready to be poured in the plastic/fiber mold. When it solidifies it takes the shape of the mold & form tiles, ceiling boarders, medallions, frieze etc. The ratio of plaster of Paris powder & water is determined manually until a thick slurry paste is formed. The Plaster of Paris paste must be utilized immediately since it will set with in few minutes and once it starts setting it cannot be utilized and will be wasted. In this stage of production mold are partially filled with Plaster of Paris paste and spread on the mould so that every part of the mold receives equal proportion. Here the paste in the mould is leveled properly &some times the mold is tapped on the table/floor so that the paste reaches deep into every minute detailing of the design. After leveling the surface, used Poly propylene plastic bags in which the powder plaster of Paris is supplied (or new ones purchased) are shredded in to strips and are spread & slightly dipped with hands on the partially poured plaster of Paris paste for the purpose of obtaining strength of the resultant piece of tiles, medallions, boarders, etc. Some manufacturers also use Coconut shell torn in to thread instead of Poly propylene (PP) bags which gives more strength then plastic. Since the coconut shells are expensive therefore, most of the manufacturers use the PP – Bags.
  3. Shaping & Treatment: After the plastic or coconut shell strips are dipped in the paste another layer of Plaster of Paris is poured to fill the mold & leveled by hand or a wood piece and surface is finalized. Here in this stage we fix hooks (made from iron wires) in all corners of the tiles. These hooks will aid in the installation or fixing of these tiles, boarders etc. on building ceilings.
  4. Setting / Drying: In this final stage the mold is left for setting for 5-20 minutes since plaster of Paris takes about 20 minutes to solidify. The set plaster of Paris is now extracted from the mould and placed in direct sunlight so that it gets complete dried. It may take 10-12 hours to completely dry out, consequent to the product’s desiccation it is ready for sale, transportation, usage or installation.

 

2.4       Column Design

According to ACI Code 2.2, a structural element with a ratio of height-to-least lateral dimension exceeding three used primarily to support compressive loads is defined as column. Columns support vertical loads from the floor and roof slabs and transfer these loads to the footings. Columns usually support compressive loads with or without bending. Depending on the magnitude of the bending moment and the axial force, column behavior will vary from pure beam action to pure column action.

Columns are classified as short or long depending on their slenderness ratios. Short columns usually fail when their materials are overstressed and long columns usually fail due to buckling which produces secondary moments resulting from the P – D effect.

 

2.5       Concepts of Column

Column, pillar used in building to support the superstructure of a building and, also, occasionally as a freestanding monument. Columns may be circular or polygonal in cross section and are at least four times taller than they are wide. The first columns appear to have been constructed from tree trunks or bundled reeds.

Columns are occasionally used in modern architecture, but they are constructed of materials such as steel and reinforced concrete or masonry and stone, and are usually undecorated and strictly functional.

 

2.5.1    Classical Columns

In classical architecture a column consists of a shaft, which usually rests on a base and is surmounted by an enlarged section known as a capital. The capital forms a visual and structural transition between the vertical shaft and the horizontal wall of masonry, the entablature, under the roof. In most cases several columns are placed in line so as to form a colonnade.

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ASSESSMENT OF FINISHING USING PVC IN MODERN BUILDING

ABSTRACT

This project is written to give a practical knowledge of the assessment of finishing using PVC in modern Building. This research is more of reportorial and description any descriptive analysis of finding. It is in four chapters.

Chapter one consist of introduction of the study and History, also the literature review was discussed in the second chapter, chapter three highlight research methodology and details of instrument used for the study. Chapter four deals with the Conclusion; finding and overall summary and recommendation arising from the study.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

  • Introduction

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is prepared from the organic compound vinyl chloride (CH29CHCl). PVC is the most widely used of the amorphous plastics. PVC is lightweight, durable, and waterproof. Chlorine atoms bonded to the carbon backbone of its molecules give PVC its hard and flame-resistant properties.

In its rigid form, PVC is weather-resistant and is extruded into pipe, house siding, and gutters. Rigid PVC is also blow molded into clear bottles and is used to form other consumer products, including compact discs and computer casings.

PVC can be softened with certain chemicals. This softened form of PVC is used to make shrink-wrap, food packaging, rainwear, shoe soles, shampoo containers, floor tile, gloves, upholstery, and other products. Most softened PVC plastic products are manufactured by extrusion, injection molding, or casting.

PVC is capable of playing an important role in sustainabledevelopment. One prerequisite is that political decisions are made based on proven criteria. Considerable improvements in raw material and energy efficiency have been established in the current ecological profiles on manufacturing PVC.The low life-cycle costs of many PVC products allow for the financing of important ecological and social improvements. Progress in recycling and disposal has greatly resolved the problem of waste. Many formerly, fiercely-debated topics concerning risk (substitution of problematic additives) could be defused. This has lead to a scientific and political re-evaluation of PVC.

Environmental, economic, and social policy is oriented towardsthe guiding principle of sustainable, future-oriented development. Cost-effective products such as those made of PVC are economically, ecologically, and socially “competitive”.

PVC offers many positive prerequisites for sustainable development for our industrial society through:

  • low-energy expenditure in manufacturing and processing
  • the use of the practically unlimited resource of salt
  • the combined production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide
  • low emissions and waste during manufacturing and processing
  • mechanical and feedstock recycling
  • good price-performance ratio of products along with environmental costs
  • immense ecological/social optimization potential based onoutstanding economical advantages.

PVC is a modern, high-performance material which will be urgentlyneeded in the future as well. The low share of crude oil saves limited resources and increases the economic efficiency of this material. Longevity and resistance to environmental factors make PVC the material of choice for economic planning and sustainable construction.

 

1.1.1    Manufacturing and Raw Materials

The European PVC industry has consistently improved its manufacturing processes in recentyears. This is especially true for formulas. Thus, there have been considerable changes in the use of stabilizers and plasticizers.

Synthesis of Crude Oil and Rock SaltCrude oil/natural gas and rock salt are the starting productsfor PVC manufacturing. Ethylene is the result of crude oil inthe intermediate stage of naphtha through thermal “cracking”.Chlorine, on the other hand, is produced from rock salt throughchloralkali electrolysis. For this purpose the modern, energysavingmembrane process is commonly used today. Sodiumhydroxide and hydrogen are thereby produced as importantby-products. In turn, they are the raw materials for many othersyntheses. Vinyl chloride (VC) is produced from ethylene andchlorine at a ratio of 43% to 57%. VC is the monomeric buildingblock of PVC. The transformation of VC to PVC takes placethrough various technological processes.

 

1.1.2    Additives

PVC products are derived from a white, odorless powder which is mixed with additives for the further processing of semi-finished and finished products. Such admixtures are not only found in practically all plastics, but also in materials such as glass, steel, concrete, etc. Basically, the following additives are use:

  • stabilizers and co-stabilizers
  • lubricants
  • polymer agents to improve tenacity, heat-and-form stability, and processing performance
  • fillers
  • pigments

Additives facilitate processing and simultaneously determinethe properties of end products. The choice of additives depends on processing procedures and demands on the finished products. Depending on the choice of additives, PVC as a rawmaterial is developed into sturdy, thick-walled pipes for drinking water or extremely thin, flexible film for packaging fresh meat. Additives thereby provide a wide range of product properties.

Stabilizers

The use of stabilizers guarantees sufficient heat stability for PVC during processing and protects the end product from change due to heat, UV-light, or oxygen. Especially inorganic and organic salts of the metals calcium, zinc, barium, lead and tin are added to PVC products. These salts are firmly anchored in the polymer matrix. They are not released during the use of these products. The use of stabilizers has undergone a significant change in recent years. One reason for this was that the

European industry discontinued the sale and use of cadmium stabilizers in all EU member states. In addition, the European Stabilizer Producers Association (ESPA) and the European Plastics Converters Association (EUPC) agreed to the voluntary commitment “Vinyl 2010” in October 2001 to replace lead stabilizers. Several intermediate goals have therefore been established (basis: consumption in 2000):

  • 15 % reduction in 2005
  • 50 % reduction in 2010
  • 100 % reduction in 2015.5

The goal for 2010 was surpassed in 2008. The reduction of leadstabilizers was already at ca. 76% in 2010. At the same time, the research and development of alternative stabilizer systems in

recent years has made enormous stride at great financial cost.In addition to systems based on calcium/zinc, whose market share in Western Europe increased from 5% in 1994 to over 50% today, tin also plays an important role. Moreover, new developments utilize metal-free organic stabilizing systems.

The amount of thermal stabilizers used in mixtures has beenreduced in recent years through effective additives and more exact engineering processes. Recycled materials might contain cadmium and lead due to the recycling of older products. This is permitted by law in order to create incentives for the use of recycled materials.6 Directive 494/2011 by the EU Commission from 20 May 2011 regulated the use of recycled materials containing cadmium.

Plasticizers

Approximately 70% of PVC produced is used in Europe to manufacture rigid products such as window profiles and pipes, which are distinguished by their longevity and weather resistance.

The remaining 30% covers soft applications. Plasticizersprovide PVC with special properties of use similar to those of rubber. This naturally hard material becomes flexible and elastic through plasticizers. At the same time, it retains its shape.

Soft PVC can be applied to a wide range of products in various ways. Pastes made of a mixture of PVC and plasticizers expand the range of possibilities, e.g. by means of expressive vinyl wallpaper or easy-to-clean flooring. Soft PVC is distinguished by its outstanding properties of use which offer a versatile range of possibilities. Flexible products such as artificial leather, weather-resistant roofing membranes, or flame-retardant cables enhance our lives and make them safer and more comfortable. In medical care, soft PVC applications have stood the test of time for decades. Blood bags, tube systems, and wound dressings are essential components of patient care. PVC products are even recommended for allergy sufferers due to their compatibility.

The most frequently used plasticizers are esters from phthalicacid. In terms of application, a change has taken place on the European market in recent years in favour of high-molecular weight plasticizers. The largest share is made up of DINP and DIDP.8 These substances have extensively replaced low-molecularweight plasticizers on the market such as DEHP, DBP, and BBP

Processing And Products

PVC can be processed into various products in a number of ways. The range extends fromheat-insulating, energy-saving windows to sturdy pipes and easy-to-clean floor coverings. Approximately seventy percent of PVC materials are used in the building sector, many of which are long-life products.

 

Extruder or Injection Moulding

PVC is one of the few polymers which can be processed thermo plasticallyand by means of pastes.14 Thermoplastic processestake place primarily on extruders or so-called screwpresses. The final products are pipes, profiles, sheets, tubes,and cables.15 Film and floor coverings are created by meansof calendar (rolling mills). Fittings and casings are producedin the injection moulding process and hollow bodies by blowmoulding.

Emulsion and micro-suspension PVC is applied as a paste tovarious soft PVC products such as tarpaulins, flooring, coverings,and artificial leather. As an alternative, rotation mouldingis used to shape dolls and balls.

A Wide Range of Products

PVC can be used in numerous products due to its outstandingproperties and therefore is an integral part of our lives.

In Germany, approximately 70% of all PVC applications are intendedfor the construction sector. In particular, this includeswindow profiles, pipes, floor coverings, and roofing membranes.

PVC windows are weather resistant, durable, easy to clean, economical,and recyclable at the end of their life cycles. Sturdypipes made of rigid PVC transport valuable drinking water,drain roofs, and dispose of sewage water. They can be easily,safely, and economically installed by means of structural andcivil engineering. Building products made of PVC are distinguishedespecially by their longevity: this is a decisive criterionfor selecting the appropriate material.

In the packaging sector PVC is found in special applicationssuch as blister packs, adhesive tapes, hollow bodies, and cups. Cables and wires with an insulation or coating made of soft PVC play a decisive role in the smooth operations of our daily lives in terms of energy supply, control functions, and communications. Protective undercoating, interior panelling, and cable harnesses inside vehicles and under the bonnet play an important role in the automotive sector.

In addition, medical products such as blood bags or tubes, office articles, garden

equipment and furniture, and tarpaulins are indispensable.

These examples alone demonstrate the versatile possibilities

of applications for PVC.

 

Versatile Material Properties

PVC is an all-around talent: it is hard and durable or soft andflexible as need be. Simple changes in the formula allow for practically any desired material property. Therefore, PVC exists

crystal-clear or colluded, electrically well-insulating or antistatic.

This durable plastic is largely resistant to chemicals,weather and abrasion, and harmless to human health. Moreover, the chlorine content makes the material highly flame retardant. Further advantages of the material include efficient production and easy processing as well as the material-saving manufacturing of consumer goods.

 

1.1.3    Characteristics of PVC

PVC, PE, PP and PS are called general purpose plastics. The features of the plasticare determined by the chemical composition and type of molecular structure (molecular formation: crystalline /amorphous structure). PVC has a unique amorphous structure with polar chlorine atoms in the molecular structure. Having chlorine atoms and the amorphous molecular structure are inseparably related. Although plastics seem very similar in the daily use context, PVC has completely different features in terms of performance and functions as compared with olefin plastics which have only carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecular structures.

 

(1)        Chemical stability

Chemical stability is a common featureamong substances, containing halogens such as chlorine and fluorine. This applies toPVC resins also, which furthermore possess fire retarding properties, durability, and oil/chemical resistance.

􀋙Fire retarding properties: PVC has an inherently superior fireretarding property due to its chlorine atomcomponents, and do not require addition offire retardants to its products. For example,the ignition temperature of PVC is as highas 455

􀋆and is a material with less risk forfire incidents since it is not ignited easily(Fig.1-13).

Furthermore, the heat radiation inburning is considerably low with PVC, whencompared with those for PE and PP, and ishard to spread fire to nearby materials evenwhile burning (Fig.1-14). Therefore, PVCis the most suitable plastic to be used inproducts requiring fire retarding propertiessuch as housing materials.

 

 

􀋙         Durability

Under normal conditions of use, the factormost strongly influencing the durability ofa material is resistance to oxidation withinthe air. PVC, having the molecular structurewhere chlorine atom is bound to every othercarbon chains, is very resistant to oxidativereactions, and maintains its performance almost semi-permanently. In contrast, other general purpose plastics with structures made up only of carbon and hydrogen are susceptible to deterioration by oxidation in extended use conditions.

According to measurements on underground PVC pipes by the Japan PVC Pipe & Fittings Association, a pipe used underground for 35 years showed no deterioration, and its strength remained the same as with new pipes (Fig.1-15).

(2)        Mechanical stability

PVC is a chemically stable material, which shows little change in the molecular structure, and also exhibits little change in the mechanical strength.

However, high-polymer material is a viscoelastic bodyand deformed by continuous application of exteriorforce, even if the applied force is well below its yield point. This is called creep deformation. Although

PVC is a viscoelastic body, its creep deformation isvery little compared with other plastics due to little molecular motion at ordinary temperature, in contrast to PE and PP, which have greater molecular motion in their amorphous sections. Through a joint research with the Kyoto Institute of Technology, it was found out that the service lives of rigid PVC pipes were over 50 years. Specifically, internal pressure creep tests revealed that rigid PVC pipes retain about three times the designed circumferential stress even after 50

 

(3)        Process ability and moldability

The process ability of a thermoplastic materialdepends largely on its melt viscosity. PVC is not meant for injection molding of large sized products, since its melt viscosity is comparatively high. On the other hand, the viscoelastic behavior of molten PVC is less dependent on temperature and is stable. Therefore PVC is suitable for complex shaped extrusion profiling (e.g., housing materials), as well as calendaring of wide films and sheets (e.g., agricultural films and PVC leather). The exterior surfaces of molded

PVC products are excellent, and displays superiorembossing performance – enabling a wide variety of surface treatments with textures ranging from enamel gloss to the completely DE lustered suede. Since PVC is an amorphous plastic with no phase transition, molded PVC products have high dimensional accuracy.

PVC also exhibits excellent secondary process ability in bending fabrication, welding, high-frequency bonding, and vacuum forming, as well as on-site workability. Paste resin processing such as slush molding, screen printing and coating is a convenient processing technique that is feasible only with PVC. These processing methods are used in flooring, wall covering, automobile sealants and undercoating.

 

(4)        Others (versatility in designing through compounding)

PVC has polar groups (chlorine), and is amorphous,therefore mixes well with various other substances. The required physical properties of end products (e.g., flexibility, elasticity, impact resistance, anti-fouling, anti-bacteria, anti-mist, fire retarding) can be freely designed through formulation with plasticizers and various additives, modifiers, and coloring agents. PVC is the only general purpose plastic that allows free, wide and seamless adjustment of the required physical properties of products such as flexibility, elasticity, and impact resistance, by adding plasticizers, additives, and modifiers.

Since the physical properties ofend products are adjustable through compounding, it requires only a few types of resin to cover all the applications of high-polymer materials (fiber, rigid and flexible plastic, rubber, paint, and adhesive). This controllability is also extremely beneficial recycling wise.

The polar groups in PVC contribute to ease in coloring, printing and adhesion, therefore PVC products do not require pretreatment, which enables a wide variety of designs. PVC is used in various scenes taking full advantage of its superior printability, adhesion properties andWeatherability. Patterns such as wood grain, marble, and metallic tones are possible. Familiar examples include wall coverings and floorings, housing materials, furniture, home electric appliances, or signboards and ads on airplanes, bullet trains, buses and trams.

 

 

 

(1)        Production safety

VCM, which is the intermediate raw material forPVC, has a boiling point of – 13.9and a flash point of – 78. Caution is required upon handling since it is a dangerous substance in gaseous form. The PVC industry in Japan handles VCM with utmost care at PVC manufacturing facilities and has safe working environments. No hazard has ever been brought to local communities. Neither has there been any deathincidence or sufferers due to improper manufacturing process control throughout the years.

(2)        Safety upon use

PVC is a chemically and mechanically stable materialwith excellent fire retarding properties, and is a safe plastic under normal conditions of use. Fig.1-19 is an excerpt of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)prepared by PVC manufacturers. The MSDS shows data for the safe use of PVC.

 

(3)        Evaluation of carcinogenicity

In 1974, cancer incidents were reported amongworkers who had been employed by the PVC industry in the U.S., and VCM were reported to be responsible.

As a result of an epidemiological survey, a very raretype of cancer (angiosarcoma) was identified in workers who had been exposed to high concentrations of VCM for an extended period of time.

Following this report, improvements of workenvironments were accelerated through closed system EDC/VCM manufacturing processes and automated cleaning of PVC polymerization reactors, in the U.S. and across of the world.

In Japan, a new guideline was introduced in 1975where the geometrical average was to be within 2ppm in the general work environments and within 5ppm inside the polymerization reactor. Subsequently, better process control technologies were introduced such as enhanced polymerization rates and recovery of unreacted VCM from the reactor. The PVC industry also worked on the reduction plan for hazardous air pollutants in cooperation with administrations There were once cancer incidents among workers who cleaned polymerization reactors for extended

 

 

(4)        Residual monomers in PVC

Trace amounts of unreacted VCM are found in PVC,but their concentrations are not a problem upon processing and use of PVC products. Food packaging and medical appliances require stringent safetymeasures; therefore the following specifications have been established.

 

1.2       History of Plastic

For more than 50 years, PVC has been very successful throughout the world. Today, this

versatile material is one of the most important plastic materials recognized internationally and proven on the market.

PVC has distinguished itself especially with its wide range of applications. PVC products are often cost-effective in terms of purchasing and maintenance. At the same time, they contribute more and more to sustainable development throughout their entire life cycle: this occurs by means of state-of-the-art manufacturing and production methods, the responsible use of energy and resources, cost-effective manufacturing and processing, as well as numerous recovery possibilities. This progress has led to a continuous increase in the demand for this plastic material. Moreover, through cost-effective PVC products, society saves money which can be spent on sound ecological and social investments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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THE ROLE OF THE SECRETARY IN ATTAINING ORGANISATIONAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES (A Case Study of Osun State Ministry of Health, Osogbo)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Title Page                                                                                                            i

Dedication                                                                                                          ii

Acknowledgement                                                                                              iii

Certification                                                                                                        iv

Table of contents                                                                                                v

Abstract                                                                                                              vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Background of the study                                                                               1

1.1 Statement of the problem                                                                              1

1.2 Purpose of the study                                                                                      2

1.3 Significance of the study                                                                               2

1.4 Research Question                                                                                         2

1.5 Limitation of the study                                                                                  3

1.6 Definition of terms                                                                          3

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

2.0 Introduction                                                                                                  4

2.1     Who is a secretary                                                                                      4

2.2     Qualities of a secretary                                                                               4

2.2.1 The secretaries efficiency on the job                                                           5

2.2.2   Relationship of the secretary with others                                                  5

2.2.3   Image of the secretary                                                                               6

2.3      Duties of a secretary in an organization                                                    6

2.4       How a secretary can attain her set goals in an organization

2.5      Functions of a secretary in an organization                                               8

2.6      Training that a secretary needs in order to be able to

Cope with the boss and achieve her goals                                                 9

 

 

 

     CHAPTER THREE

Research Methodology

3.0       Introduction                                                                                                          11

3.1       Population                                                                                                             11

3.2       Sampling                                                                                                               11

3.3       Instrumental                                                                                                          11

3.4       Method of collecting data                                                                                     11

3.5       Method of data Analysis                                                                 11

   CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation and Analysis of data                                                                                    12

4.0       Introduction                                                                                                         12

4.1       Analysis of data                                                                                                   12

4.1.1    Bio data analysis                                                                                                   12

4.1.2    Analysis of data on research question                                                                 14

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary of findings conclusion and recommendation                                        17

5.1       Introduction                                                                                                           17

5.2       Summary of findings and conclusion                                                                    17

5.2.1    Research Question 1                                                                                              17

5.2.2    Research Question 2                                                                                              17

5.2.3    Research Question 3                                                                                              17

5.2.4    Research Question 4                                                                                              18

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                                 18

5.4       Suggestion for further studies                                                                                           18

Bibliography                                                                                                          20

Appendix                                                                                          21

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.0              Background of the Study

 

This project work is an attempt to study the role of the secretary in attainting organization objective

Dictionary of Current English (1981) define the secretary as “an employee in an office who deals with correspondence of nature”. The roles of the secretary have changed as a result of technological advancement and with the invention of word processing equipment. The secretary is directly responsible to her boss. The roles she plays in the organization goes beyond writing and taking dictation for her employer. She is first contact with the outsider world; her role either enhances or tarnishes the image of the organization she represents.

The duties of a secretary are indispensable in any organization, meetings, conferences, seminars and workshops which are attended by people from various places in life can not take off effectively without the services of the secretary.

The duty of a secretary goes a long way to determine has the success of daily routine of an organization. What this is saying in essence is that the work done by a secretary of an organization contributes to the success of such an organization. They play a vital role of communication link between their bosses and outside world through telephone or the callers coming into their office for business transactions. They also perform the functions of mailing, typing of confidential letters, writing of minute’s e.t.c.

Therefore, this research work will examine determine the extent to which the duties of a secretary contribute to attainment of general goals and objectives of an organization.

1.1  Statement of the Problem;

This study is borne out of a quest to determine the relevance or importance of secretarial duties to the attainment of organization goals.

Contemporary quest for organizational excellence in the different sector is a wholesome one meaning that all aspects of an organization must contribute to the attainment of the goals and anyone found irrelevant should be sacked to pave way for the efficient ones.

The secretarial cadre is, no doubt, one arm of the many that exists in contemporary organizational set up and which has the duties to justify its relevance in the entire set up.

This study will then attempt to find out whether there is any relationship between attainment of organizational goals and the performance of secretary.

   1.2  Research Questions

The following questions have been provide and need to be answered to enable the researcher elicit useful information concerning the study.

  1. What role does a secretary play in attaining effective communication goals of the organization?
  2. What role does a secretary play in attaining the profit maximization goals of the organization?

iii         What role does a secretary play in attaining the market leadership goals of the organization?

  1. To what extent does the role of a secretary assist in the growth of an organisation?

1.3               Purpose of the Study

            The purpose of this study is to:

i           Make it clear to secretaries their duties in an organization.

ii          To let people understand better the importance of a secretary in an organization.

iii         To help the secretaries to know how they can improve their overall standard of performance in an organisation.

1.4          Significance of the Study

This study is aimed at educating secretaries on the need for self development so as to reach the apex in their profession.

This study will also provide organization useful information on the relevance of secretaries for the attainment of organization goals. This will further help them to make correct decision in the employment of secretaries.

1.5          Limitation of the Study

This research project was subjected to series of setbacks and constraints like finance, time constraints and lack of cooperation by some respondents.

 

1.6              Definition of the Term

Secretary: A person who deals with writing letters, keeping records and making business arrangement.

Contemporary: Belonging to the present time.

Indispensable:  too important to be without.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                         


CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0              Introduction

This chapter is gong to examine the view and submissions of various scholars on the subject matter of the research..

2.1              Who is a Secretary?

According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (1995)” A secretary is a person employed in an office, dealing with letters, typing, keeping records and making proper arrangements and appointments.”

According to whitehead (1977)” A secretary is an assistant to an executive possessing the mastery of office skills and ability to assume responsibilities without direct supervision.”

Dictionary of Current English (1981) defines a secretary as “An employee in an office who deals with correspondence of confidential nature”.

National Secretarial Association International (1973)

An executive assistant who posses a mastery of office skills.

Who demonstrates the ability to usual responsibility without direct                       supervision who exercise initiatives and judgment and who makes decision with the scope of assigned authority.”

Association of Student Executive Secretaries (1986) emphasizes that

The position that a professional secretary occupies and the role she plays in management can be best described as that of a “life wire:’ in the sense that she is the one who is entrusted with the secrets of the whole organization

From the above definitions, it is glaring that the duties and responsibilities of secretary cannot be overlooked in an organization.

2.2              Qualities of a Secretary

According to Ajetunmobi and Edun (1986) “The qualities of a secretary can be classified under the following headings’.

2.3              The Secretary’s efficiency on the Job

This quality encompasses those traits that enhance secretary’s efficiency on the job. The traits are as follow:

  1. Organisation: Making special note in the secretary’s pad or having an itinerary book is a very good way of being organized. This enables the secretary to know how to deal with matters and to pay special attention to those demanding urgency.
  2. Dependability: This is another desirable trait of the secretary that portrays him or her as a person worthy of reliability. This can be shown through handwork and incessant keeping of instructions in the way the boss wants it. This will enable the boss to rely on his secretary’s ability at all times.
  3. Mental Alertness and Memory: Just like Agnew (1990) said: A good  secretary anticipates and makes whatever preparation that are necessary, a mediocre or poor secretary has to be told or directed in every step of his or her work. The secretary should be at alert always so as to take note of important instructions given be the boss.
  4. Punctuality: It is the responsibility of the the secretary to be at the office earlier than his or her boss and regularly too. The secretary should learn not to leave office during working hours as the boss may want to dictate an urgent letter, he or she might have to answer telephone calls and attend to callers in office.

2.4              Relationship of the Secretary with Others

  1. Loyalty: The secretary’s loyalty should be to both the boss and the office in helping to achieve the objectives of the organization. This calls for sacrifice of her time whenever there is a job to be done even if under stress.
  2. Sincerity: In whatever situation a secretary may find herself, she is expected to be sincere on any subject about whom she has to express an opinion. Where the opinion would have hurt other people’s feelings, facts would have to be applied with sincerity still expressed.
  3. Courtesy: According (1987) “ Courtesy costs nothing, yet it pays the greatest dividend.;’ Good manner is as combing one’s hair, making up, picking ones, filing and clearing one’s finger nails and adjusting clothing should be on private not in the office. These are points to be noted by a good secretary.

2.5               Image of the Secretary

  1. Personal Appearance: First impression last longer and it hangs on for a long time in the mind of people. An effective secretary is a joy to the executives; a secretary must be smartly dressed at all times. She must dress moderately, her hair –do and make up must be moderate because these also determine how the organization is portrayed.
  2. Ability to keep Secrets: A secretary comes across confidential information about the organization and about the man and woman who constitute the organization such information must be kept secret. A secretary must never discuss the employer, the work that is going on in the office. It is better for a secretary to appear stupid than to divulge vital information.
  3. Health: The success of every employee in an office depends to a large extend on the condition of health and the secretary is no exception, she should keep a sound soul in a sound body. Good health should be maintained. “Your body belongs to you”, so a secretary should have a good health.

2.6              Duties of a Secretary in an Organisation

The role of a secretary involves wide varieties of duties and responsibilities. Generally, she helps the office to operate smoothly and efficiently to achieve the set goals

According to Ademiluyi and Agboola (2001), the duties of a secretary are listed below

  1. She must be able to handle all incoming and outgoing mails.
  2. She must able to prepare mailable letters.
  3. She should act as memory aid to her boss.
  4. She should be able to file documents for proper arrangement.
  5. Compose letters and help to prepare reports.
  6. Supervise employers and act as office manager.
  7. Take speeches in shorthand at conferences, seminars, and workshop e.t.c.
  8. Answer telephone calls.
  9. Meet with customers.
  10. Make hotel reservation and other traveling arrangements.
  11. Act as a go-between for her boss.
  12. Take dictation in shorthand and transcribe to English.

Dictations that are recorded no doubt increase the productivity of secretaries in their duties today, with the development in technology, more and more machines are being invented to ensure maximum productivity in offices. The has brought about the invention of various types of machines, which the secretary should be conversant with, the transcribing and dictation machine inclusive for a modern secretary, recorded dictation is carried out on any of the following equipment:

  1. Disk recorder
  2. Magnetic Tape Recorder
  3. The Disk-top machine
  4. The portable machine
  5. The multi-bank system
  6. The thought tank system
  7. Magnetic paper recorder
  8. Plastic and magnetic Bell recorder
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IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SECRETARIAL PERSONNEL

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.0       Background of the study

Major theories of motivation are classified as those dealing either with exogenous causes or with endogenous processes. Whereas the latter help explain motivation the former identify levers for improving worker motivation and performance. Seven keys strategies for improving work motivation are distilled from the exogenous theories. Illustrative performs are described for implementing those strategies, proms hat aim at cretin organization in with workers are both better  satisfied and more productive suggestion are offered for improving the science and technology of work motivation. The issue of motivation as it affects the efficiency of secretarial personnel is the concern of this research work. Many studies have demonstrated the relatively successful performance implications of formalized goal setting performance in organizations. However these findings typically do not identify the specific factors behind such techniques that are largely responsible for their success. Toward this and, research relating to 6 factor analytically derived attributes of employees task goals is reviewed to ascertain which attributes are more consistently related to performance. The 6 task-Goa attributes are goal specifically, participation in goal setting, feedback, peer completion, goal difficulty and goal acceptance. Although goal specificity an goal acceptance were found to be most consistently related to performance, several interviewed in variables emerged the attended to affect performance. Motivation has gone beyond monetary aspect, for example, in Nigeria, declaration of new salary  structures of about 75% increment made across the board in May, 2000 in all sectors of Government parasitatals cannot be justified. This gesture was extend to both public and private companies as the Nigeria Labour Congress mandated it for all labour employers effect the new salary  structure through their respective union or association. After this many more increase has been done but people still find it hard to make ends meet. The increase in salary make no significant difference in the lives of workers, the aims was not realized probably because money is not the only motivation expected by workers. Soil, what are the things that are leading to un-satisfaction on the job? Motivation includes other benefits and incentives, the various techniques of motivation such as compensation structure, hierarchy of power etcetera and how it inspects the productivity of a viable worker (Secretary). The role of secretary is one of the most importance roles in an organization aiming at success. Secretaries are becoming more demanding with the raid of technological changes in offices.  “Motivation of secretaries in an organization especially the monetary and promotion aspect is not encouraging” Abuka (1991), state that “graduates from other disciplines such as engineers, lawyers, accountancy, are placed higher than secretaries and are rapidly promoted to executive level who at this executive level will still depend solely on the secretary, this attitude will tend to demotivate secretaries. This is not so in advance countries, salary adjustments and promotions in advanced countries depend almost entirely on productivity.

 

1.1       Statement of the problem

In every environment the elements and factors of motivation must put in place loyalty and high productivity toward the achieving of the organization should be the aim and objective of such environment. Therefore, for an employee to perform accurately, some favourable practices must be put in place in an organization.

  1. The transmitting of communication at the time.
  2. The information cycle of secretaries must be pertinent.
  3. There must be an effective communication in an organization.
  4. There must be a good environment in an organization.

 

1.2       ResearchQuestion

  1. Does monetary motivation have any significant impact on the effectiveness of secretarial personnel?
  2. Does environmental motivation have any significant impact on effectiveness of secretarial personnel?
  3. Does regular promotion have any significant impact on the effectiveness of secretarial personnel?

 

1.3       Significant of the study

This project will be suitable for established business organization that are experiencing personnel management problems, labour turnover and power performance employees. This research will be relevant in the study of office management producers and practices. The above mentioned significance will be highlighted as follow;

  • It identifies and analyses areas of problems, which may hinder efficient and effective performance of secretaries.
  • It suggests useful recommendation that can enhance the performances of secretaries in an organization.
  • It assists the future researchers, students and manages in the understanding of the various need of human being.
  • It diagnoses both past and present literature on the concept of the study.

 

1.4       Scope of the Study

            The scope of this study is limited to the Federal Polytechnic, Ede. Information will be collected mainly from the secretarial personnel in all the department in the institution.

 

1.5       Limitation of the study

The major factor that stands as limitation to this work is shortage of funds and time. Non availability of good quality textbooks also posed a serious challenge to the research coupled with the care-free attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher mode judicious used of the available resources.

 

1.6       Definition of terms

In other to enhance effective understanding of this project work, the following terms used in it are discussed below:

  • Motivation:This can be defined as the process of stimulating the interest of somebody to do something that is the act that incites one into action. It is also defined as anything’s done to improve or manipulate the performance of human resources to achieve the set target. Motivating an employee or secretary for the purpose of this research work is providing external stimuli. Which states off a voluntary process and incites the individual to actions.
  • Efficiency: Is the relationship between input and output. Therefore, for this research work, the terms “secretary efficiency” can be defined as a relationship between secretarial performance and organization output which form the organization goals.
  • Productivity: This is measured by comparing the amount produced with the resources (inputs from employers and used to produce it).
  • Incentive: Means encouraging somebody to do something and incentive to work harder. It can be internal or external. Internal in terms of providing snacks and drinks during working hours, give monetary encouragement for overtime and so on.
  • Secretary: Is an assistance to an executive who provides secretarial function such as taking dictation, and reproducing them in typescript for her boss, receiving and attending to visitors, make enquires and office routine duties and other related duties as may be assigned by the executive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

RELATED REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 

2.0       Introduction

Various definitions of motivation will be dealt with in this chapter. The duties and responsibilities of a secretary, what action motivates a secretary and what organizational developments are aimed at motivating secretaries will be discusses vividly.

From the time pasts, one is made to understand that social scientific has been carrying out studies on human nature. Until about the middle part of this country, it has been so that people began to apply scientific approach to study the factors, which affects human productivity at the work place. The problem of proper utilization of people on the jobs became paramount to employers, the better employee morale and the need for more productivity. “For organization to get things done, human being must be used well” something must be done to energize human being in order to get the best from them by creating the drive need for them to exert their energies. It can then be regarded as motivation. Therefore, to achieve organizational goals, the behaviours of workers must be influenced.

 

2.1       Definition of Motivation

Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary (1995:750) defines motivation as the process of stimulating the interest of somebody to do something. Motivation is also defined by Fagbounge and Longe (1999:08)” as the immediate forces that act to energize, direct, sustained and stop a behaviours’.

Motivation is said to be complex and highly individualistic because of the diversity of human motivation that manifest in human behavior.

The definition of Vroom (1965:96) who said, “motivation is a process where an individual will exerts work effort achieve performance that will result in preferred rewards” is supported by the above explanation.

All these definitions implied that motivation involve a voluntary process originated from within the individual who is clearing out the action. Motivating therefore implies providing some external stimuli which starts off this voluntary process and individual to an action in clearly the voluntary process which incites the individual to action be short-lived or may last long. I therefore pertinent to note that there can be motivation without a goal.

 

2.2       Motivation Theory

We cannot but mention the theory of Maslow in an attempt to discuss the impact of motivation successfully because the outlined various needs that must be incurred by human being.

Maslow (1950:370-396) asserted in his theory of motivation that Human being are motivated by their needs. These needs are many and they vary considerably in their degree of importance.

Because these needs are many and vary, they are necessarily arranged in order or priority starting with the lowest to the highest; he classified these needs into five and call it “Hierarchy of Needs”.

Man’s needs are arranged in hierarchy of importance and once a need is satisfied, another one emerges demanding attention. Hence, individual is motivated to engage in behavior which fulfill their needs in the following orders.

Physiological needs

Safety needs

Social needs

Esteem needs

Self-actualization needs

Physiological Needs: Physiological needs are service need such as water, food and sex. They dominate motivating gents, that if they remain unsatisfied no other factor can perform the job of motivating towards a particular behavior.

Safety Needs: Safety needs is the next higher level needs which include protection from physical harm, health, economic disaster and the unexpected calamities.

Social Needs: Social need is the need of man demanding companionship. Non-satisfaction of this need affects the mental health of the individual.

Esteem Needs: Esteem needs is the realization of awareness of importance to others (self-esteem). Esteem from others must be felt as warranted and deserved. Satisfying these needs leads to a feeling of confidence and prestige.

Self-actualization Needs: Self-actualization needs is the highest a man could go into in terms of achievement in the line of his career. The desire of a man to become more of what he is capable of becoming. Therefore, whether one is a lawyer, a scientist or a secretary, the need is to be most efficient and efficient and effective in such role.

In practice each needs does not want to be satisfied hundred percent before focus switches to the net. The degree to which a need is satisfied before emphasis changes to the next in the hierarchy will vary from individual to individual.

 

2.3       Definition of Secretary

            Place et al (1980:49) defines a secretary as “someone who without direct responsibility assist another person with communication and public relations in business professional and personal affairs.

In an administrative sense, odiage (1992:28) described  secretary “ As one who as an appointed officers and executive support personnel is charged with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the office in relation to information, processing, record management, servicing, meeting human relations organization and miscellaneous functions.

A secretary is also defined as an executive assistant, who possess a mastery of office skill, demonstrates the ability to assume responsibilities without direct supervision exercises initiative and judgment and make decision within the scope of assigned authority.

Ademiluyi et al (2004:8) describes a confidential secretary as a person who deals with correspondence of confidential nature. A competent confidential secretary is said to be an indispensable alter ego of the boss.

 

2.4       Duties and Responsibilities of Secretary

The office is an integral part of a business organization, which is basically meant for clerical and secretarial duties. Therefore, the secretary requires warn attitude and have a lot of duties to carry out for the smooth running of the office.

The ability to write shorthand and type does not automatically make her a secretary in its entirety. She must not be lacking in some areas of the profession. She must undergo the training for secretarial professionalism where the ethics of the profession are inculcated in her for the effective performance of her duties.

According to Ademiluyi and Agboola (2004:10) secretary’s duties are many, they vary from one organization to another, but in some organizations, specialist duties may be discharged in addition to the common ones. However, there are certain essential duties with which the secretary should be familiar. Her functions and duties include the following but are not limited to these only.

  1. General office work – relieving executives of minor executives and clerical duties.
  2. Take dictation and transcribe it only the typewriter.
  3. Act as memory aid to the boss.
  4. Read travel time table and plan itineraries for the boss.
  5. Write congratulatory letters or letters of condolence when necessary.
  6. Make hotel reservations another travel arrangement.
  7. Keep financial records and handle imprest account.
  8. Prepare agenda and notice covering meeting and send copies to members.
  9. Dispatch letters.
  10. Read and sort mails.

To establish an investment model of motivation the secretary and the management need to

answer to following questions.

  1. What does the secretary wants to achieve (i.e promotion, pay and security)?
  2. What does the secretary invest (time, effort, involvement and commitment)?
  3. How much risk is involved? What are the changes of reaching the objective?
  4. How long will it take to achieve the objectives?
  5. What is the return to the individual employee?

The secretary assigns her value to the above question. When the secretary perceives that the

objectives can be met, then the result is a situation in which she will decide to invest and the management receives a commission in the form of her performance to foster long-term, sustained motivation, organizations must put the following to action.

  • Delegation of Authority/Responsibility:This is form of recognition that grants the secretary a greater degree of independence of act of freedom from close supervision. It impose a greater measure of responsibilities and therefore, challenges are ability.
  • Good Management: The secretary can be motivated by good management practice. Three key elements that can be used to improved employee’s performance is considered here, communication, commitment and continuation.
  • Communication: Honest, completeand trusted communication with employees. It successes, plans, problem and failures, should be provided to employees routinely.
  • Commitment: Participative Management can earn the co-operation and commitment of all employees. The management should involve the secretary in the planning goal setting and reviewing of the organization. Success through commitment should always be recognized and rewarded.
  • Continuation: In order to sustain high productivity the practice of good management need to continue and the organization should always be able to standby their word especially in communication and commitment.
  • Offer Outplacement Services: Many secretaries dreamt of career advancements, or career upgrading. Many organizational efforts that help to achieve these drams are not likely to serve as a motivational secretary may be helped to change their careers, continue and improve their education throughout place advice and service. It can be achieved through training that strengthens her. The secretary can be motivated to give her best to the organization she perceives is helping her to achieve her goals and motives.
  • Over controlling: the manager should stop treating the secretaries like children, servants or dummies. They should respect and appreciate the secretaries and try as much as possible to always to always use the word “thank you” in order to make them feel at home while in the office and be more responsible rather than condemning and insulting them.
  • Placement and Services: The system used by the oil companies in placement and salary structure should be adopted in the organization especially in the public sector.
  • Recognition/Promotion: Nothing will motivate employees if they are not meeting their goals. The secretary will work harder if the notices that the organization has much in stock for her in terms of recognition and promotion. Organization should be ready to respond to the ever-changing needs of their employees.
  • Working Environment: A well-furnished and equipped office may cause the secretary to be missing her job whenever she is not at work.

Current research efforts have shown the following checklists out of the numerous factors as

commondemotivators of secretaries:

Office Politics.

Unclear Expectations.

Unnecessary rules, tolerating poor performance.

Poorly Designed work process.

Unproductive meetings.

Lack of follow-up.

Constant changes internal competition.

Discouraging responses.

Criticism.

Under-utilization.

Over-control.

Unfairness.

 

2.5       What Organization development practices are aimed at motivating secretaries?

            It is far easier to deal with genera approach than to worry about satisfiers and dissatisfies on the management side. How attractive a particular outcome might be psychological connotation and their accompanying emotional impact where a person is on a hierarchy.

Therefore most organization does not have the necessary organizational response to ever changing needs of their employees which might not bring a position is on a hierarchy.

Therefore most organization does not have the necessary organizational response to ever changing needs of their employees which might not bring a positive solution. The investment models allow management to provide advice, guidance, and support and help furthering the employee’s effort to achieve his or her objectives.

There is economic depression in Nigeria, which increases deprivation, imbalances and insecurity. Thus, it became the need for which the individual is prepared to exert efforts to over come. Despite all these, the organization does not fail in motivating their top management and employees in other field, therefore, be treated differently from to her manager.

The organization must recognize that wanting more does not necessarily indicate lack of initiative or ambition, but may be the secretary’s judgment of the position in there way of life. Also, no organization wants any of its work force, especially the secretarial level to regard the job as relatively unimportant. The mode used to encourage secretaries to have much interest in their job is therefore, very important and should be put in place. The functions of leaders and his efforts, on motivation arise within the organizational perspective.

 

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CHALLENGES OF SECRETARIAL PRACTICE IN THE CONTEMPORARY OFFICE MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
The term ‘Secretarial Practice’ has been used to include knowledge, skills, procedure and methods of work to be performed by a confidential secretary or secretarial personnel (Veon, 2011). Persons with secretarial skills find employment in all types of offices e.g., govt., public or private, different types of agencies etc. located in big and small cities. The application of modern technology advancements has brought a revolution and greater effectiveness in day to day working of the offices. Due to this, procedures have become more streamlined and office work has become more interesting and challenging.
The professional secretary international defined a secretary as an executive assistant who has mastery of office skills, demonstrative the ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision, exercise initiatives and judgment and makes decisions within the scope of assigned authority, from this definition we can see that although various office works are secretaries. Secretaries have more responsibility for their work. A professional secretary performs tasks similar to executive or administrative assistants. Generally, a professional secretary coordinates the daily routines of an office and organizes the office schedules and paper work.
According to Agoola and Ademiluyi (2004) a secretary’s duties require analysis of the situation, judgement, technical knowledge and creativity, and because a secretary’s responsibilities are more complex than entry level responsibilities, additional on the job experience and educational is required. The number and type of activities secretaries are assigned depend on whether they are generalists (multifunction secretaries) or specialists (such as legal or word processing secretaries.
Secretaries use many different talents and work with many different people. According to Basher (2007 an office professional, the secretary has the responsibility to organize the work flow so that the employer will feel that everything is under control, with all projects completed when needed. Modern professional secretaries are now referred to as office managers by some people because of their activities, education, skill acquisition, knowledge and even expectations from their bosses, customers, clients, and even the general public. Whether called a secretary. A manager or a personal assistant, a professional secretary is no more the man or woman sitting behind the typewriter, taking shorthand dictations and attending to visitors.
Office management is now more concerned with office occupations or the exhibitions or use of skills, aptitudes and attitudes and knowledge for carrying out successfully the functions of the office, (Ikelegbe, 2011).
1.2 Statement of the problem
As earlier stated, change and advancement in technology, leading to a re- sharpening of organizational setting poses a big challenge to today and future secretaries.
While it is true that efficient secretaries have nothing to be scared of however secretaries can be truly fit for specialized positions, thereby misplacing untrained secretaries who do not go through the rigors of secretarial skills. The possibility of this would be discussed in the course of the study.

1.3 Research Questions
In an attempt to arrive at a reasonable conclusion, the following research questions were put forward to be analysed.
1. What are the challenges encountered by secretarial practitioners on records keeping in contemporary office management?
2. What are the challenges encountered by secretarial practitioners on human relations in contemporary office management?
3. What are the challenges encountered by secretarial practitioners on ICT in contemporary office management?
4. What are the challenges encountered by secretarial practitioners on utilization of modern office technologies in contemporary office management?
1.4 Purpose of the study
The purpose of the paper is to identify the challenges of secretarial practice in the contemporary office management. This gives people a general view that a secretary can be anybody, especially with the advancement in technology. This project is chosen with the intent of explaining convincingly that secretary is a specially trained individual, in and for secretarial duties researcher intends to establish the motion that there are challenges in the secretarial practice in the contemporary office management.
1.5 Significance of the study
For everyone in this noble profession just as secretarial skills (Shorthand, typewriting and Computer) are very vital subjects in the subject selection of secretarial practice.
This study will help secretaries to acknowledge their weakness and make necessary amendments to improve their performance in contemporary office. Moreover, this write up will serve as a reference material to other researchers who in one way or the other may wish to carry out a similar topic in the future.
1.6 Scope of the study
This study is restricted to the challenges of secretarial practice in the contemporary office management. The only source of primary data collection is Osun State Polytechnic, Iree.
Hence, the findings may not be a total and absolute reflection of what is obtains in other institutions. Therefore, its findings may not be generalised.
1.7 Limitation of the study
Due to the short span of academic session, researchers encountered problem of getting in touch with secretarial practice of Osun State Polytechnic, Iree.
Inadequate funds also added to the limitation of this project work, taking cognizance of cost of stationeries and transportation in the country.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
1. Modern Office: According to Komolafe (2010), modern offices are equipped with technologically sophisticated gadgets that inform accuracy and efficiency of work output. A modern office has up-to-date computers and office equipment and may also have furniture that is ergonomic in design.
2. Secretarial Practice: Secretarial practice has been used to include the knowledge and skills a secretary should have and the procedures or methods of work through which he/she has to conduct his operation
3. Secretary: A person who undertakes office duties/functions. An employee who does clerical and administrative work in an office for a person or organization.
4. Management: Management is the achievement of objectives through people. It is the effective utilization of scarce human and material resources to achieve goals in a conducive environment (Sanni, 2005).
5. Office: Is a place where clerical activities are carried out or a nerve centre of an organisation.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction
In this chapter, the researcher reviewed works of other authorities relevant to this study. It is organized under the following sub-headings: History of secretarial profession, who is a secretary, roles and responsibilities of a secretary in the contemporary office management, functions of a secretary in the contemporary office management, challenges facing secretary in the contemporary office management and how a secretary can overcome challenges in the contemporary office management.
2.1 History of Secretarial Profession
Literature on the history of the secretarial profession shows that nobody knows when secretaries originated, but that the roman’s were first to employ men as scribes who took down dictation. Men dominated secretarial jobs until the late 1880s. However, in the 1930s women started to dominate the profession. In Nigeria, there were few secretaries In the early 1900s because there were no government established training institutions. Organizations employed typists and stenographers as secretaries. These ‘secretaries’ trained in road- side secretarial institutes. These institutes did not have qualified instructors and adequate machines. Therefore, those who employed them were sceptical about their administrative competence, thus limiting their activities to routine or chore office jobs. In the late 1900s, the state and federal Training Centres in Lagos and Kaduna, The state government later established staff Development Centres, Admission requirements into these centres were low. Later, polytechnics were established by both state and federal governments in order to have better trained secretaries. At present, we have a few universities with a secretarial Administration department where secretaries are trained. The polytechnics are still regarded as the best place to train secretaries. Secretaries command high respect and they easily get jobs. They are versatile because all organizations need them. In the early days of producing secretaries in Nigeria, people we regarded those who went to commercial secondary modern or commercial secondary schools as dullards. The public regarded those whop went to secondary grammar school as highly intelligent – those who would become doctors, lawyers, engineers, e.t.c. Things have interestingly reversed as commercial or business courses are becoming more versatile than the science course. We now find doctors and other professionals who write accounting examinations.
2.2 Who is a secretary?
Agboola and Ademiluyi (2004) define a secretary as an assistant to an executive, possessing mastery of office skills and ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision who displays initiatives. Exercise judgement, and makes decisions within the scope of his/her authority.
Frank (2001), also defined a secretary as an executive assistance who possess a mastery of office skills, who demonstrate ability to assume responsibilities without direct supervision, she may also exercise initiative and judgement and makes decisions within the scope of assigned authority, she must be a good organizer, a worker encyclopaedia, a problem solver, a counsellor, a well educated and cultured, a develop a good memory, have unlimited common sense and boundless initiative.
Ekwue (2009), define a secretary as the executive assistance or the junior partner of the executive. They went further to say that a secretary does not only transcribe rapidly a well panned dictation. In addition to routine work, the secretary also makes minute of a meeting with no difficulty and takes telephone messages with accuracy and ease. She is also expected to compose letters, carry out research for and prepare materials for reports a well as act as a representative of the executive in attending to the public and the business colleagues in his absence.
Eze (2002) expresses that a secretary is a warm, endlessly helpful and understanding individual whose sole aim is to elevate initiatives, handles and complete a project.
2.3 Roles and Responsibilities of a Secretary in a Contemporary Office
Though a supportive function requires a large amount of initiative, tact and resourcefulness to succeed. Apart from the traditional responsibilities such a typing, taking dictations and transcribing, managing records, receiving, storing and retrieving information or operating the computer , attending meetings, answering telephone calls, he/ she now carries out research, prepares the manager’s itenary , makes travel bookings and hotel reservations, supervises the junior workers, and makes some decisions using his initiatives. He should be able to answer some questions on behalf of the boss.
Odiaua (2010) identifies the secretary’s responsibilities to include: taking dictation and transcribing it into correspondence which is at once dispatch to its business destination. He highlights of some forms of these correspondences to include; letters memos, circulars orders, quotations, and acceptance, contractual terms, and conditions, invitations. Therefore the secretary must be regarded with some respect with reference to these onerous functions that impinge on the success of the organization.
However, it is important to note that the secretary was coined from the Latin word ‘secretaries’ meaning something know only to one or a few and kept secret or hidden from the view of others. Ademiluyi and Agboola (2001) describe a confidential secretary as a person ‘who deals with correspondence of confidential nature, while defining a personal secretary, a person employed to deal with correspondence or duties of personal nature. All she had to acquire, were typewriting skills from 40wam to 60wam and shorthand speed from 80 to 120wam.
A secretary should be someone who, not only have attained enough skill in shorthand and typewriting but who have received sufficient general education coupled with adequate general knowledge that will facilitate the performance of her duties.
Conclusively, the most important characteristics expected from secretary by employers are the right attitude to work, like; tactfulness, initiates, loyalty. Careful, grooming, pleasant voice, self control, neatness, reliability, understand, trustworthiness, healthy life and good memory. Ademiluyi and Abooola have also been rather meticulous in listing some of the duties expected of secretaries of the old:
i. Taking dictation and transcribing on the typewriter
ii. Dispatching letters
iii. Filling Document
iv. Reading and Sorting out mails
v. Answering telephone and making calls
vi. Receiving Message
vii. Making appointments for the boss and Keeping record of them.
viii. Ordering supplies for the office
x. Acting as memory aid to the boss
xi. Composing Letters and helping to prepare reports.
These lists, intimidating as it may appear at first glance can be summarized in one sentence. Information processing and human relations. Ademiluyi and Agboola (2001) conclude “a secretary is expected to easy the burden of the boss whose work and heavy responsibilities make heavy demand upon him”.
2.4 Functions of a Secretary
2.4.1 Administrative Functions of Secretary
An administrative functions of a secretary involves organizing and controlling the organisational activities in order to achieve the objectives of the organization. It also includes supervision of junior staff and ensuring that schedules of work are being accomplished, directives and assigned tasks completed within the time span, and ensuring that all the materials needed for performing any particular job are available at the right time.
Ekwue (2009) advanced that a secretary must perform a variety of secretarial and office management duties, composes, types and files letters and inter-office memos, receives calls and interviews persons calling in office and makes referrals, prepares departmental records and disciplinary notices. Performing any or all of the mentioned duties depicts that a secretary is involved in an administrative function.
Odiaua (2010) agreed with Ekwue (2009) on these duties but also included some duties like maintaining files and personal records, reviews, organises and maintains files, monitors attendance including sick leave, annual leave and vacation leave, compiles and records data for computer files, develops and implements new departmental forms, recommends and implements changes in correspondence sent to public. All this as identified by Odiaua, save time for the executive/boss and makes job easier. For secretary to effectively perform these duties, he must be conversant with the policy of the
organisation.
The N.B.T.E (2004) developed a course unit which trains the O.T.M students theoretically and practically in these roles and named it “Career Development” at the N.D level, and Professional Career Development at H.N.D level with general objectives of equipping the students with knowledge and skills necessary for entry into an office career, and specific objectives of: understanding the growing demand for office workers; knowing modern business office; understanding the roles of office workers; understanding job responsibilities of office workers and knowing how to prepare for office work. The course units were designed to have 50% theoretical hours and 50% practical hours.
2.4.2 Personnel Functions of a Secretary
The personnel roles of a secretary include membership of interview panels for junior staff and assigning job schedules to staff. It also involves receiving, sorting and distributing mails within the organisation, composing replies to correspondences on behalf of the executive, identifying and solving routine and non-routine problems by applying professional skills and techniques in order to develop the variety of ideas and modify situations (Shuaibu, 2009).
Secretary relieves his employer the task of determining the organisational staff strength due to the fact that he controls skills inventory, he does manpower forecasting (junior staff) and arrange for the staff selection and assign job schedules. Bashar (2007) stated that skill inventory by a secretary are the

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES REPORT MASS URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING DEPARTMENT)

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1       INTRODUCTION

Student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) is one of the industrial training fund (ITF) programmes. It was designs as a means of filling the wide gap between studying in campus and practicing in the labour market, the Federal Government and the Nigeria University Commission in collaboration founded a medium by which student could have pre-work experience that would supplement theories been taught, in the lecture halls and how to handle any planning issues with planning tools.

The scheme aim at ensuring the average undergraduate student be well equipped for labour market. It has been proved over the years to be the key factor in enhancing efficiency and expertise of the work force and also given student much expose while they are still undergraduate. Since the inception of the scheme it has been stipulated to run for the period of four (4) months in any establishment that is relevant to their chosen course for students in their years of study.

Because of the diverse tendency the Urban and Regional Planning requires in acquiring multiple skills. And also because the academic lecture room only cannot make professional town planner in country, therefore planning education as part of requirement by Nigeria polytechnic in designed to ensure that upcoming Town Planners are expose to experience practical performance in any relevant professional areas.  This report attempts to analyze the activities involved in Ayedaade Town Planning Department and Land Sevices with regard to experience gained during the period of four months Industrial Training taken at Ayedaade Town Planning Department and Land Sevices, Ayedaade local government. Town planning is responsible for all major development in the local government area.

 

 

1.2        AIMS OF THE INDUSTIAL TRAINING FUND

  • The aims of the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is to expose students to the practicability of the theories been taught in lecture room.
  • It provides an avenue for students in higher institutions of learning to acquire industrial skills and experience in their course of study.
  • It prepare students for the industrial work situation they will meet after graduation.
  • It exposes students to work methods and techniques in handling equipment and machinery that may not be available in their institutions.
  • It provides students with an opportunity to apply the knowledge in real work situation to their training thereby bridging the gap between theory and practice.

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FUND

  • To provide student with the opportunity of acquiring practical experience in their choice of course.
  • To fill the wide gap between studies in campus and practicing in the labour market.
  • To provide an enabling environment for students to handle issues and apply the knowledge acquiring in lecture rooms.
  • To provide necessary skills needed for future practice for student.
  • To make students self-reliant through the experience acquired.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0       FUNCTIONS OF AYEDAADE LOCAL GOVERNMENT

            The primary purpose of establishing Local Government Area is to get the government down to the grassroots and to gives the rural dwellers a sense of belonging.

Some of the functions of Local Government Areas Include

  • Collection of tax and rates
  • Issuance of licenses for vehicles, hawkers televisions, bicycles, naming of streets
  • Provision and maintenance of local market
  • Registration of death, birth and marriages that occur with area of jurisdiction
  • Provision of libraries and schools
  • Provision of maintenance of health care of facilities
  • Provision of customary courts that handle issue that pertain minor disputes divorce, minor traffic offence, disagreement over any pieces of land
  • Making recommendations to both federal and state government.

2.2       ORGANIZATION CHART OF TOWN PLANNING DEPARTMENT OF MINISTRY OF LAND. PHYSICAL PLANNING AND URBAN               DEVELOPMENT

Town planning department specialized on development control and development plan. They are responsible for all major development in the local government . Town planning of the ministry serves as mother planning agency for other agencies like Osun State capital territory development authority (CTDA), all local planning authorities in the state. The following is the organogram of the agency.

 

 

 

 

PLATE 2.1: ORGANOGRAM OF THE AGENCY

STPO- SENIOR TOWN PLANNING OFFICER

CTPO-   CHIEF TOWN PLANNING OFFICER

STO-    SENIOR TECHNICAL OFFICER

CTO-    CHIEF TECHNICAL OFFICER

PTO-   PRINCIPAL TECHNICAL OFFICER

TO-     TECHNICAL OFFICER

2.3       FUNCTION OF TOWN PLANNING AND LAND SERVICES, AYEDADE LOCAL GOVERNMENT, GBONGAN OSUN STATE

  1. Increasing strategies for conclusion patterns with a view to integrating physical plans with economic programmes.
  2. Preparing master plans for the local government
  3. Managing development control activities on local lands.
  4. Giving out application for interim planning permit.
  5. Coordinating the activities of town planning zonal offices.
  6. Carrying out Environmental Impact Analysis Studies.
  7. Processing application for Governor’s consent to prepare Layouts (sub-division) plans on local government land.
  8. Preparing state outline, physical Development plan.
  9. Preparing structure plans and subject plan for urban Area.
  10. Giving out applications for Certificate of Occupancy (C. of O).
  11. Formulating and reviewing planning standards.
  12. Preparing Layout (sub-division) plans for local government lands.

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.0       JOB DIARY OF TOWN PLANNING DEPARTMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT.

Town planning of Local Government majorly deals with development control and Development plan on lands that fall crossways the local government. Each unit has their scheme of Work and also each officer in the department has his/her work schedule, the way they carry out their duty assigned to them.

3.1       DUTY OF OFFICERS

            DIRECTOR TOWN PLANNING

  • Taken as a whole Head Of The Department
  • Interact with other Division in The Ministry and other Government Agency on Issues Affecting Physical  Planning In The State
  • He Presides Over Meeting And Officer Discussion
  • Allocate Job to His Subordinate
  • He Serve as a Link between the Agency And The Ministry.
  • He Attends Meetings with Commissioner and Permanent secretary.
  • He Visit Site in Some Cases.

            DEPUTY DIRECTOR TOWN PLANNING

  • Help director in excess of meeting and office discussion.
  • He seconded the director on town planning affair
  • He visits site in some cases.

            CHIEF TOWN PLANNING OFFICER {CTPO}

  • Visit sites and write reports for the director.
  • Serves as head in site inspection crew.
  • Give out contravention notices
  • Stand for the director in some cases
  • Carry out some administrative works as assigned by the director
  • Enlightens the public on planning regulations and standards.

            CHIEF TECHNICAL OFFICERS (CTO)

  • Carry out some administrative work as assigned by his superiors.
  • Visit the proposed sites and write reports
  • Goes through the area of coverage and reports to senior town planning officers.
  • He is part of the team that sees to the removal of illegal development during development control.
  • Goes through files concerning town planning matters

TOWN PLANNING OFFICERS (TPO)

  • Carry out some administrative work as assigned by his supervisors.
  • He is part of the team that sees to the removal of illegal development during development control.
  • Serves contravention notices
  • Visit the proposer’s sites and write reports.

            TECHNICAL OFFICERS (TO)

  • Sees into field work only
  • Does not go out for site inspection.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

4.1       INTRODUCTION TO PLANNING

Town planning was coined as a outcome of various difficulty created by the industry trial revolution of 19th century. The revolution occurred between 17th-18th Century, when development started which led to establish of modern factories in the system of production.

Nigerian institute of town planning (NITE) was formed by effort of town planners in the western region in April 1996 under the  leadership of  Mr. S. O. Tokun (FNITP). He was then the head of   town planning division of the region. The organization start with the pioneers of 7 members joined the later.

 

4.2       DEFINITION OF PLANNING

Town planning according to Lewis Keeble in 1960, can be defined as art   and science of ordering the use of land, siting of building and communication route so as to ensure maximum practicable degree of economy, convenience and beauty.

Importance Of Town Planning

  • It decrease death rate in the society
  • It provide pleasant and healthy physical environment for living, working, recreation and movement
  • To protect and encourage land use and land development for overall interest of the society.
  • For equal distribution of socio-economic an infrastructural facilities among the village and urban control.
  • Elimination/Reduction of regional socio-economic imbalance.

4.3       DEVELOPMENT CONTROL

This is the process of regulating, restraining and keeping in order or checking changes on land use that are in conflict with the desire of a developer and the benefit to the public. It regulates the orderly growth of settlement by stipulating adequate standard for all aspect of planning. The unit controls all development that is major like residential developments, school, industrial development, commercial development (petrol station, hotel, shopping complex, etc).

4.4       APPROVAL OF PLAN

The planning approval process involves assessment of a suggestion to use or develop land against the rules in a planning scheme. The planning processing is mainly concerned with the impacts of a proposed use or development upon neigbouring land. There is some general requirement for processing building plan. These are:

  • sets of Architectural Drawings
  • 6 sets of Structural Drawings
  • 1 Calculation Sheet
  • 1 set of sun print survey plan
  • Photocopy of Certificate of Occupancy or Title Document
  • Land Use Clearance approval (if major project is involved)
  • Environmental Impact Analysis Report (EIAR) (for major projects only)

4.5       BUILDING PLAN APPROVAL METHOD

Building plans are graphical representation of what a building will look like after

construction. They are used by builders and contractors to construct buildings of all kinds. Building plans are also useful when it comes to estimating how much a project will cost and preparing project budget.

There are some vital steps to be properly taking before an approval of building plan is granted among these are;     

  • Position Plan and Analysis report (LOPA) should be done
  • Completion of  building plan approval  Form and
  • Confirmation of imbursement of all essential bill and fee i.e.  Assessment fees,
  • Expansion Charges and SLP $ SAR Fee.

4.6       LOCATION PLAN

Location plan has to be preparing whereby detailed description of the proposed site would be made showing the access road and major distributors. The subject site and the entire neighboring village by the site inspector. 

4.7       SITE PLAN

On the site plan, all the beacon or survey pillars should be shown in meters. Also the access to the plot has to be shown. While the proposed structure has to be show how it should be placed on the site, it should be done in regards to the state planning rules and regulations

4.8       CONTRAVENTION NOTICE

The contravention notice will ask for information about the owners of the property and details of any other person who have a legal or equitable interest in the property.

The Chief Town planning officer of development control unit always serves contravention notice, stop work order, and demolition of illegal structure. The inspection crew ensures that the development of the land use has contravened before serving it. Contravention notices are served due to the following:

  • If the developer has changed the original land use plan.
  • If the developer erect structure without approval.
  • If the development is not compatible with the adjourning land use.
  • If the developer erect structure without adequate setbacks.

 

It will set out what actions the council considered you should take to rectify the matter. Initially this may be a request for you to stop what you are doing  and advising you to make a planning application or apply for a lawful development certificate.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       EXPERIENCE GAINED AND JOB UNDERTAKEN

My industrial training attachment in town planning department has been a footstep and most prominently a rotating point in my pursuit to suit in great planner in the future. Huge experience and exposure was acquired during my industrial Training.

5.1       WORKING EXPERIENCE

During the industrial attachment at town planning department. My experience include  the following area of experience;

Site Inspection Experience

The majority of the site inspection exercise is carried out by the development control Department to confirm if the development has contravened the planning standard. Many sites were visited during the industrial training attachment at organization which exposes me to basic information on Site inspection. In cases like:

  • If the developer obtain land on the Government Acquisition land (scheme).
  • If the developer needs to acquire the credential of occupancy.
  • Serving of contravention notices on illegal structure.
  • Furthermore serving of stop work notice and building removal or demolition notices to illegal buildings.

            Office/ Field Experience

Although in field, working as a team is extremely necessary, producing a design from setting up to the detail design drawing is a communal process though at the sketch level every planner in the office be it staff or IT student are given the chance to disapprove of a drawing and recommend achievable way of getting the paramount selected design to the detail level in a distribute responsibility (as a team).

The common practice is that my supervisor or any of the directors who is in charge of the design offer the preliminary basic construction in which the design is going to take since they are the people that are mostly involved with the clients; they discuss the concept.

Other Aspect Experience

  • Taking part in preparation of various design
  • Free hand sketching of the design
  • Site check up alongside with my supervisors
  • Deliberating the right and standard dimensions of different proposals and in different  This help me to be certain in the production of a thorough working drawing and in the area of identifying good and accurate dimensional renderings.

5.2       JOB UNDERTAKEN

ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE ON HOW TO PROCESS THE CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY (C of O) IN OSUN STATE

The process on how to acquire certificate of occupancy include the following procedure;

LAND INFORMATION

  1. Survey clearance: One need to apply for land information from the surveyor general’s office, with the submission of 2 original copies of the survey plan.
  • 6 photocopies of the survey plan
  • 1 original and 1 photocopies of the land agreement to be sighted and endorsed by the officer in charge.
  • Payment of survey clearance fee as calculated by the office of the surveyor- General.
  • Site inspection by officials of the office of the surveyor-General, Town Planning and Land department.
  1. Submission and advertisement: One need to pay for the capital payment depends on the land.
  • Acquiring and satisfying of application after imbursement of compulsory payment
  • Imbursement of submission and advertisement fees based on the land use.
  • Contemporary tax clearance certificate of the claimant which must be legitimate by a suitable official
  1. Town Planning Approval: Application to be cleared by the Director of Town Planning after payment of necessary fees.
  2. Deed Preparation: for deed preparation the following are to be considered
    1. Payment of Deed preparation fee
    2. Payment of Deed Ratification fee
    3. Payment of Ground Rent etc.

RECOMMENDATION

The following recommendation were made

  1. Visiting of students during the SIWES program should be ensured by the Industrial Training Fund officials and college coordinators in order to ensure that students get necessary exposure and to boost their morale.
  2. Companies/Organizations should be sensitized through organization of workshops/seminars in order to acquaint them with their expected roles towards students on industrial training
  3. Federal government should endeavor to make fund available to the institutions as at when due in order to facilitate proper monitoring of students on IT.
  4. Students should be paid their IT allowance to time so that they can be motivated.
  5. Also the federal government should make it mandatory for companies/organizations to supplement funding of the scheme by paying students stipends and providing, enabling condition for them.
  6. Students should be taught how to write reports and their reports should be read through and corrected.
  7. Selection of placement should not be left completely to students. The Institution should device a means of allocating students to related companies/organizations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

The programme had immensely contributed to my knowledge in urban and regional planning and it indeed has increase the degree of exposure of various area of Town planning. Planning by its nature is restrictive, indicative and regulatory. It is a creative and permissive tool to achieve a planned development proposed for the community laid out in the development plan and simply because of its role in space and development management should be the concern of all alike.

It indeed an education and interesting exercise as it exposes the problem and prospect of the profession. The programme builds a background for effectiveness and efficiency in the Town planning field for students in the future. As laudable the programme is, the problems student are facing are too much. To get placement is a problem. Also, it helps students in the area of public administration, human relation and exposes many challenges awaiting upcoming professionals in the workforce.

 

 

 

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SIWES REPORT FOR MASS COMMUNICATION STUDENT

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

What is SIWES? Siwes is an acronym for student industrial work scheme, which is organized by the federal government through the industrial training fund (I.T.F) it was established by decree 47 of 1971 and became active in 1973.

SIWES was made mandatory for all students and like in polytechnics, university, colleges of technology e.t.c during the long vacation of 2nd semester of 1st year. In order to improve the knowledge of practical in interest field and avoid re training of student after graduation. Any student who fail to undergo the programme is liable to fail the course itself because it is a of unit course.

 

1.1       AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF SIWES

  • It is a means of improving the quantity of skilled manpower.
  • It is setup as a practical supplement to the gap in skills acquisition
  • It helps students to get exposed to needed experience in handling of machinery and equipment that are not available in educational institutions.
  • It helps to gain practical experience.
  • It also helps to strengthen employers involvement in the entire educational process to be able to employed students in their industry.

 

1.2       IMPORTANCE OF (SIWES)

  • It is aimed at exposing student to machine and equipment of professional work method
  • It is an opportunity to bridge the gap between theory and practical
  • It makes the student to be more experience
  • It prepares student for industrial work situation that they likely to meet after graduation
  • It provide avenue for student to acquire skill.

DEPARTMENTS IN RADIO STATION

  • Administrative Department
  • Programme Department
  • Marketing Department
  • Engineering Department
  • Finance Department
  • News and current affairs
  • Audit Department

 

Administrative Department: This department is in charge of all staffs matters, ranging from the code of conduct for all staffs, moral behavior, rules and regulation and scheme of services for all staffs. The department caters for personal matters training, training of staffs, and employment of new staffs, discipline and promotion. The department handles record keeping, takes care of matters relating to insurance of man and materials, survey of corporations land matters, dealing with contracts, provides clerical and secretariat duties for all department.

Programme Department: This department handles the entire programs that are not part of news section details. There are expertise that anchoress programs for the organization. This department is responsible for the initiation of programs, and this idea must serve the purpose of informing, educating, persuading and entertaining. Programs that are being presented in  orison fm 89.5

Marketing Department:  This is the department where the financial aspect of the organization is discussed and settled, not only that, this is the department that deal with any jingle or advert to go on air where program is going on.

Engineering Department: This department is indebted with the task of supervising the equipment procurement, installation and maintenance of such equipment. He must be conversant with the broadcasting technology state.

Finance Department: The finance department is a service department that deals with the inflow and the outflow of the organization finances. It is in charge of budget preparation and budget control. It offers advice on financial matters to the chief director at all times. This department discharge duties ranging from billings, debt collection and payment of all fees for all channel, account reconciliation.

Graphic Department: This is the department of work of art, they are in charge of organization designs structure e.g. design of the station logo, captions, backdrops, and systematic arrangement of the studio.

Editing Department: This is the department where we have experienced computer operator, their ingenuities is being task with the burning of disk, editing of recorded videos, and also keep the record of videos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

DESCRIPTION OF WORK DONE

NEWSPAPER EDITORIAL REVIEW

Editorial review is done in editorial pages of all newspaper which represents people’s or writer’s opinion.

Editorials are basically articles in a newspaper that expresses the writers own opinion over something. Journalists care about the news; they not only wish to report, but they also wish to offer their opinion. Since there is an important distinction between news and opinion, editorials are used to report opinions so that they do not get mistaken for news. Example: (an abortion, editorial) Abortions in the eyes of most humans is wrong and should be prevented by all costs.

The number of abortions in the USA dropped to 1.2 million in 2005 – down nearly 25% since peaking at more than 1.6 million in 1990, according to a report by THE NATION.

The main use of editorials in newspapers is to allow the editors or people who proofread and choose which articles get in the paper to express their opinions about something.

Usually, they talk about something going on in the local, regional, state or international news. Sometimes, they respond to criticisms sent in by readers.

 

WINDOW ON THE WORLD

Window on the world is a recorded program designed to look at the weird and odd side of life.odd news are been search for on line from Tuesday to Thursday and the final production is done in the recording studio on Friday, be it international or national odd news, and it goes on air on Sunday by 9:00am.

 

NEWS TALK

News talk is a day to day exercise which is done every morning. It is basically written on opinions or recent happenings in the society e.g news talk on HIGH LEVEL OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA IS THE FOCUS OF TODAY’S NEWS TALK WRITTEN BY VICTOR KAYODE AN INTERN OF CURRENT AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT. It lay more emphasize on any recent issue or happening which is disturbing or which is recent in the society and it brings about the solution to it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

CONCLUSION

First and foremost I appreciate the effort of my supervising lecturer, I would also say. One of the objectives of SIWES stated earlier has a very good effect in my career as well.

The exposure under this scheme has really widened my horizon with wide exposure of experience in this field.

 

RECOMMENDATION

This student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) programme should be made compulsory and mandatory for all students. The student involved should be orient about benefit and essence of SIWES.

Student should be made aware of and get corrected that SIWES is not for money acquisition rather it is for knowledge, experience and practical exposure to his/her course of study for future benefits proper welfare of student should be catered for (in terms of treatment).

 

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SIWES REPORT FOR MASS COMMUNICATION STUDENT

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       INTRODUCTION TO SIWES

Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme was established by the Industrial training Fund (ITF) in 1973 with the aim of bridging the gap between the skills which the labour market required with that of those acquired by the graduate students.

Since its introduction by the ITF in 1973 the Scheme has gone through series of reforms. its management, for instance, has changed hands from the ITF to the various regulatory AGENCIES SUCH AS National Universities Commission (NUC) National board for Technical Education (NBTE) and National Commission for college of Education (NCCE) and now back to the ITF again.  These are the major stakeholders in (SIWES).

Consequently, SIWES Programme was introduced into the curriculum of tertiary institutions in the country as far back as 1974 with 748 students from 11 institutions of higher learning.

However, the scheme has over the years contributed immensely to the personal development and motivation of students to be able to understand the important connection between the taught and learnt content of their academic programmes and what knowledge and skill will be expected of them on professional practice after graduation.

Meanwhile, the need for students to possess adequate information on (SIWES) is further underlined by the fact that (SIWES) is a course of study that attract two, four and six credit units in Colleges of Education, Polytechnics and Universities respectively, depending on the need attached to it by the institutions.

The availability of required information therefore, enhances the capacity of students to work for and earn the credit units allotted for SIWES, rather than wobbling through the training intervention because of lack of pertinent information.

 

1.2       ADVENT OF SIWES

In recognition of the short courses and weakness in the formation of Set graduates, particularly with respect o acquisition of relevant production skills, the industrial training fund established the students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) in 1973.

The Scheme was designed to exposed students to the industrial environment and enable them develop occupational experiences so that they can readily contribute their quota to national economic and technological development after graduation.

Consequently, SIWES is a planned and structured programme based on stated and specific career objectives, which are geared toward developing the occupational competencies of participants.

 

1.3       OBJEC TIVES OF SIWES

The Industrial training funds policy document no. 1 of 1973, which established SIWES outline the objectives of the scheme.

The objectives are to:

  1. Provide an avenue for students in institution of higher learning to acquire industrial skills and experience during their course of study.
  2. Prepare students for industrial work situation that they are likely to meet after graduation.
  3. Expose students to work methods and techniques in handling equipment and machinery that may not be available in their institutions.
  4. Make the transition from school to the world of work carrier and enhances students contacts for later job placements.
  5. Provide students with the opportunities to apply their educational knowledge in real work situations, thereby bridging the gap between theory and practical.

 

1.4       MISSION

SIWES: Is charged with the responsibility of promoting and encouraging the acquisition of skill, commerce and industry, with the view to generating a pool of trained indigenous manpower sufficient to meet the need of the economy.

SIWES, is aimed at developing the human resources of the nation.  It builds the nation’s work force to promote the economy of a nation.

 

1.5       VISION

The vision of SIWES is to prepare students to contribute to the productivity of their nation.

1.6       BENEFITS OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING TO STUDENTS

The major benefits accruing to students who participate conscientiously in industrial training are the skills and competencies they acquire.  This is because the knowledge and skill acquired through training by students are internalized, and it becomes relevant, during job performances or functions.

Several other benefits include:

  1. Opportunity for students to blend theoretical knowledge acquired in the classroom with practical hand-on application of knowledge required to perform work in industry.
  2. Exposes students to the working environment, i.e. to enable them see how their professions are organized in practice.
  3. Prepares students to contribute to the productivity of their employers and nation’s economy.
  4. Provision of an enabling environment where students can develop and enhance personal attributes such as critical thinking, creativity, initiative, resourcefulness leadership, time management, presentation of skills and interpersonal skills.
  5. Prepares students for employment and makes transition from school to the work environment easier after graduation.
  6. Enables Students Bridge the gap between the acquired skills in the institutions and the relevant production skill required in the work organization.
  7. Enhances students’ contact with potential employers while on training.

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE NIGERIAN UNION OF JOURNALISTS

The Nigerian Union of Journalists (NUJ), was founded on March 15th 1955 in Lagos, the then Capital City of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.The union had some early nationalists with the fire of patriotism and nationalism burning in them and their writings included the first Governor General of Nigeria, the late Owelle of Onitsha, the Rt Hon (Dr.) Nnamdi Azikiwe, the first Premier of the defunct Western Region, the late Chief Obafemi Awolowo, the late Sardauna of Sokoto, Sir Ahmadu Bello and Alhaji Tafawa Balewa; the late Herbert Macaulay and Chief H. O. Davies who, with the launch of the Yoruba vernacular newspaper “Iwe Irohin ni Ede Yoruba”, founded by the late Rev. Ajayi Crowther in Abeokuta, in 1929, wrote powerfully, in their newspapers, columns on the need for Nigeria’s self-rule.The NUJ’s birth was linked to the struggle for the independence of Nigeria.

The struggle, it would be recalled gave birth to many protest groups, all yearning for the country’s independence from the British. The groups came in various shades. Some were political in nature, like the Nigerian Youth Movement, a platform for the nationalists. Others were trade unions and professional groups. It was established by some early Nationalists for an independent Nigeria via the power of the pen.

However, between 1961-1969,the union failed to operate as a trade union and this lead to the union’s name being removed from the list of the registered trade unions One of the observations of the Abiodun Panel in the Restructuring of Trade Unions was the lack of wherewithal as a union and this led to the demand that full time staff of all trade unions must have some trade union experience and also be imbued with the knowledge of the industry in which they operate Between 1961 – 1969 the Union’s name was struck out from the list of the registered Trade Unions, this was because the Union had failed to operate as a trade Union. Attempts to reregister the union was embarked upon in 1973 but failed due to some changes in the law system.

The union remained de-registered and operated as a mere professional body till 1977 when the Abiodun Trade Union Restructuring Panel embarked on the industrialization of trade unions in the country. The NUJ would have missed the opportunity but for the efforts of some journalists in Lagos and the old Western Region who used the pages of their newspapers to draw attention to the NUJ. Through their efforts, the NUJ and other unions which had been deregistered before the exercise were included and got carried along in the Abiodun programme. Alhaji Lateef Jakande facilitated the early launch of the second council and he is involved in the lagos union.

The union now operates 37 state councils, eight zones, 740 chapels and affiliate bodies like Nigeria Association of Women Journalists (NAWOJ), Nigerian Guild of Editors and the Sports Writers Association of Nigeria (SWAN) with the headquarters at the Federal Capital Territory which serves as the national secretariat. Before the 1977 amendments and the appointment of fulltime national secretary, the union operated a mobile secretariat whereby the secretary resided there, the secretariat was located.

Mission And Vision Statement

Journalism entails a high degree of public trust. To earn and maintain this trust, it is morally imperative for every journalist and every news medium to observe the highest professional and ethical standards. In the exercise of these duties, a journalist should always have a healthy regard for the public interest. Truth is the cornerstone of journalism and every journalist should strive diligently and every journalist should strive to ascertain the truth of every event.

Responsibilities and Duties of Journalists

Conscious of the responsibilities and duties of journalists as purveyors of information, we, Nigerian journalists, give to ourselves this Code of Ethics. It is the duty of every journalist to observe its provisions.

  1. Editorial Independence: Decisions concerning the content of news should be the responsibility of a professional journalist.
  2. Accuracy And Fairness: The public has a right to know. Factual, accurate, balanced and fair reporting is the ultimate objective of good journalism and the basis of earning public trust and confidence. A journalist should refrain from publishing inaccurate and misleading information. Where such information has been inadvertently published, prompt correction should be made. A journalist must hold the right of reply as a cardinal rule of practice.In the course of his duties a journalist should strive to separate facts from conjecture and comment.
  • Privacy: As a general rule, a journalist should respect the privacy of individuals and their families unless it affects the public interest.
  1. Privilege / Non-Disclosure: A journalist should observe the universally accepted principle of confidentiality and should not disclose the source of information obtained in confidence.
    ii. A journalist should not breach an agreement with a source of information obtained as “off-the-record” or as “background information.”
  2. Decency: A journalist should dress and comport himself in a manner that conforms with public taste. A journalist should refrain from using offensive, abusive or vulgar language.
    A journalist should not present lurid details, either in words or picture, of violence, sexual acts, abhorrent or horrid scenes. In cases involving personal grief or shock, enquiries should be carried out and approaches made with sympathy and discretion. Unless it is in the furtherance of the public’s right to know, a journalist should generally avoid identifying relatives or friends of persons convicted or accused of crime.
  3. Discrimination: A journalist should refrain form making pejorative reference to a person’s ethnic group, religion, sex, or to any physical or mental illness or handicap.
  • Reward And Gratification: A journalist should neither solicit nor accept bribes, gratifications or patronage to suppress or publish information. To demand payment for the publication of news is inimical to the notion of news as a fair, accurate, unbiased and factual report of an event.
  • Violence: A journalist should not present or report acts of violence, armed robberies, terrorist activities or vulgar display of wealth in a manner that glorifies such acts in the eyes of the public.
  1. Children And Minors: A journalist should not identify, either by name or picture, or interview children under the age of 16 who are involved in cases concerning sexual offences, crimes and rituals or witchcraft either as victims, witnesses or defendants.
  2. Access Of Information: A journalist should strive to employ open and honest means in the gathering of information.
  3. Public Interest: A journalist should strive to enhance national unity and public good.
  • Social Responsibility: A journalist should promote universal principles of human rights, democracy, justice, equity, peace and international understanding.
  • Plagiarism: A journalist should not copy, wholesale or in part, other people’s work without attribution and/or consent.
  • Copyright: Where a journalist reproduces a work, be it in print, broadcast, art work or design, proper acknowledgement should be accorded the author. A journalist should abide by all rules of copyright, established by national and international laws and conventions.
  1. Press Freedom And Responsibility: A journalist should strive at all times to enhance press freedom and responsibility.

2.2       ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF NIGERIA UNION OF JOURNALISTS

There is a range of national councils below the NEC, covering different sections and areas of activity. There is an industrial council for each of the NUJ’s “industrial” sectors – Newspapers and Agencies, Freelance, Magazine and Book, Broadcasting, New Media and Press and PR.

 

  1. NUJ newspapers and agencies: This represents all journalists, including reporters, photographers, sub-editors, content managers, multi-media workers, editors and deputies. The newspapers and agencies industrial council (NAIC) consists of union representatives from these areas and aims to promotes and supervise negotiations and agreements with individuals or groups of employers on employment-related issues in the sector. The council acts as an advisory committee to the NEC – members can contact their council representative and ask for assistance and the council can make representations to the NEC.
  2. Freelance industrial council (FIC): Freelance Industrial Council members are elected from geographical constituencies, including continental Europe, so every freelance has a representative voice from their area.
  3. The Magazine and Book industrial council: The NUJ is the right union for everyone who works in magazine publishing, including reporters, editors, copywriters, sub-editors, web editors and graphic designers. This means people who are eligible to join the union may be working as a freelance for a small specialist title, be fully employed by one of the few remaining giants, such as Emap or IPC Media, or starting up their own magazine. The Magazine and Book Industrial Council (MABIC) promotes and supervises negotiations and agreements with individuals or groups of employers dealing with wages and conditions of employment and allied problems – including the promotion of vocational training – in the magazines and books sectors. MABIC functions as an advisory committee to the NEC and has the right to make representations to the NEC.
  4. The broadcasting industrial council: The NUJ represents journalists throughout the broadcasting industry, from reporters to producers, editors and online journalists, in radio and television. The broadcasting industrial council (BIC) promotes and supervises negotiations and agreements with individuals or groups of employers on wages and conditions of employment and allied problems – including the promotion of vocational training – in the broadcasting sector. BIC recruitments and organises activities in the sector. It acts as an advisory committee to the union’s National Executive Council (NEC) and can make representations to the NEC.
  5. New media industrial council: New media for the NUJ includes everyone editing, producing content, design or front-end coding for websites, mobile phones and other interactive platforms. The union also covers those working in social media as community organisers or content producers. The New Media Industrial Council (NMIC) promotes and supervises negotiations and agreements with individuals or groups of employers on wages and conditions of employment and allied matters – including the promotion of vocational training – in the new media sector. NMIC also functions as an advisory committee to the NEC and has the right to make representations to the NEC.
  6. The Public Relations & Communications industrial council: The Public Relations & Communications Industrial Council (PRCIC) promotes and supervises negotiations and agreements with individuals or groups of employers on wages and conditions of employment and allied problems – including the promotion of vocational training – in the PR and communications sector. PRCIC carries out recruitment and organisation activities within the two sectors. It functions as an advisory committee to the NEC and has the right to make representations to the NEC.
  7. Photographer Council: The union can also provide advice on contracts and training as well as the chance to meet other NUJ members and be part of a larger community of photographers fighting to defend the profession. The NUJ represents freelance photographers, staff photographers and videographers. Some of the issues NUJ photographers face include:
  • fair rates for sale of images, low shift and image rates and companies attempting to get photographers to work for no pay
  • attacks on copyright and contractual rights
  • restrictions on the right to photograph and record
  • press freedom and obstruction, harassment, assault and/or arrest of photographers and videographers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.1       INTRODUCTION TO JOURNALISM

Journalism is increasingly becoming a difficult concept to define and delineate because of some contemporary developments having direct effects on its practice. The twenty – first century invention of the new media, especially the internet, has revolutionized and redefined the scope and practice of journalism all over the world. The emergence of the concept of ‘Citizen Journalism’ has compounded the problems of; first who is a journalist, second, what is journalism, third, what are the ethical requirements for the practice of journalism, fourth, what are the roles expectation of journalists and journalism profession in the society, as well as many other questions begging for attention and answers.

However, regardless of the seemingly nebulous outlook of journalism in the contemporary time, journalism is concerned with the gathering, processing and dissemination of information regarded as important and critical to the operations of the different components of the society.

Journalism refers to the process of “gathering, evaluating and distributing  facts of current interest”. The professional norms of good journalism include, in particular, the following; truthfulness, objectivity, neutrality and detachment

 

            Responsibilities of Journalists

  1. To serve the political system by making information, discussion and consideration of public affairs generally accessible.
  2. To inform the public to enable it to take self determined action.
  3. To protect the rights of the individual by acting as watchdog over the government.
  4. To serve the economic system, for instance the bringing together buyers and sellers through the medium of advertising.
  5. To provide good entertainment, whatever “good” may mean in the culture at any point in time.
  6. To preserve financial autonomy in order not to become dependent on special interests and influences

 

3.2       FEATURE WRITING

Features are not meant to deliver the news firsthand. They do contain elements of news, but their main function is to humanize, to add colour, to educate, to entertain, to illuminate. They often recap major news that was reported in a previous news cycle. Features often:

  • Profile people who make the news
  • Explain events that move or shape the news
  • Analyze what is happening in the world, nation or community
  • Teach an audience how to do something
  • Suggest better ways to live
  • Examine trends
  • Entertain.

Characteristics of a Feature Article

Feature articles:

  • Contain depth of characters and/or issues, offering background information about the subject.
  • Are usually timeless- they are just as acceptable for publication this week or next month.
  • Provide more detail often including more research.
  • Provide the reader with an understanding of the writer’s attitude towards his/her subject matter with the careful use of tone.
  • Provide a forum for ideas, attitudes, reasons, feelings and background.

 

Structure of Feature Articles

The ‘Write-off’ or ‘Stand first’ in a Feature article needs to capture the reader’s attention immediately and then the lead or introduction must maintain it. The elements required to produce a successful Feature article are a lead, a body and a conclusion.

Leads: A successful lead will accomplish three objectives:

  1. Attract the reader.
  2. Give the reader the central idea.
  3. Lead the reader into the story.

Transitions

  • Good transitions in feature writing mean that one paragraph moves smoothly to the next one.
  • Good transitions work by repeating a word, phrase or idea that has been used in the paragraph immediately before.

 

Endings

  • The conclusion often connects with an idea that has been developed in the lead, or it can in some way summarise the main points of the article.
  • The conclusion is often structured in the same way as the lead as it refers to the angle presented in the introduction. This technique is referred to as the ‘lead replay’.
  • Often at the end of a Feature article the writer will provide relevant information about that subject of the Feature, giving interested readers links to contact groups ‘…opens on Thursday’.

 

Types of Leads 

  1. Description: Descriptive leads often focus on what it feels like to be at an event by highlighting the sights, sounds, textures, tastes and smells that evoke clear images in the mind of the reader.
  2. Direct Address: This is when the writer tries to engage the reader immediately. This can be done by asking questions or asking the reader to imagine something in particular. It is as though the writer is expecting some direct responses from the reader.

 

Shocking Statement

  • This type of lead is also known as “the teaser”.
  • A shocking or striking statement is one that will produce a strong response in the reader. Often it will challenge some accepted belief, or simply be provocative. Statistics are often effective.
  • It involves the reader by building suspense before revealing the focus of the story.

 

Narrative

  • The narrative lead tells a story.
  • Sometimes a short piece, often from the writer’s own experience, will lead the reader into the article.
  • Though it is also descriptive, the narrative lead is more like a play with a scene characters and dialogue.

 

Quotation: A relevant and effective quotation can introduce the reader to the theme of the article. The quote should compel the reader to go further into the story.

Question: Should be used only when the question relates directly to the Feature angle and compels the reader to seek the answers further in the story. Unfortunately, most question leads can be answered with another question.

 

3.3       LANGUAGE AND GRAMMATICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FEATURE ARTICLES

 

            Paragraphing

  • Paragraphs of one to four sentences are used in newspaper feature articles.

            Quotations

  • Inverted commas indicate direct quotations.
  • Quotes from eyewitnesses, sources or experts are included in the text.

 

Registered

  • Individual speakers who are quoted in a Feature article often use emotive language.
  • Feature articles are more creative in the use of language than a news report, often using emotive language.
  • Feature articles contain objective material but often appeal to emotions.

 

Key Words

  • The vocabulary includes many words that relate to the specific subject discussed.
  • An extensive written vocabulary is used.
  • Contractions are often used to create a “chatty/informal” person-to-person tone.

 

Subject Matter Of Feature Articles 

Feature Articles are usually longer than News Reports and Columns are written about a range of topics including:

  • Society
  • Health
  • Food
  • Politics
  • Entertainment
  • Individuals
  • The Environment
  • Sport
  • Economics
  • Current Issues

 

Layout of Feature Articles

  • Each Feature article has a headline.
  • Feature articles generally include a synopsis as part of the byline. The synopsis provides the reader with information about the content of the text. It is known as a ‘Write of’ of ‘Stand first’.
  • Feature articles include a byline. The byline states the name of the writer. This is often part of the ‘Write off/ Stand first’
  • A photograph, graphics, illustration or cartoon usually accompanies feature articles.
  • The text is written in column format.
  • A Break Out Box may support feature articles. A Break Out Box appears next to the news report and provides readers with related factual information about the topic. Information in the Break Out Box includes the use of technical terms, explanations, graphics and statistics.
  • Several types and sizes of fonts are used.
  • Colour is often used in either the headline and/or photograph(s).
  • Feature articles are usually much longer than news reports and may or may not be linked to a current “hard news” event.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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