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Justice can Really Speak When Necessary

The ability to speak freely and to be direct about what needs to be heard. “Advocacy is a gift and some aren’t able to really comprehend just how “effective advocacy” really is.” by: Tanikka Paulk What is the true meaning of advocacy? Standing up, finding solutions, fighting the injustices. There are so many injustices which need attention there needs to be solutions. How many are willing to cooperate with the advocates and others? There seems to be communications issues and there are so many refusing to accept what is so. i’m an advocate and I’ve fought causes. Yes I’m more than an advocate because I’ve voiced my concerns I’ve rallied so therefore my advocacy includes activism. That’s right. My name is Tanikka Paulk and although there are so many continuing to cause difficulties there is no way that I’m going to give in.

Justice is what I’m called and no matter how persons feel about the title there should be justice. There needs to be order the disturbances could cause a country to decline. What does Justice have to say? Justice has already said a lot and there are more issues to speak upon. Community Tool Box states,

  • Advocacy is active promotion of a cause or principle
  • Advocacy involves actions that lead to a selected goal
  • Advocacy is one of many possible strategies, or ways to approach a problem
  • Advocacy can be used as part of a community initiative, nested in with other components.
  • Advocacy is not direct service
  • Advocacy does not necessarily involve confrontation or conflict

I’ve always been interested in helping others and I’ve stood up and right now I’m having to stand up for myself because there are so many refusing to allow my journey to incur the effectiveness in which can help so many. The disruptions seem to be bothersome at times but there are ways to move forward without losing control. The movements continue and yes justice should occur because a country could suffer allowing disorderly People to control the Nation. It certainly takes bravery in order to continue the advocacy path. There aren’t too many displaying that they’ve obtained the tools “to become” effective advocates. Perhaps there are so many uninterested in advocacy.

No matter what the views are one should believe in self and continue to be confident. Yes there will be some unwilling to accept what an advocate has to say but when there is strength and dedication then there will be more accomplished. Speaking “the real” speaking what’s perceived as the truth can certainly generate what can assist “People.” There is greatness here and far there should be more advocates willing to take stands on the important issues. My hand is firm and my eyes have viewed the many injustices which certainly need the attention.

I’ve witnessed some of the injustices and there has been sorrow because of what continues to occur. My focus is on the path at hand what others have to say about what I’m doing isn’t to worry. I’ve used my own thoughts and the ones trying to cause disruptions should really sit down and move out of the way. Meaning they should mind their own business if they’re unwilling to help. There’s a lot of chatter but what actions have they supplied? Movements are what so many are trying to look for. It may appear as if the entire world is against but there will be the “supporters.” “The challenges haven’t caused my advocacy to decline and I’m continuing to be the fighter I am.” By: Tanikka Paulk

“Advocacy is so important and shouldn’t there be solutions to the injustices. Shouldn’t there be the solutions?” (Tanikka Paulk)

 

Source: Community Tool Box

Image Credit: Pixabay

 

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Generating Order is the Right Thing to do

Disorderly folks huh? What can one or more do about disorder? Seek the justice having justice is different than revenge. There are laws, rules, procedures etc. Perhaps some think that they’re allowed to victimize others because they may believe that there’s no consequences. “Justice.” In order to be effective there needs to be the correct thought process think clearly and find the most effective solutions. It’s amazing how so many believe committing crimes is the norm. There has to be some willing to stand up and have their say. “I’m certainly vocal about the injustices and will continue to advocate no matter what others think about the views.” (Tanikka Paulk)

Oh yes they’ve tried to challenge every word said every action made. There are some People irritating enough to want to scream at the top of my lungs. That’s right. Perhaps waiting to see if there will be a snap. Waiting for a break. There are environments which can cause a person’s health to decline and that’s why it’s important to limit the “time” in such environments. There can and should be peace. There are some adults with minimum line of thinking. I’ve faced some of the toughest challenges. Some are criminal and really need to be placed where criminals reside.

Seeking justice takes a lot of courage. There should be order and the ones continuing to disrupt laws and important avenues should receive the due justice. There are some incarcerated because they’ve made a mistake and there are some needing to be incarcerated because they’re continuing to commit crimes. I’ve probably tolerated more than some are willing to tolerate giving individuals the benefit of the doubt. Their actions have demonstrated that they’re incapable of being productive citizens. Imagine individuals thinking that they are qualified to hold prestigious positions while committing crimes. There are some thinking such a thing.

There seems to be a lot of individuals taking unnecessary risks because wither they’re desperate or they’re hopeless. The adversities won’t prevent the seeking of justice. “They’ve tried to demonstrate that they’re more qualified but have criminal records.” (Tanikka Paulk). To think and to incur hopefulness is something some are unable to do. There are some believing that if they attack a person long enough then the person will stop moving forward. What are some willing to do in order to obtain? It appears as though some have already risked their freedom.

It’s amazing how some are willing to take big risks because they’re unable to handle witnessing a shine. Perhaps they’re lacking confidence or there are some just wanting to be a pain in the rear. No matter how many times I’m challenged there will be movement as long as I’m here on earth. No amount of attacks will stop what has already been purposed. Perhaps they’ve thought that I am Pinky. Brainless? No. When they think that I’m under and when it appears as so they’ll find that what they’ve perceived they were wrong and they are wrong. There are more individuals demonstrating that they’re corrupt than there are demonstrating that they’re good citizens. (civilians).

The word attacks could have broken my progress and the cynical expressions could have caused setbacks but there is so much confidence that what’s said won’t cause me=Tanikka Paulk to move backwards. The demonstrating of who’s smarter I’m smart enough to be free from being apart of a breach, hacking, monitoring and the other crimes committed. Imagine folks committing crimes in front of every law enforcement agency. They’re certainly in no position to call out. The crimes committed “certainly should” receive punishments.

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Why do They Want me=Tanikka Paulk to Become Another Person?

There are so many thinking oddly they’re in depth with trying to make me=Tanikka Paulk become another person. Identities are important and it seems as though some are willing to deal an identity. There are many ways to identify a person. I Tanikka Paulk have no interest “becoming” another person however my interest is in renewing the mind. To become aware of what’s occurring here and elsewhere. The challenges to keep my identity safe is unbelievable. There should be caution when dealing with certain individuals pertaining to the identity of one. What are they wanting from me=Tanikka Paulk?

There is a battle to keep my name, my identity, my character. “Every person must face the adversities and there’s ability to secure what is rightfully mine.” (Tanikka Paulk). My identity has been compromised. They’ve tried to make me=Tanikka Paulk become another and I’m unwilling  to allow such things to occur. Every person should fight to keep their identity. There’s a mission here. There’s the continuous progress to create the many changes which should occur. No matter how hard the persons try to cause insecurities there will be some willing to take the necessary stances.

Some are disagreeing about my position and that’s alright. All won’t agree but no matter how many disagree there will be continued actions towards making the changes. “Identities should be held highly every person should work towards keeping their identity safe.” BY: Tanikka Paulk. The movements continue there are many crimes committed and there has to be consequences. Identity theft occurs often and yes trying to recover could take long. There are responsibilities and the law must act and the citizens should be proactive. Standing up is what I’m going to do.

What I’m facing so many have faced. Most identities are stolen by persons the victim knows. There are some appearing to be brainless because of their actions. Law enforcement may appear to be focused elsewhere but Law enforcement is hired to solve crimes and enforce laws. “Enforcement is necessary but how many believe in the laws of the land?” (Tanikka Paulk). There are some committing crimes and thinking that there are no laws. Citizens should be aware of what’s occurring. Identity theft could land the individuals in prison.

Imagine being a victim and also being harassed while the criminals continue on their spree to commit other crimes. They’ve committed the crimes “in front of” every law enforcement agency and what will happen later? There should be some tough consequences. Perhaps some aren’t prepared to face. Crimes could cost a country lots of revenue. There’s has to be thinking involved when dealing with the individuals. Perhaps they’re not concerned about their freedom or they’re desperate. Advocating is necessary and it’s time to advocate to stop the individuals.

“Think About What’s Occurring and see What the Changes are and Should be.” (Tanikka Paulk)

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There are Many Decisions Involved

There’s lots to decide and when searching for the most effective decisions there will be some in disagreement. Even when there are many without understanding there has to be decisions made. If situations are left unattended then there could be more problems to deal with which could lead to stressful situations. Some of what occurs could avoided but due to “the actions” there’s troubles. Yes, every person will have to deal with all sorts of matters but there are situations occurring in which some are just causing due to their line of thinking. “There must be continued progress towards creating a more stabilized world.” (Tanikka Paulk)

No matter what’s decided it’s best to stick to the decisions and refuse to be concerned about the ones disagreeing about what’s decided. There’s the ability to be stern when need be. If any person is in a leadership position then they’ll have to learn how to be firm. Although there are many unwilling to accept the decisions made by individuals in higher positions there are some who will have learn “to adjust.” There are laws and some just have to be enforced. A country could crumble if too many are allowed to commit acts which could cause disorder.

What’s considered doesn’t need to be revealed once individuals are aware of the motions they’ll try to cause havoc. It’s better to just proceed and allow what needs to occur to occur. There are disciplines and yes there will be some unwilling to accept what’s called sentencing. “God can decide to offer His discipline but mankind has the authority to offer the punishments in which mankind is selected to project.” (Tanikka Paulk). Imagine a crowd displaying disorderly behavior. How will the crowd calm down? There has to be some decisions made to lower the law breaking risks.

There has to be decisions to be effective leaders. To lead in a way that helps build a stronger society. Some will want to be saved because they’ve caused chaos but there will have to be some consequences. When to decide when to administer the consequences which are needed to create order of a “country or countries?” The sooner the more effective the actions will become. Some leaders will be misunderstood and some will be embraced. There will have to be difficult decisions. The time is now.

I’ve been placed in some sticky situations. There could be many risks involved when dealing with certain groups of People. Some aren’t considering that their actions could cause others to be in the same situation they’re in. There has to be focus on the areas in which will help society become whole. What’s offered could be taken advantage of but the “decisions” absolutely have to occur. “To understand can help lower law breaking and help with growing the economy.” By: Tanikka Paulk

“My Decision Making Shall not be Controlled.” (Tanikka Paulk)

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Must Continue to be Functional and Operational

Although there are so many lacking the ability to understand. They’re refusing to accept what’s decided and what has been decided by God. Mankind seems to think that they can overpower and overturn certain decisions made. What should one do when being challenged, attacked, and harassed while trying to accomplish certain goals? Prayer is how I deal with the problems and in some cases we’ll need to address the issues on a personal level. Mostly ignoring such behavior may help. “There is no need to address all behaviors doing so can create stress.” (Tanikka Paulk). In order to be productive there will need to be the ability to tune out however there will be circumstances where tuning out is difficult to do.

Yes I’ve been challenged many times. There are some insisting on causing havoc but there is still the desire to proceed. Productivity will occur despite what some will try to do. Perhaps they’re lacking attention but there needs to be boundaries set so that there are less invasions. There are so many invasive People and there needs to be some measures in place so that there are less invasions occurring. The groups of People haven’t yet learned to mind their own business. They’re hanging on like babies needing their mother’s milk.

Irritation yes but the problematic individuals won’t stop what is to occur. They’ve been addressed and continue to send the words which are insulting but aren’t going to create a cease. Eventually they’ll settle down because they’ll have no other choice. There’s functionality and there should be. Every move made they’re watching, they shouldn’t be aware of every action to take place, there needs to be some privacy. Although the individuals have caused problems there are decisions continuing to “be made” without their knowledge. That’s the best route.

There are decision makers with high standards continuing to make moves which People are unable to see. However there are some aware of some of the movements occurring. “There are many hills to climb and battles to be won so there should be the confidence to conquer.” (Tanikka Paulk). Time continues to proceed and no matter how many aren’t accepting of such there seems to be some willing to accomplish what certainly needs to be accomplished. I’m continuing for many reasons. What has occurred God has allowed.

My thoughts are focused on getting closer to the finish line. I’ve been selected, chosen, previously voted in when holding Official Titles on the Committee and Board. Was chosen to be the President, Vice President, and Assistant Secretary of The Policy Committee in Coconut Grove Florida. There is experience and experience can be held higher than degrees. I Tanikka Paulk was also a member of The United Teacher of Dade Union. Bylaws, Polices, and Procedures. So while some may think that there’s no “qualifications” there is. Qualified worked since the age of 14. There will be my Political Stance addressed.

Sometimes there will be Decisions made which some are too thrilled about. There will be positions held in which some were unaware of the Positions. There will need to be the ability to deal with cynical behaviors. Yes, there will be attacks, and there are ways to deal with the matters, being calm certainly will help but there are some willing to push and push. The functionality proceeds and although there are so many waiting to be thorns there will be progress. Former President Barack Obama stated, “Yes we Can.” There will be many changes occurring and there will be some having difficulties adjusting to the changes.

“My Name is Tanikka Paulk and I’m Continuing.” (Tanikka Paulk)

Photo Belongs to Tanikka Paulk

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5 Fast Facts About The Paris Climate Change Agreement

It seems like you can’t read a newspaper or turn on a television without reading a new study on climate change. With melting ice caps and species dying, things are a bit frightening.

And given recent events, it seems discussions are more heated than ever.

President Trump’s decision to remove the United States from the Paris Climate Change Agreement was a controversial decision, to say the least. Previously, the U.S. was working with 195 other countries to try and combat the effects of global warming.

But what is exactly is the Accord and what does it mean for international diplomacy?

Keep reading for some quick facts to get you up to speed.

5 Fast Facts About the Paris Climate Change Agreement

1. The United States Can’t Pull Out Overnight

It’s going to take a few years before the U.S. is officially done with the Paris Accord. While Trump’s decision made headlines, the withdrawal will take more time than he thinks.

Just how long will it take for the United States to revoke their membership? About 4 years, which coincides with the next presidential election.

This means that Trump’s decision can be easily reversed should he not serve a second term.

2. There are Only 3 Countries Not Participating in the Agreement

Originally, there were only 2 countries — Nicaragua and Syria — that didn’t sign on to the Accord. Should President Trump’s decision stand, the United States will become the third.

Even areas that the U.S. has traditionally had issues with such as Russia and North Korea participate.

3. The Paris Climate Change Agreement Isn’t Legally Binding

As it turns out, the reason Nicaragua declined to sign was for this very reason. While the country acknowledges climate change as a very real threat, they believe it’s up to the richer nations to combat change first.

And therein lies one of the most important aspects of the Accord. It isn’t a legally binding document, so there isn’t much of anything to hold a country’s feet to the fire. Participation is entirely on a voluntary basis.

4. China and India Complicate Matters

And since the Accord is voluntary, there aren’t any tangible consequences — at least not yet.

China and India pose the two biggest threats to the fight on climate change, as both nations produce large amounts of carbon emissions.

You may recall President Trump’s assertion that, “China can do whatever they want for 13 years” while the U.S. has to reduce coal production. In fact, it was touted as one of his primary reasons for removing the U.S. from talks.

His statement, however, is simply not true. PolitiFact points out that the document doesn’t prohibit any nation from anything.

5. Most State Representatives Aren’t Happy With the Decision

Several states have already said that they’re not following the President’s orders. In fact, New York and California have already promised to reduce their emissions.

In an unprecedented move, Trump’s decision united bipartisan efforts to combat climate change.

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Geographies of African corruption and embezzlement of funds

The purpose of this paper is to study the uneven geographies of corruption on the African continent. Corruption is an entrenched part of African political culture. However, the degree and impacts of corruption vary widely across the continent, ranging from failed states such as Somalia to the region’s bright spot Botswana. This paper first defines corruption and discusses its causes and effects. It then delves into the specifics of African corruption, including its causes and effects such as patrimonial political cultures, clientelism and the role of natural resource exports.

The study uses data from Transparency International to assess African corruption empirically and geographically, and links its levels of severity using correlations to gross domestic product per capita, literacy, income inequality and freedom of the media.

The major findings are that while the vast majority of the continent’s one billion people live under very corrupt regimes, the impacts of corruption on economic growth are questionable. Few geographic studies of corruption exit.

The paper’s novelty stems in part from being the first to explore African corruption from a spatial perspective, illustrating its widely varying contexts and consequences.

Corruption is a highly visible aspect of African politics, with a number of high-profile scandals standing out. For example, Mobutu Sese Seko, long-time tyrant of Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo), amassed a fortune of US$5bn, equal to the country’s entire external debt, before he was ousted in 1997 (Thomas, 2001; Svensson, 2005). The widespread corruption overseen by Kenya’s Daniel arap Moi is seen in the millions of dollars lost in “massive cash subsidies for fictitious exports of gold and diamonds” in the Goldenberg scandal (Vasagar, 2006). Nigeria’s Sani Abacha (Pallister and Capella, 2000) and South Africa’s Jackie Selebi (Schwella, 2013) are also among public officials implicated in major corruption scandals. More recently, opposition to corruption in Africa was manifest in the events of the Arab Spring. Tunisia and Egypt were among the earliest and the most visible of these revolutions (Anderson, 2011), while Occupy Nigeria arose later to protest removal of an oil subsidy that undergirded an uneasy peace between parts of Nigerian society and the corrupt state (Agbedo, 2012). Kofele-Kale (2006, p. 697) summarizes the dismal state of African corruption succinctly:

Corruption is a punishable offense under the laws of nearly every African state, and it is expressly prohibited in several of their constitutions and in various regional and pan-African anti-corruption instruments. In fact, Africa’s leadership is so concerned about the problem of corruption that hardly a day goes by without some government entity criticizing corruption and its cancerous effects on African society. Yet, for all the bombast about eradicating corruption, Africa has made little progress on this front.

Corruption is almost universal across the planet but varies widely in severity, type and consequences. Although corruption is not unique to Africa, African corruption remains pervasive and among the world’s most severe (Lawson, 2009). For example, data from Transparency International (about which more later) indicate that six African countries are rated as “extremely corrupt” (scores under 20) and another 35 are considered “very corrupt” (scores 20-39); only Botswana emerges as a member of the “slightly corrupt” group, and no African country is among the “least corrupt” group which includes most of the economically advanced world. Ninety per cent of Africa’s population – roughly one billion people of 1.2 billion – thus live under very or extremely corrupt governments, a rate that exceeds most of the rest of the world.

Corruption is one of the several factors that have hindered African economic development, a governance issue with a wide variety of deleterious social and political consequences. Unfortunately, geographical analyses of this phenomenon have been highly limited and have been mostly confined to a few case studies of India (Robbins, 2000; Corbridge and Kumar, 2002; Jeffrey, 2002), and a critique of anti-corruption campaigns (Brown and Cloke, 2004). Bracking (2009) offers a rare exception concerning Africa, noting that corruption in Zimbabwe is not an exception to neoliberal rule but an integral part of it. Yet, there are virtually no other works on the spatiality of corruption in Africa.

Although it is arguably the most corrupt continent on the planet, corruption in Africa has been largely neglected by geographers. This paper seeks to fill this void; its aim is to disclose the uneven geography of corruption there and the causes of differences in the level of severity found among its various countries, noting that causes, severity and effects vary across the continent. Its primary focus is on the roles of the “resource curse” and globalization as two predominant forces that have facilitated and constrained corruption, respectively. It opens with an overview of the definitions of corruption, its causes and its consequences. Next, it turns to the specifics of corruption on the African continent, noting the roles played by colonial borders, patrimonial politics, foreign aid and the “resource curse”. The third part briefly summarizes the data used in the empirical analysis; the fourth correlates corruption scores with gross domestic product (GDP) levels and growth, income inequality, literacy, export intensity, reliance on raw materials exports, media freedom and government effectiveness in combatting corruption. The conclusion emphasizes the uneven spatial nature of corruption, its cultural and institutional embeddedness and the uncertain role of anti-corruption campaigns.

In its broadest sense, corruption may be defined as the use of public office and funds for private gains (Bardhan, 1997, 2006). Within this umbrella fall a large number of illicit, illegal and immoral behaviors, including graft, bribes, extortion, embezzlement, inflated payrolls in which the designated payees do not receive funds (“ghost salaries”), over-invoicing, theft of foreign aid, a blind eye toward smuggling, the purchase and sale of legislative votes, nepotistic hiring practices and selling of government contracts, licenses and land concessions, to name but a few. Petty corruption may be practiced on a small scale by few individuals, such as police or customs officials, while grand corruption may be institutionalized as wholesale, well-organized kleptocracies designed to enrich a small elite at the expense of the public. Both types are found in Africa; whereas the former is essentially ubiquitous, the latter varies geographically, depending on several factors such as colonial legacies, the structure of exports and associated revenues and the degree to which international agencies [e.g. the International Monetary Fund (IMF), non-governmental organizations (NGOs)] have intervened in particular states.

Corruption occurs when the expected benefits exceed the costs, and it is thus a form of rent-seeking behavior (Klitgaard, 1988). Benefits are not limited to monetary gains but include acquiring political office, power and prestige. The likelihood of corruption must be measured against the probability of being caught or exposed and the associated penalties. In large part, these reflect the transparency of government actions and the degree of administrative oversight and accountability involved.

Several factors either exacerbate or inhibit corruption. Poor countries tend to have the highest levels (Warf, 2016), and the poor, who rely the most heavily on public services, often face demands for bribes to obtain them. Corruption flourishes in secretive environments in which deals and decisions are made out of view of the public (Jain, 2001). Democratic societies tend to have lower levels of corruption because they create mechanisms for accountability and the enforcement of laws (Moreno, 2002). Indeed, many of the most notoriously corrupt governments at present are profoundly anti-democratic (Treisman, 2000; Billger and Goel, 2009); examples include North Korea, China, Iran and Eritrea. Low literacy rates also contribute: uninformed populations cannot be made easily aware of the extent of government malfeasance. Unsurprisingly, corruption is the most severe in countries without an effective independent media, which serves as a watchdog and a whistle blower (Brunetti and Weder, 2003). Low salaries of public employees are a common cause (van Rijckeghent and Weder, 2001).

Globalization may have several effects on corruption, although the relations between the two are contingent and complex. Foreign investors, for example, may prefer relatively non-corruption environments in which the costs of doing business are low. Lalountas et al. (2011), using cross-section data for 127 countries, found that globalization [in the forms of foreign direct investment (FDI) and import penetration] mitigated corruption in relatively developed countries but had little impact in poorer ones. Corrupt practices such as smuggling or black market money exchanges flourish when government policies are overly restrictive, unduly complicated, irrational, rigid or unrealistic (such as setting official exchange rates too high). Corrupt countries tend to have porous borders through which drugs, weapons or slaves may be moved easily.

Finally, corruption is often associated with the “resource curse”. Economists have noted the “paradox of plenty”, in which resource-dependent economies often perform worse than those lacking in such wealth (Bulte et al., 2005; Humphreys et al., 2007). Raw materials usually command low prices on the world market, and their revenue streams may be easily diverted by well-connected elites. Resource-rich countries may be also more inhospitable to democratic institutions (Jensen and Wantchekon, 2004), particularly when potential public revenues from the exports of oil, copper or diamonds are minimized by poorly enforced taxation policies.

Corruption also reflects cultural norms, which vary widely among societies. Where it is widespread and endemic, it is often accepted simply as another part of doing business. Bribery may be viewed simply as a means to get the bureaucratic machinery to move forward, and enriching oneself at public expense may not be seen as particularly loathsome. As Bardhan (1997, p. 1330) puts it, “What is regarded in one culture as corrupt may be considered a part of routine transaction in another”. Masculinist cultures tend to exhibit more corruption than do societies in which women hold larger shares of public office (Goetz, 2000; Swamy et al., 2001). Parboteeah et al. (2014) suggest that varying ethical climates, including the teaching of ethics in corporate and public sector human resources departments, help to explain the geography of African corruption.

Corruption has numerous corrosive effects on an economy and society. In societies in which it is deeply entrenched, it lowers public morale and creates cynicism and distrust of the state. In Mali, for example, the overthrow of President Moussa Traoré in 1991 led to the burning of customs and tax offices, traditional centers of high-level corruption and embezzlement (Harsh, 1993). Corruption also inhibits the efficiency and effectiveness of government policies, including the appropriate delivery of public monies to their intended ends. Corrupt construction contractors may erect buildings that are shoddy and unsafe, or use public funds to build luxury homes for wealthy politicians. In South Africa, corrupt elites captured the public utilities, awarding themselves with subsidized water, while the poor pay higher prices charged by private firms (Auriol and Blanc, 2009). Nepotistic hiring short-circuits meritocratic hiring systems and fills public offices with unqualified, underqualified or incompetent staff. Corruption can also undermine the quality of education and retard progress in eliminating illiteracy (Reinikka and Svensson, 2005).

Numerous economists have studied corruption’s influences on markets (Mauro, 1995; Bardhan, 1997; Aidt, 2003; Rose-Ackerman, 2006). High levels of corruption are associated with reduced FDI (Wei, 2000; Habib and Zurawicki, 2002). By raising transactions costs, it increases the cost of doing business, notably production and transportation costs, and reduces profits. Corruption raises the barriers to entry for non-privileged groups, notably those lacking in political connections (Fisman, 2001) and funds for bribes and kickbacks. Corruption also increases inequality (Gupta et al., 2002), typically imposing its greatest costs on the poor.

Corruption in africa is a tragedy.

 

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CORRUPTION AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
Abstract
Africa is endowed with abundant natural resources and it has attracted development aid from
the rich nations of the world. Despite these, the continent remains undeveloped. Different
reasons have been attributed to the African development crisis among the modernist school and
the dependency school. This study was undertaken to unravel the cause of the African
underdevelopment. The paper pinpoints that corruption is the core reason behind African
underdevelopment and it laid emphasis on corruption and underdevelopment interface in
Nigeria. For Africa to break the impasse of underdevelopment, the paper calls for good
governance and the establishment of special agencies to monitor all development projects
undertaking by African countries.
Keywords: Africa, Corruption, Socio-economic development, underdevelopment
INTRODUCTION
The attempt by countries in Africa to break the cycle underdevelopment has been hindered by
the high level of corruption in the continent. Africa is rich in natural resources and the proceeds
from the sales of these natural resources to other countries are mismanaged by African leaders
through corrupt process. Transparency International defines corruption as the abuse of
entrusted power for private benefit (Transparency International, 2006). Since the early 1960s
when most African countries were gaining independence, the rich nations of the world have
extended development aids to Africa, yet Africa remains the lease developed continent in the
world. Different schools of thought have come out with the causes of underdevelopment in
Africa. For instance, the modernist school believes that Africa needs to follow the development
part of the industrialized nations before it can develop. On the contrary, the dependency
theorists argued that the exploitation of African by the superpowers was responsible for African

 

underdevelopment. However, there is the new school of thought that postulates corruption in
Africa hinders development. Corruption affects the development in various ways. For example,
billion of dollars that would have been used to provide social amenities in some African
countries such as Nigeria are siphon and kept in foreign accounts. The former World Bank
president, Paul Wolfowitz revealed that public officials in Nigeria have embezzled more than
$300 billion from the nation’s pulse for the past forty decades (Ndibe, 2006). This statement was
supported by the former chairman of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC),
Nuhu Ribadu and the former World Bank Vice President for Africa, Oby Ezekweili who stressed
that Nigerians leaders have stolen over $400 billion from the sales of crude oil since
independence. The over $400 billion that has been stolen from Nigeria would have impacted the
development progress in Nigeria if such a huge amount has been channelled to aid
development. Tanzi and Davoodi (1997) detect four outlets through which corruption may have
an adverse effect on economic growth: higher public investment, lower government revenues,
lower expenditures on business operations and maintenance, and lower quality of public
infrastructure. According to Uneke (2010):
Corruption, because of its pervasiveness in many countries in Africa South of the
Sahara, is detrimental to social, political, and economic development in a variety of ways. A
program of sustainable development is contingent on several conditions, including principled
and purposeful leadership; prudent, rational and far-sighted decision-making; and optimum use
of available resources. Corruption tends to undermine all these conditions in terms of public
cynicism and erosion of confidence on corrupt leadership; irrational, short sighted and ill-
motivated decision; and squandering of resources on ill-advised or unsuitable projects. The
result has developmental stagnation, poverty, the cynicism of the political leadership, and
disillusionment and hopelessness on the part of the masses and the deprived

High end corruption is practiced at procurement offices in every department in any government in Africa. Perpetrators are mostly senior civil servants.

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Africa’s Real State of Affairs

A Rwandan friend recently sent me a 9-minute speech via Whatsapp, thinking I might have already heard it. About a week later, I finally listened to it for the first time. I’m glad I did. Attributed to Kenya’s Professor Patrick Loch Otieno Lumumba – current Kenya School of Laws Director and a former director of Kenya’s Anti-Corruption Commission – the speech which seems to be fairly recent (2014/15) brings up a question that crops up whenever an African nation is celebrating its “independence”: How “free” are we really? Are these the throes of neo-colonization or the remnants of colonization? Is Pan-Africanism dead? More importantly, are we actually thinking or simply living and acting in oblivion?

In his proactive speech he is said and quote

“When I look at Africa, many questions come to mind. Many times I ask myself, what would happen if Mwalimu were to rise up and see what is happening. Many times I will ask myself what will happen if Kwame Nkrumah and Patrice Lumumba were to rise up and see what is happening. Because what they would be confronted with is an Africa where the Democratic Republic of Congo is unsettled.

 

“There is a war going on there but it is not on the front pages of our newspapers, because we don’t even control our newspapers and the media. “

 

As I speak to you the Central African Republic is at war. But we talk of it only mutedly. As I speak to you now, in South Sudan, the youngest nation in Africa, the Nuwera have risen against the Dinka. As I speak to you now, Eritrea is unsettled. As I speak to you now there is unease in Egypt, as there is unease in Libya. In Niger it is no better, in Senegal in the Cassamance, it is no better. In Somalia it is no better. Africa is at war with ourself.

This is what they would be confronted with. They would be confronted with an Africa which statistician and romantic economists say is growing, but which in truth is stagnated. That is the Africa that they would be confronted with. They would be confronted with an Africa which, as Professor Mlama intimated in our presentation here, is an Africa which is suffering from schizophrenia – it does not know herself.

 

“They would be confronted with an Africa whose young men and women have no interest and no love for their continent.”

 

They would be confronted with an Africa where young men and young women are constantly humiliated at embassies of European countries and the United States as they seek the almighty green card. They would be confronted with an Africa where young men and women from Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Mali and Mauritania drown in the Mediterranean as they seek to be enslaved in Europe. This time around, Africans are not wailing and kicking as they are being taken away to be enslaved, they are seen wailing and kicking as they seek to be enslaved in Europe and America. This is the tragedy of Africa.

They would be confronted with an Africa where people have lost their self-pride. An Africa where Africans are not proud of their things. An Africa where in the hotels of Dar es Salaam or Nairobi, even food has foreign names. When we fry potatoes we call them French fries even when they are fried in Dar es Salaam.

 

“They would be confronted with another Africa, an Africa which does not tell her story. An Africa whose story is told by Europe and America – the CNN, Radio Deutsche-Welle, Radia France.”

 

That is the Africa they would be confronted with. They would be confronted with young men and women who have no pride in Africa. When they want to enjoy themselves they sing the praises of football teams from Europe and America. It is Manchester United, it is Arsenal, it is Real Madrid and Barcelona. Not Yanga, not Mufulira Wanderers, not Gor Mahia, not FC Leopards. No, that is the Africa that they would be confronted with. They would be confronted with an Africa which does not enjoy its theatre and drama. That Africa celebrates Leonardo di Caprio, it celebrates Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt. The Africa does not celebrate Genevive Nnaji of Nigeria or Rita Dominic or Olu Jacobs of Nigeria. It does not celebrate Bongohood or Nollywood or Riverwood. It celebrates Hollywood. That is the Africa which with they would be confronted. They would be confronted with African women whose greatest source of joy is cheap Grade B Mexican soap opera: la patrona, la muher de me vida.

Why must we remind ourselves of these realities? Because throughout the ages, the battle has always been the battle of the mind. If your mind is conquered, then you are going nowhere. And that is why in the age of enlightenment in Europe, the great René Descartes said “Cogito ergo sum.” I think, therefore I am.

 

“And therefore if Africans are to begin to make a contribution in their affairs, Africans must begin to think. But the question is, are we thinking?”

 

We have universities in their numbers. Tanzania has universities including Dar es Salaam. Nairobi has universities as indeed Kampala, as indeed South Africa, Johannesburg. We have all these universities. We have engineers, but our roads are not being made by Tanzanian civil engineers, it is the Chinese who are present in this assembly who are making our roads. So we have engineers who cannot even make roads. We have doctors whom we have trained, but when we are sick – particularly if we are of the political class – depending on who colonized you, if you are colonized by the United Kingdom, you rush to London. If you colonized by the French, you rush to Paris. If you are colonized by the Portuguese, you rush to Lisbon, and if you are colonized by the Spaniards, you rush to Madrid, Spain.

And recently, because the Asians are beginning to get their act together, we run to India. And very lately, because the Arabs are also beginning to get their act together, we run to Dubai. Notwithstanding that we have the Kenyatta hospitals of this country, the Muhimbilis of Tanzania, the Chris Hani Baragwanaths of South Africa and the Mama Yemos of Kinshasa in Zaire or the DRC. But we have no faith in our doctors.

In the area of education we also don’t have faith. Our political class introduced something that they call free education, that is free indeed. Free of knowledge. Because they are so suspicious of those institutions, that the typical African politician will not dare take their children to those schools. Their children will be educated in the British system, in the American system, so that when they graduate they go to the United Kingdom, to the United States.

 

“Not that there is anything wrong with those institutions, but the agenda is wrong because our leaders long lost the script and ought to be described for who they are – our misleaders.”

 

But we are co-authors of our own misfortune. Whenever we are given an opportunity to elect our leaders, we are given a blank check. And if you permit me a little latitude, and if you give me a blank check and you allow me to analogize and you say that I am given the blank check to buy a Mercedes Benz, what we do is when we are called upon – having been so empowered – we buy what we call a tuk-tuk from India and we expect it to behave ike a Mercedes Benz. How does that happen?

 

“Because what we do is to elect thieves. We elect hyenas to take care of goats and when the goats are consumed, we wonder why.”

 

Agree or disagree with the Professor? Got ideas of your own? We’d love to hear your perspective!

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NIGERIA OCCURRENCES: Nigerian Civil War PART 8

Atrocities against Ethnic Minorities in Biafra[edit]

Minorities in Biafra suffered atrocities at the hands of those fighting for both sides of the conflict. The pogroms in the North in 1966 were indiscriminately directed against people from Eastern Nigeria.[89]

Despite a seemingly natural alliance between these victims of the pogroms in the north, tensions rose as minorities, who had always harbored an interest in having their own state within the Nigerian federation, were suspected of collaborating with Federal troops to undermine Biafra.[90]

The Federal troops were equally culpable of this crime. In the Rivers area, ethnic minorities sympathetic to Biafra were killed in the hundreds by federal troops. In Calabar, some 2000 Efiks were also killed by Federal troops.[91] Outside of the Biafra, atrocities were recorded against the resident of Asaba in present-day Delta State by both sides of the conflict.[92][93]

Genocide Question[edit]

Most continue to argue that the Biafran war was a genocide, for which no perpetrators have been held accountable.[169] Critics of this position suggest that Igbo leaders had some responsibility, but acknowledge that starvation policies were pursued deliberately and that accountability has not been sought for the 1966 pogroms.[159][170] Biafra made a formal complaint of genocide against Igbos to the International Committee on the Investigation of Crimes of Genocide, which concluded that British colonial administrators were complicit in the process of fomenting ethnic hatred and violence, dating back to the Kano riots of 1953. With special reference to the Asaba Massacre, Emma Okocha described the killings as “the first black-on-black genocide”.[158] Ekwe-Ekwe places significant blame on the British.[171]

Another reference to the war’s consideration as a Genocide would be to Bruce Mayrock.[172] In the report, Mayrock, a 20-year-old Student at Columbia University, set himself on fire in protest of the killings in Biafra and how they were being overlooked. He died as a result of the burns. While at Columbia, Mayrock worked as a photographer for the Spectator sports department. Members of the youth’s family stated Friday that he had worked’ actively to protest the war in Biafra, writing letters about the war to the President and leading government figures. However, according to one rabbi, who said he was close to the family, the student believed that “no one was listening.” “He was an idealistic young man deeply upset by the events in Biafra,” the rabbi said. “People were being killed and he felt no one was doing anything. That’s why he did what he did.”[173]

Reconstruction[edit]

Reconstruction, helped by the oil money, was swift; however, the old ethnic and religious tensions remained a constant feature of Nigerian politics. Accusations were made of Nigerian government officials diverting resources meant for reconstruction in the former Biafran areas to their ethnic areas. Military government continued in power in Nigeria for many years, and people in the oil-producing areas claimed they were being denied a fair share of oil revenues.[174] Laws were passed mandating that political parties could not be ethnically or tribally based; however, it has been hard to make this work in practice.

Igbos who ran for their lives during the pogroms and war returned to find their positions had been taken over; and when the war was over the government did not feel any need to re-instate them, preferring to regard them as having resigned. This reasoning was also extended to Igbo-owned properties and houses. People from other regions were quick to take over any house owned by an Igbo, especially in the Port Harcourt area. The Nigerian Government justified this by terming such properties abandoned. This, however, has led to a feeling of an injustice as the Nigerian government policies were seen as further economically disabling the Igbos even long after the war. Further feelings of injustice were caused by Nigeria changing its currency, so that Biafran supplies of pre-war Nigerian currency were no longer honoured. At the end of the war, only N£20 was given to any easterner regardless of the amount of money he or she had had in the bank. This was applied irrespective of their banking in pre-war Nigerian currency or Biafran currency. This was seen as a deliberate policy to hold back the Igbo middle class, leaving them with little wealth to expand their business interests.[175]

Fall of Biafra[edit]

On 29 May 2000, The Guardian reported that President Olusegun Obasanjo commuted to retirement the dismissal of all military persons who fought for the breakaway state of Biafra during the Nigerian civil war. In a national broadcast, he said that the decision was based on the principle that “justice must at all times be tempered with mercy.”

Biafra was more or less wiped off the map until its resurrection by the contemporary Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra.[176] Chinua Achebe’s last book, There Was a Country: A Personal History of Biafra, has also rekindled discussion of the war.[40]

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