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2018 Russia World Cup Tickets 2018 – Huge Selection Available Today

The Final Draw of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™ has concluded in the State Kremlin Palace. 32 teams participating in the championship were divided into eight groups. In the group stage, the Russia national team will play against the teams of Uruguay, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.

Group A
1. Russia
2. Saudi Arabia
3. Egypt
4. Uruguay

Group B
1. Portugal
2. Spain
3. Morocco
4. Iran

Group C
1. France
2. Australia
3. Peru
4. Denmark

Group D
1. Argentina
2. Iceland
3. Croatia
4. Nigeria

Group E
1. Brazil
2. Switzerland
3. Costa Rica
4. Serbia

Group F
1. Germany
2. Mexico
3. Sweden
4. South Korea

Group G
1. Belgium
2. Panama
3. Tunisia
4. England

Group H
1. Poland
2. Senegal
3. Colombia
4. Japan

The World Cup will be held from June 14 to July 15, 2018 in 11 cities: Moscow, Kaliningrad, Saint Petersburg, Volgograd, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Saransk, Rostov-on-Don, Sochi and Ekaterinburg.

Detailed table with match schedule (click on the image to see in full size):

A more detailed schedule of matches, along with information that will be useful to tourists, is available in the special section right here at Welcome2018.com.

In addition, other important information about 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™ can be found in other sections of Welcome2018.com.

For example, Planner will provide interesting excursion routes in the host cities, including museums and attractions, theatres and exhibitions, parks and galleries, shops and nightclubs, places for outdoor activities and recreation with children. All that can be interesting for fan who came to a football match.

The Fan Guide will provide information on how to travel between the host cities, what can and cannot be carried to the stadiums and much more. The answers to the most difficult questions can be found in the nine corresponding sections of the guide.

All information is also available in the free mobile application Welcome2018 for iOS and Android.

2012 Annual Report on Russia 2018 preparations published

The Russia 2018 Local Organising Committee (LOC) has published its 2012 Annual Report on its preparations for the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™. The report can be viewed by clicking on the link to the right.

The key milestone in the report is the selection of the tournament’s Host Cities that has enabled detailed planning to begin for the construction and development of Russia 2018 venues and infrastructure. Stadium selection for the opening match, semi-finals and final of the Russian edition of the FIFA World Cup was also approved, along with host cities for the FIFA Confederations Cup 2017.

Several marketing efforts were launched in 2012, including the LOC announcing the first Russia 2018 ambassador, Igor Akinfeev, while all of the selected Russia 2018 Host Cities unveiled their official tournament posters.

Commenting on the report, CEO of the Russia 2018 LOC, Alexey Sorokin, said:  “We have tried to reflect the main achievements for 2012 in the report; this is in line with our aim to be inclusive and transparent in our communications around preparations for the 2018 FIFA World Cup.”

Sorokin added: “Now we are focusing on the launch of a number of important strategic projects. These include drawing up the Infrastructure Programme in cooperation with some of our key stakeholders; monitoring the design and construction of the tournament stadiums, which will be the responsibility of Arena-2018, a special agency we set up by the LOC last year; and finalising the 2018 FIFA World Cup Bill, which should be ratified by the end of 2013.

“I’m sure that this solid foundation work in 2012, along with reviewing best practice from other global sports events, will help us to deliver an outstanding tournament for the world to enjoy in 2018.”

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The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern
May 18, 2018
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Type-2 diabetes is a major, non-communicable disease with increasing prevalence at a global level. Type-2 diabetes results when the body does not make enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin it produces. Type-2 diabetes is the leading cause of premature deaths. Improperly managed, it can lead to a number of health issues, including heart diseases, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, nerve damage, leg and foot amputations, and death. Type-2 diabetes or adult-onset diabetes is most common type of diabetes, usually begins when a person is in his or her mid-50s, but diabetes is not inevitable. Minor changes in your lifestyle can greatly reduce your chances of getting this disease. Therefore, in order to prevent this condition, action should be taken regarding the modifiable factors that influence its development-lifestyle and dietary habits. However, with proper testing, treatment and lifestyle changes, healthy eating as a strategy, promote walking, exercise, and other physical activities have beneficial effects on human health and prevention or treatment of diabetes, promoting adherence to this pattern is of considerable public health importance.

Keywords: Diet, lifestyle, non-communicable disease, public health, type-2 diabetes

INTRODUCTION

Diabetes mellitus or type-2 diabetes, is one of the major non-communicable and fastest growing public health problems in the world, is a condition difficult to treat and expensive to manage. It has been estimated that the number of diabetes sufferers in the world will double from the current value of about 190 million to 325 million during the next 25 years. Individuals with type-2 diabetes are at a high risk of developing a range of debilitating complications such as cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, nephropathy, changes to the retina and blindness that can lead to disability and premature death. It also imposes important medical and economic burdens. Genetic susceptibility and environmental influences seem to be the most important factors responsible for the development of this condition. However, a drastic increase of physical inactivity, obesity, and type-2 diabetes has been recently observed. The fact indicates that obesity and physical inactivity may constitute the main reasons for the increasing burden of diabetes in the developed world.

Fortunately, because environmental factors are modifiable, disease manifestation from these factors is largely preventable. Diet is one of the major factors now linked to a wide range of diseases including diabetes. The amount and type of food consumed is a fundamental determinant of human health. Diet constitutes a crucial aspect of the overall management of diabetes, which may involve diet alone, diet with oral hypoglycemic drugs, or diet with insulin. Diet is individualized depending on age, weight, gender, health condition, and occupation etc. The dietary guidelines as used in this review are sets of advisory statements that give quick dietary advice for the management of the diabetic population in order to promote overall nutritional well-being, glycogenic control, and prevent or ameliorate diabetes-related complications.

Objectives of dietary treatment of diabetes

The aims of dietary treatment of diabetes are:

  • To achieve optimal blood glucose concentrations.
  • To achieve optimal blood lipid concentrations.
  • To provide appropriate energy for reasonable weight, normal growth, and development, including during pregnancy and lactation.
  • To prevent, delay, and treat diabetes-related complications.
  • To improve health through balanced nutrition.

The attempts to adhere to the conventional food measurements in order to comply with prescriptions of the so-called ‘diabetic diet’ usually result in unnecessary restrictions, overindulgence, or monotonous consumption of certain food items, e.g., unripe plantain/beans. This is a consequence of illiteracy, poverty, and cultural misconceptions about the role of diet in the management of diabetes. This is usually the most problematic aspect of diabetes care. The usually recommended daily energy intake for the non-obese diabetic patient is between 1500 and 2500 calories per day, the average allowance being 2000 k calories per day. The recommendation for the overweight diabetic patient is between 800 and 1500 k calories per day, while the underweight (including growing children and adolescents) should be allowed at least 2500 k calories/day.

DIET AND DIABETES

The beneficial effect of the dietary pattern on diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism in general and traditional food pattern was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of developing type-2 diabetes. The dietary pattern emphasizes a consumption of fat primarily from foods high in unsaturated fatty acids, and encourages daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, low fat dairy products and whole grains, low consumption of fish, poultry, tree nuts, legumes, very less consumption of red meat. The composition of diet is one of the best known dietary patterns for its beneficial effects on human health that may act beneficially against the development of type-2 diabetes, including reduced oxidative stress and insulin resistance. High consumption of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, fish, cereals and oil leads to a high ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, a low intake of trans fatty acids, and high ingestion of dietary fiber, antioxidants, polyphenols. The diets are characterized by a low degree of energy density overall; such diet prevent weight gain and exert a protective effect on the development of type-2 diabetes, a condition that is partially mediated through weight maintenance. Greater adherence to the diet in combination with light physical activity was associated with lower odds of having diabetes after adjustment for various factors. On the other hand, a paleolithic diet (i.e., a diet consisting of lean meat, fish, shellfish, fruits and vegetables, roots, eggs and nuts, but not grains, dairy products, salt or refined fats, and sugar) was associated with marked improvement of glucose tolerance while control subjects who were advised to follow a diet did not significantly improve their glucose tolerance despite decreases in weight and waist circumference. People most likely to get diabetes are: People who are overweight, upper-body obesity, have a family history of diabetes, age 40 or older, and women (50% more often than men).

TREATMENTS OF DIABETES

Each person needs individualized treatment. Type-1 diabetes always requires insulin, diet, and exercise. Type-2 diabetics require insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents (medication that helps lower blood sugar), if diet and exercise alone fail to lower blood glucose. If you have diabetes, you need to have a medical team (doctor, nutritionist, and health educator or nurse) working with you. Whichever type of diabetes you have, the key to proper control is balancing the glucose and the insulin in the blood. This means adjusting your diet, activity, and sometimes taking medication.

GENERAL DIETARY GUIDELINES

Modern dietary management of diabetes essentially involves modifications of the quality and quantity of food to be taken by the diabetic patient. The following guidelines are applicable to diabetes irrespective of type, weight status, age, gender, or occupation.

  • Most of the carbohydrate consumed should be in the form of starch (polysaccharides) such as maize, rice, beans, bread, potatoes etc.
  • All refined sugars such as glucose, sucrose, and their products (soft drinks, sweets, toffees, etc.) and honey should be avoided, except during severe illness or episodes of hypoglycemia. These foods contain simple sugar, which is easily absorbed causing rapid rise in blood sugar.
  • Non-nutritive sweeteners, e.g., Canderel, saccharine, NutraSweet, aspartame are suitable sugar substitutes for diabetic subjects.
  • Animal fat such as butter, lard, egg yolk, and other foods high in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol should be reduced to a minimum and be replaced with vegetable oils, particularly polyunsaturated fats.
  • Salt should be reduced whether hypertensive or not.
  • Protein (fish, meat, beans, crab, crayfish, soyabean, chicken, etc.) and salt are restricted for those with diabetic nephropathy.
  • Cigarette smoking should be avoided by diabetic patients. Alcohol should be taken only in moderation.
  • The items allowed for free consumption include: Water, green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, onions, cucumber, aubergine, peppers, vegetable salad without cream. Any brand of tea, coffee, or drinks that contain very low or no calories.
  • For patients too ill to eat solid food, a fluid or semi-solid diet should be substituted (papaya, soya bean, custard, etc.).
  • Patients treated with insulin or certain oral hypoglycemic agents, e.g., sulfonylureas must be advised to eat regularly and often to prevent hypoglycemia- 3 meals a day plus suitable snacks in between, e.g., fresh fruits.
  • Small meals spaced over the day, rather than 1 or 2 big meals, are helpful in avoiding post-pyramidal peaks in blood sugar.

When overweight diabetic patients drop some weight by trimming down ‘serving sizes’ and calories, insulin sensitivity improves, thereby optimizing drug therapy. The fundamental principle behind maintenance of body weight is the energy balance. This group should be encouraged to maintain their current weight by: Maintaining current ‘serving sizes,’ eating about the same amount of food each day, eating at about the same times each day, taking their drugs at the same times each day, and exercising at the same times each day. These patients should also endeavor to choose their daily foods from starches, vegetables, fruits, and protein, while limiting the amount of fats.

Dietary approaches to diabetes

Food can be powerful in preventing and reversing diabetes. However, dietary approaches have changed as we have learned more about the disease. The traditional approach to diabetes focuses on limiting refined sugars and foods that release sugars during digestion-starches, breads, fruits, etc. With carbohydrates reduced, the diet may contain an unhealthful amount of fat and protein. Therefore, diabetes experts have taken care to limit fats- especially saturated fats that can raise cholesterol levels, and to limit protein for people with impaired kidney function. The new approach focuses more attention on fat. Fat is a problem for people with diabetes. The more fat there is in the diet, the harder time insulin has in getting glucose into the cells. Conversely, minimizing fat intake and reducing body fat help insulin do its job much better. Newer treatment programs drastically reduce meats, high-fat dairy products, and oils. At the same time, they increase grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. The study found that patients on oral medications and patients on insulin were able to get off of their medications after some days on a near-vegetarian diet and exercise program. During 2 and 3-year follow-ups, most people with diabetes treated with this regimen have retained their gains. The dietary changes are simple, but profound, and they work.

EFFECTS OF THE FRUIT AND VEGETABLES ON THE HUMAN HEALTH

Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. They have been especially valuable for their ability to prevent vitamin C and vitamin A deficiencies. Fruits and vegetables are good source of vitamins, minerals, flavonoids (anti-oxidants), saponins, polyphenols, carotenoids (vitamin A-like compounds), isothiocyanates (sulfur-containing compounds), and several types of dietary fibers. The fruits and vegetables not only prevent malnutrition but also help in maintaining optimum health through a host of chemical components that are still being identified, tested, and measured. They prevent various chronic diseases like stroke, hypertension, birth defects, cataracts, diabetes, heart disease, cancers, diverticulosis, obstructive pulmonary disease (asthma and bronchitis), and obesity etc. Diets that are high in insoluble fiber may offer the best protection against this disease. Fruits and vegetables are high in cellulose-a type of insoluble fiber. Diets that are high in fiber may be able to help in the management of diabetes. Soluble fiber delays glucose absorption from the small intestine and thus may help prevent the spike in blood glucose levels that follow a meal or snack. The long-term effect may be insignificant, however, due to the many other factors that affect blood glucose. The effects of the fruit and vegetables on the human health allowed to once again measuring the enormous stakes. More and more emphasis is put on the importance of the diversity of food, and in particular of the fruit and vegetables. This new and effective approach to diabetes is remarkably simple. Here are 4 simple steps to managing your blood sugar (and weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol) with diet.

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Female Thigh and Waist Weight Loss
May 18, 2018
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Spot reduction is impossible, and if you are solely focusing on slimming fat from your thighs and belly, you’re most likely not successful. There’s no way around it: to reduce fat in your problem areas, you must lose fat from your entire body. When your body slims down, your thighs and waist will also reduce. Healthy eating habits, regular exercise and a good dose of determination can give you the upper hand.

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Female Fat Storage

Aging, genetics, and hormones are some of the factors responsible for weight gain in women. Women already have more body fat than men, and are predisposed to store it in their lower bodies namely around their hips and thighs. As you get older, lean muscle tissue reduces and you might start gaining fat around your middle. Although jiggly thighs are undesired, it’s belly fat that’s really dangerous, because it increase your risk of serious health conditions, such as breast cancer, stroke, diabetes, hypertension and heart disease.

Lose Weight Gradually

For long-term results, losing weight gradually is best. You want to develop a weight-loss regimen that’s easily incorporated into your lifestyle. Drastically cutting calories in the hopes to lose weight quickly isn’t recommended, because it’s hard to keep up, and can result in nutritional deficiencies, heart problems and gallstones. The Weight-Control Information Network, recommends losing weight at a rate of 1/2 a pound to 2 pounds per week. A daily deficit of 250 to 1,000 calories is required to achieve this.

Reducing Your Caloric Intake

Eating fewer calories can contribute to your daily caloric deficit. Replacing high-calorie foods with food that have fewer calories is a good start. For instance, drink water instead of sugary soda and alcohol, skip cookies and go for fruit, and eat low-fat dairy instead of full-fat dairy. Although you’re eating fewer calories, you should still eat healthy to get the nutrients and energy that your body needs to get through the day. Emphasize foods, such as lean cuts of meat, fruits, veggies, whole grains and low-fat or fat-free dairy.

Burn Calories and Maintain Muscle

Performing 30 to 60 minutes of moderate cardio on most days of the week and doing strength training on at least two days can contribute to weight loss according to the American Heart Association. Cardio burns calories while strength training helps you maintain muscle tissue, which is essential because muscle tissue burns more calories than fat.For cardio, you can go jogging, walking briskly, swimming or bicycling, while strength training requires that you target all major muscle groups including your back, abs, hips, chest, shoulder, legs and arms.

Crunches and Lunges

Targeted exercises, such as crunches and lunges, increase and maintain muscle tissue and should be part of your strength-training routine. Solely doing these exercises won’t be effective as long as you have excess fat covering your muscles. According to Askthetrainer.com, exercises that target a large percentage of muscle mass are most effective for weight loss. This can include lunges, step-ups, and dead lifts for your thighs, and bicycle crunches, situps, and toe touches for your abs.

Medical Treatments to Get Rid of Thigh Fat

Medical treatments for thigh fat are likely to be effective, but there is no one-size-fits-all solution because there are several different areas of concern on the upper leg.

For example, the inner thighs are a problem for many women. For others, the outer thighs (or saddlebags) are problematic. Some women are looking for solutions for cellulite. And lastly, many women don’t like the pocket of fat that sits above the knee.

So how do you address any—or all—of these problems? The first thing, says Dr. Daniel Maman of 740 Park Plastic Surgery is to address the quality of the skin. Dr. Maman is a Harvard trained, board-certified plastic surgeon who helps men and women address thigh fat issues with both surgical and non-surgical treatments. He says that the thighs are difficult to treat because the quality of the skin in that area is unique.

“The skin on the upper leg has poor elasticity and poor stretch,” he says. He also says the skin in this area is thinner than the skin in other areas of the body. For that reason, simply removing misplaced fat doesn’t always solve the problem.

If the problem is just fat and the pocket of fat is small, he says, then a treatment like Coolsculpting works for many patients. If the area of misplaced fat is larger, then the area will need liposuction. However, he cautions that if you simply remove the fat without considering the condition of the skin, then the skin may not shrink back and you will be left with a new problem of sagging skin.

Whether you choose surgical or nonsurgical medical treatments to slim down your legs, it’s important to keep expectations in check.

Thigh Fat Treatments (Surgical)

If you choose to undergo surgery for thinner thighs, your choices include liposuction or a combination of treatments called a thigh lift.

  • Liposuction: The surgical removal of fat, or liposuction, is an effective treatment for many people who want reduce thigh fat. There have been new variations of liposuction (such as smart lipo or micro-laser lipo) that promise quick results with minimal downtime. But Dr. Maman says that traditional liposuction is still the gold standard. He says that it takes time to sculpt the thigh area properly and quick fix methods can lead to poor results.
  • Thigh lift: A thigh lift or thighplasty involves several different procedures to get the best result. It may involve excising (cutting) and lifting the skin, and performing liposuction to remove excess fat. The procedure is typically used for patients who have undergone significant weight loss and have excess skin (loose hanging skin) in the thigh area.

Even though these treatments are likely to be effective at reducing your thigh fat, the procedures are expensive and carry some risk. Risks of undergoing liposuction include complications such as pain, swelling, excessive bleeding, and changes in skin sensation. It is also possible to get an asymmetric (uneven) result.

The cost of your procedure will depend on a number of variables, but because the procedures are performed by a surgeon, in a surgical facility, and under some level of sedation, there are many different fees to consider. The total cost can range from $6000-$10,000 or more depending on many factors.

Thigh Fat Treatments (Non-surgical)

If you don’t want to go under the knife for leaner legs, there are several body sculpting treatments from which to choose. Most use cooling methods (cryolipolysis), lasers (heat), or ultrasound to reduce fat in specific, targeted areas such as the thighs. According to Dr. Maman, treatments like Coolsculpting provide a result that is about 20-30 percent as effective as surgery (liposuction).

  • SculpSure (FDA-cleared light-based body contouring): A flat non-suction applicator delivers a hyperthermic laser to the inner or outer thighs followed by a cooling treatment. In the weeks following the procedure, fat cells in the treated area die off. Patients may begin to see results as early as 6 weeks after treatment, but it may take up to 12 weeks to get the full effect. Treatments usually last about 25 minutes, and you may experience tingling in the treated area during the procedure. Some patients also experience bruising. The total cost of treatment will depend on the number of applicators used and the number of treatments required. According to data from the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgeryand other sources, the total cost may range from approximately $1,500 to over $2,000.
  • Coolsculpting (FDA-cleared cryolipolysis procedure): This fat-freezing method uses suction with controlled cooling to destroy fat cells. Each treatment generally takes an hour or less, and you may experience mild discomfort from the suction applicator from the intense cooling. Some patients also experience bruising or stiffness in the treated area. After Coolsculpting, it takes anywhere from 3-12 weeks to see results. Several treatments may be required. The cost generally starts at approximately $750 per treatment, but the typical cost for a complete personalized treatment plan averages $2,000 to $4,000 according to the company.
  • Zerona (FDA-cleared cold laser technology): This device treats a combination of areas usually around the hips, waist, and thighs with low-level laser therapy. The painless procedure creates a pore in fat cells so that the fat leaks out. Multiple treatments are required for initial results, and most patients require some maintenance. The price of this option will vary based on your provider but a single treatment may start at approximately $175. However, since several treatments are required, most sources list the average cost at approximately $1,500 or more.
  • UltraShape (FDA-approved ultrasound technology): This procedure is FDA-cleared to treat fat on the belly, but the device can also be used by a doctor to target fat on your hips, outer thighs, or upper arms. Good candidates for this treatment should be able to pinch an inch of fat in their trouble spot. You may experience some bruising and pain with the procedure, but most patients find the procedure comfortable. Treatments generally cost about $1,000, but several treatments may be required.

These aren’t the only non-surgical treatments available, but they are the most popular treatments that you are likely to find in your area. There are also home fat-freezing devices that claim to deliver similar results, but reviews of the devices are generally not good.

It’s also important to note that treatments to get rid of thigh fat, will not get rid of cellulite. There are different procedures to manage the frustrating (but normal) skin condition.

Exercises for Thinner Thighs

Exercise can help you to shape the legs, but may not help your legs get thinner. When you start a program to burn calories with regular workouts–even if you focus on leg exercises–you’ll see changes all over your body, not just in one area.

Jessica Osborne, fitness trainer, former Radio City Rockette, and owner of Savitri Yoga + Fitness in New York City works with clients to help them sculpt the long, lean legs of a dancer. But she says that it is impossible to spot reduce or lose weight from one area such as the thighs. Instead, she recommends “cardio-amped” workouts that burn calories for fat loss all over the body. She also includes strength training to shape the quadriceps (front of the thigh) and hamstrings (back of the thigh).

So what are the best exercises to get thinner thighs? “Squats, lunges and walking up stairs,” says Osborne, “these are three things you can do every day, no matter how busy you are.” In her Savitri Barre Sculpt class, she uses squats, lunges, and tons of barre exercises that replicate functional movements that we do in everyday life.

“It’s time to stop sitting into our hips (notice how you’re standing when you’re relaxing) and start really using our legs and our buns. A few sets of lunges and squats a day with some pulses at the end, in addition to opting for the stairs, can make a big difference in the way you feel and the way you look.”

Diet Tricks to Get Leaner Legs

You may see the greatest changes in your legs by changing your diet. Even though exercise can burn calories, fat loss is most likely to happen when you change your daily eating habits.

“Cut the sugar, lessen the booze, drink your water and be physical every day. These are the keys to your leg goals,” says Osborne.

And the good news is that you don’t need to go on a strict diet to see results. Simply cutting back on starchy, refined carbohydrates may help to ease bloating that might make your thighs feel fatter.

Over the long term, a healthy eating program that includes lean protein, healthy fats in moderation, and plenty of fruits and vegetables is likely to give you a leaner, healthier body and thinner thighs. Reduce your intake of empty calories and keep portion sizes in control to reach a healthy body weight.

If you’re not sure where to begin, keep a food journal for a week to see how many calories you typically eat each day. Then compare that number to the number of calories you burn each day. If you eat more than you should, use a calorie calculator to get a personalized daily calorie target for weight loss.

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Causes of cancer and symptoms
May 18, 2018
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What is cancer?

Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells anywhere in a body. These abnormal cells are termed cancer cells, malignant cells, or tumor cells. These cells can infiltrate normal body tissues. Many cancers and the abnormal cells that compose the cancer tissue are further identified by the name of the tissue that the abnormal cells originated from (for example, breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer). Cancer is not confined to humans; animals and other living organisms can get cancer. Below is a schematic that shows normal cell division and how when a cell is damaged or altered without repair to its system, the cell usually dies. Also shown is what occurs when such damaged or unrepaired cells do not die and become cancer cells and show uncontrolled division and growth — a mass of cancer cells develop. Frequently, cancer cells can break away from this original mass of cells, travel through the blood and lymph systems, and lodge in other organs where they can again repeat the uncontrolled growth cycle. This process of cancer cells leaving an area and growing in another body area is termed metastatic spread or metastasis. For example, if breast cancer cells spread to a bone, it means that the individual has metastatic breast cancer to bone. This is not the same as “bone cancer,” which would mean the cancer had started in the bone.

The following table (National Cancer Institute 2016) gives the estimated numbers of new cases and deaths for each common cancer type:

Cancer Type Estimated New Cases Estimated Deaths
Bladder 76,960 16,390
Breast (Female — Male) 246,660 — 2,600 40,450 — 440
Colon and Rectal (Combined) 134,490 49,190
Endometrial 60,050 10,470
Kidney (Renal Cell and Renal Pelvis) Cancer 62,700 14,240
Leukemia (All Types) 60,140 24,400
Lung (Including Bronchus) 224,390 158,080
Melanoma 76,380 10,130
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 72,580 20,150
Pancreatic 53,070 41,780
Prostate 180,890 26,120
Thyroid 64,300 1,980

The three most common cancers in men, women, and children in the U.S. are as follows:

  • Men: Prostate, lung, and colorectal
  • Women: Breast, lung, and colorectal
  • Children: Leukemia, brain tumors, and lymphoma

The incidence of cancer and cancer types are influenced by many factors such as age, gender, race, local environmental factors, diet, and genetics. Consequently, the incidence of cancer and cancer types vary depending on these variable factors. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) provides the following general information about cancer worldwide:

  • Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It accounted for 8.2 million deaths (around 22% of all deaths not related to communicable diseases; most recent data from WHO).
  • Lung, stomach, liver, colon, and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year.
  • Deaths from cancer worldwide are projected to continue rising, with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030 (about a 70% increase).

Different areas of the world may have cancers that are either more or less predominant then those found in the U.S. One example is that stomach cancer is often found in Japan, while it is rarely found in the U.S. This usually represents a combination of environmental and genetic factors.

The objective of this article is to introduce the reader to general aspects of cancers. It is designed to be an overview of cancer and cannot cover every cancer type. This article will also attempt to help guide the reader to more detailed sources about specific cancer types.

What are risk factors and causes of cancer?

Anything that may cause a normal body cell to develop abnormally potentially can cause cancer. Many things can cause cell abnormalities and have been linked to cancer development. Some cancer causes remain unknown while other cancers have environmental or lifestyle triggers or may develop from more than one known cause. Some may be developmentally influenced by a person’s genetic makeup. Many patients develop cancer due to a combination of these factors. Although it is often difficult or impossible to determine the initiating event(s) that cause a cancer to develop in a specific person, research has provided clinicians with a number of likely causes that alone or in concert with other causes, are the likely candidates for initiating cancer. The following is a listing of major causes and is not all-inclusive as specific causes are routinely added as research advances:

Chemical or toxic compound exposures: Benzene, asbestos, nickel, cadmium, vinyl chloride, benzidine, N-nitrosamines, tobacco or cigarette smoke (contains at least 66 known potential carcinogenic chemicals and toxins), asbestos, and aflatoxin

Ionizing radiation: Uranium, radon, ultraviolet rays from sunlight, radiation from alpha, beta, gamma, and X-ray-emitting sources

Pathogens: Human papillomavirus (HPV), EBV or Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis viruses B and C, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), Merkel cell polyomavirus, Schistosoma spp., and Helicobacter pylori; other bacteria are being researched as possible agents.

Genetics: A number of specific cancers have been linked to human genes and are as follows: breast, ovarian, colorectal, prostate, skin and melanoma; the specific genes and other details are beyond the scope of this general article so the reader is referred to the National Cancer Institute for more details about genetics and cancer.

It is important to point out that most everyone has risk factors for cancer and is exposed to cancer-causing substances (for example, sunlight, secondary cigarette smoke, and X-rays) during their lifetime, but many individuals do not develop cancer. In addition, many people have the genes that are linked to cancer but do not develop it. Why? Although researchers may not be able give a satisfactory answer for every individual, it is clear that the higher the amount or level of cancer-causing materials a person is exposed to, the higher the chance the person will develop cancer. In addition, the people with genetic links to cancer may not develop it for similar reasons (lack of enough stimulus to make the genes function). In addition, some people may have a heightened immune response that controls or eliminates cells that are or potentially may become cancer cells. There is evidence that even certain dietary lifestyles may play a significant role in conjunction with the immune system to allow or prevent cancer cell survival. For these reasons, it is difficult to assign a specific cause of cancer to many individuals.

Recently, other risk factors have been added to the list of items that may increase cancer risk. Specifically, red meat (such as beef, lamb, and pork) was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a high-risk agent for potentially causing cancers; in addition processed meats (salted, smoked, preserved, and/or cured meats) were placed on the carcinogenic list. Individuals that eat a lot of barbecued meat may also increase risk due to compounds formed at high temperatures. Other less defined situations that may increase the risk of certain cancers include obesity, lack of exercise, chronic inflammation, and hormones, especially those hormones used for replacement therapy. Other items such as cell phones have been heavily studied. In 2011, the World Health Organization classified cell phone low energy radiation as “possibly carcinogenic,” but this is a very low risk level that puts cell phones at the same risk as caffeine and pickled vegetables.

Proving that a substance does not cause or is not related to increased cancer risk is difficult. For example, antiperspirants are considered to possibly be related to breast cancer by some investigators and not by others. The official stance by the NCI is “additional research is needed to investigate this relationship and other factors that may be involved.” This unsatisfying conclusion is presented because the data collected so far is contradictory. Other claims that are similar require intense and expensive research that may never be done. Reasonable advice might be to avoid large amounts of any compounds even remotely linked to cancer, although it may be difficult to do in complex, technologically advanced modern societies.

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Collaborative Research in Programmable Matter
May 18, 2018
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This project combines modular robotics, systems nanotechnology and computer science to create the dynamic, 3-Dimensional display of electronic information known as claytronics.

Our goal is to give tangible, interactive forms to information so that a user’s senses will experience digital environments as though they are indistinguishable from reality.

Claytronics is taking place across a rapidly advancing frontier.  This technology will help to drive breathtaking advances in the design and engineering of computing and hardware systems.

Our research team focuses on two main projects:

♦ Creating the basic modular building block of claytronics known as the claytronic atom or catom, and

♦ Designing and writing robust and reliable software programs that will manage the shaping of ensembles of millions of catoms into dynamic, 3-Dimensional forms.

Realizing the vision of claytronics through the self-assembly of millions of catoms into synthetic reality will have a profound effect on the experience of users of electronic information. This promise of claytronic technology has become possible because of the ever increasing speeds of computer processing predicted in Moore’s Law.

This website will introduce you to the ideas that are driving claytronics, the research team that is working to make it happen, and the hardware and software projects that enable the building of claytronic ensembles.

Development of this powerful form of information display represents a partnership between the School of Computer Sciences of Carnegie Mellon University, Intel Corporation at its Pittsburgh Laboratory and FEMTO-ST Institute.  As an integral part of our philosophy, the Claytronics Project seeks the contributions of scholars and researchers worldwide who are dedicating their efforts to the diverse scientific and engineering studies related to this rich field of nanotechnology and computer science.

To understand the future of claytronics, watch the concept video [.mov] created by Carnegie Mellon’s Entertainment Technology Center.

Use the links to the left to see a list of publications, some videos and photos documenting our progress, a partial list of talks we have given, and people working on the project.

The program of the programmable matter is

@inproceedings{pillai-iros06,
  author = {Pillai, Padmanabhan and Campbell, Jason D. and Kedia,
     Gautam and Moudgal, Shishir and Sheth, Kaushik},
  title = {A 3D Fax Machine based on Claytronics},
  booktitle = {IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots
     and Systems {(IROS '06)}},
  venue = {IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and
     Systems (IROS)},
  month = {October},
  year = {2006},
  keywords = {Applications of Claytronics},
  url = {http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~claytronics/papers/pillai-iros06.pdf},
  abstract = {This paper presents a novel application of modular
     robotic technology. Many researchers expect manufacturing
     technology will allow robot modules to be built at smaller and
     smaller scales, but movement and actuation are increasingly
     difficult as dimensions shrink. We describe an application --- a
     3D fax machine --- which exploits inter-module communication and
     computation without requiring self-reconfiguration. As a result,
     this application may be feasible sooner than applications which
     depend upon modules being able to move themselves. In our new
     approach to 3D faxing, a large number of sub-millimeter robot
     modules form an intelligent ``clay'' which can be reshaped via
     the external application of mechanical forces. This clay can act
     as a novel input device, using intermodule localization
     techniques to acquire the shape of a 3D object by casting. We
     describe software for such digital clay. We also describe how,
     when equipped with simple inter-module latches, such clay can be
     used as a 3D output device. Finally, we evaluate results from
     simulations which test how well our approach can replicate
     particular objects.},
}

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Geographies of African corruption and embezzlement of funds

The purpose of this paper is to study the uneven geographies of corruption on the African continent. Corruption is an entrenched part of African political culture. However, the degree and impacts of corruption vary widely across the continent, ranging from failed states such as Somalia to the region’s bright spot Botswana. This paper first defines corruption and discusses its causes and effects. It then delves into the specifics of African corruption, including its causes and effects such as patrimonial political cultures, clientelism and the role of natural resource exports.

The study uses data from Transparency International to assess African corruption empirically and geographically, and links its levels of severity using correlations to gross domestic product per capita, literacy, income inequality and freedom of the media.

The major findings are that while the vast majority of the continent’s one billion people live under very corrupt regimes, the impacts of corruption on economic growth are questionable. Few geographic studies of corruption exit.

The paper’s novelty stems in part from being the first to explore African corruption from a spatial perspective, illustrating its widely varying contexts and consequences.

Corruption is a highly visible aspect of African politics, with a number of high-profile scandals standing out. For example, Mobutu Sese Seko, long-time tyrant of Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo), amassed a fortune of US$5bn, equal to the country’s entire external debt, before he was ousted in 1997 (Thomas, 2001; Svensson, 2005). The widespread corruption overseen by Kenya’s Daniel arap Moi is seen in the millions of dollars lost in “massive cash subsidies for fictitious exports of gold and diamonds” in the Goldenberg scandal (Vasagar, 2006). Nigeria’s Sani Abacha (Pallister and Capella, 2000) and South Africa’s Jackie Selebi (Schwella, 2013) are also among public officials implicated in major corruption scandals. More recently, opposition to corruption in Africa was manifest in the events of the Arab Spring. Tunisia and Egypt were among the earliest and the most visible of these revolutions (Anderson, 2011), while Occupy Nigeria arose later to protest removal of an oil subsidy that undergirded an uneasy peace between parts of Nigerian society and the corrupt state (Agbedo, 2012). Kofele-Kale (2006, p. 697) summarizes the dismal state of African corruption succinctly:

Corruption is a punishable offense under the laws of nearly every African state, and it is expressly prohibited in several of their constitutions and in various regional and pan-African anti-corruption instruments. In fact, Africa’s leadership is so concerned about the problem of corruption that hardly a day goes by without some government entity criticizing corruption and its cancerous effects on African society. Yet, for all the bombast about eradicating corruption, Africa has made little progress on this front.

Corruption is almost universal across the planet but varies widely in severity, type and consequences. Although corruption is not unique to Africa, African corruption remains pervasive and among the world’s most severe (Lawson, 2009). For example, data from Transparency International (about which more later) indicate that six African countries are rated as “extremely corrupt” (scores under 20) and another 35 are considered “very corrupt” (scores 20-39); only Botswana emerges as a member of the “slightly corrupt” group, and no African country is among the “least corrupt” group which includes most of the economically advanced world. Ninety per cent of Africa’s population – roughly one billion people of 1.2 billion – thus live under very or extremely corrupt governments, a rate that exceeds most of the rest of the world.

Corruption is one of the several factors that have hindered African economic development, a governance issue with a wide variety of deleterious social and political consequences. Unfortunately, geographical analyses of this phenomenon have been highly limited and have been mostly confined to a few case studies of India (Robbins, 2000; Corbridge and Kumar, 2002; Jeffrey, 2002), and a critique of anti-corruption campaigns (Brown and Cloke, 2004). Bracking (2009) offers a rare exception concerning Africa, noting that corruption in Zimbabwe is not an exception to neoliberal rule but an integral part of it. Yet, there are virtually no other works on the spatiality of corruption in Africa.

Although it is arguably the most corrupt continent on the planet, corruption in Africa has been largely neglected by geographers. This paper seeks to fill this void; its aim is to disclose the uneven geography of corruption there and the causes of differences in the level of severity found among its various countries, noting that causes, severity and effects vary across the continent. Its primary focus is on the roles of the “resource curse” and globalization as two predominant forces that have facilitated and constrained corruption, respectively. It opens with an overview of the definitions of corruption, its causes and its consequences. Next, it turns to the specifics of corruption on the African continent, noting the roles played by colonial borders, patrimonial politics, foreign aid and the “resource curse”. The third part briefly summarizes the data used in the empirical analysis; the fourth correlates corruption scores with gross domestic product (GDP) levels and growth, income inequality, literacy, export intensity, reliance on raw materials exports, media freedom and government effectiveness in combatting corruption. The conclusion emphasizes the uneven spatial nature of corruption, its cultural and institutional embeddedness and the uncertain role of anti-corruption campaigns.

In its broadest sense, corruption may be defined as the use of public office and funds for private gains (Bardhan, 1997, 2006). Within this umbrella fall a large number of illicit, illegal and immoral behaviors, including graft, bribes, extortion, embezzlement, inflated payrolls in which the designated payees do not receive funds (“ghost salaries”), over-invoicing, theft of foreign aid, a blind eye toward smuggling, the purchase and sale of legislative votes, nepotistic hiring practices and selling of government contracts, licenses and land concessions, to name but a few. Petty corruption may be practiced on a small scale by few individuals, such as police or customs officials, while grand corruption may be institutionalized as wholesale, well-organized kleptocracies designed to enrich a small elite at the expense of the public. Both types are found in Africa; whereas the former is essentially ubiquitous, the latter varies geographically, depending on several factors such as colonial legacies, the structure of exports and associated revenues and the degree to which international agencies [e.g. the International Monetary Fund (IMF), non-governmental organizations (NGOs)] have intervened in particular states.

Corruption occurs when the expected benefits exceed the costs, and it is thus a form of rent-seeking behavior (Klitgaard, 1988). Benefits are not limited to monetary gains but include acquiring political office, power and prestige. The likelihood of corruption must be measured against the probability of being caught or exposed and the associated penalties. In large part, these reflect the transparency of government actions and the degree of administrative oversight and accountability involved.

Several factors either exacerbate or inhibit corruption. Poor countries tend to have the highest levels (Warf, 2016), and the poor, who rely the most heavily on public services, often face demands for bribes to obtain them. Corruption flourishes in secretive environments in which deals and decisions are made out of view of the public (Jain, 2001). Democratic societies tend to have lower levels of corruption because they create mechanisms for accountability and the enforcement of laws (Moreno, 2002). Indeed, many of the most notoriously corrupt governments at present are profoundly anti-democratic (Treisman, 2000; Billger and Goel, 2009); examples include North Korea, China, Iran and Eritrea. Low literacy rates also contribute: uninformed populations cannot be made easily aware of the extent of government malfeasance. Unsurprisingly, corruption is the most severe in countries without an effective independent media, which serves as a watchdog and a whistle blower (Brunetti and Weder, 2003). Low salaries of public employees are a common cause (van Rijckeghent and Weder, 2001).

Globalization may have several effects on corruption, although the relations between the two are contingent and complex. Foreign investors, for example, may prefer relatively non-corruption environments in which the costs of doing business are low. Lalountas et al. (2011), using cross-section data for 127 countries, found that globalization [in the forms of foreign direct investment (FDI) and import penetration] mitigated corruption in relatively developed countries but had little impact in poorer ones. Corrupt practices such as smuggling or black market money exchanges flourish when government policies are overly restrictive, unduly complicated, irrational, rigid or unrealistic (such as setting official exchange rates too high). Corrupt countries tend to have porous borders through which drugs, weapons or slaves may be moved easily.

Finally, corruption is often associated with the “resource curse”. Economists have noted the “paradox of plenty”, in which resource-dependent economies often perform worse than those lacking in such wealth (Bulte et al., 2005; Humphreys et al., 2007). Raw materials usually command low prices on the world market, and their revenue streams may be easily diverted by well-connected elites. Resource-rich countries may be also more inhospitable to democratic institutions (Jensen and Wantchekon, 2004), particularly when potential public revenues from the exports of oil, copper or diamonds are minimized by poorly enforced taxation policies.

Corruption also reflects cultural norms, which vary widely among societies. Where it is widespread and endemic, it is often accepted simply as another part of doing business. Bribery may be viewed simply as a means to get the bureaucratic machinery to move forward, and enriching oneself at public expense may not be seen as particularly loathsome. As Bardhan (1997, p. 1330) puts it, “What is regarded in one culture as corrupt may be considered a part of routine transaction in another”. Masculinist cultures tend to exhibit more corruption than do societies in which women hold larger shares of public office (Goetz, 2000; Swamy et al., 2001). Parboteeah et al. (2014) suggest that varying ethical climates, including the teaching of ethics in corporate and public sector human resources departments, help to explain the geography of African corruption.

Corruption has numerous corrosive effects on an economy and society. In societies in which it is deeply entrenched, it lowers public morale and creates cynicism and distrust of the state. In Mali, for example, the overthrow of President Moussa Traoré in 1991 led to the burning of customs and tax offices, traditional centers of high-level corruption and embezzlement (Harsh, 1993). Corruption also inhibits the efficiency and effectiveness of government policies, including the appropriate delivery of public monies to their intended ends. Corrupt construction contractors may erect buildings that are shoddy and unsafe, or use public funds to build luxury homes for wealthy politicians. In South Africa, corrupt elites captured the public utilities, awarding themselves with subsidized water, while the poor pay higher prices charged by private firms (Auriol and Blanc, 2009). Nepotistic hiring short-circuits meritocratic hiring systems and fills public offices with unqualified, underqualified or incompetent staff. Corruption can also undermine the quality of education and retard progress in eliminating illiteracy (Reinikka and Svensson, 2005).

Numerous economists have studied corruption’s influences on markets (Mauro, 1995; Bardhan, 1997; Aidt, 2003; Rose-Ackerman, 2006). High levels of corruption are associated with reduced FDI (Wei, 2000; Habib and Zurawicki, 2002). By raising transactions costs, it increases the cost of doing business, notably production and transportation costs, and reduces profits. Corruption raises the barriers to entry for non-privileged groups, notably those lacking in political connections (Fisman, 2001) and funds for bribes and kickbacks. Corruption also increases inequality (Gupta et al., 2002), typically imposing its greatest costs on the poor.

Corruption in africa is a tragedy.

 

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CORRUPTION AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
Abstract
Africa is endowed with abundant natural resources and it has attracted development aid from
the rich nations of the world. Despite these, the continent remains undeveloped. Different
reasons have been attributed to the African development crisis among the modernist school and
the dependency school. This study was undertaken to unravel the cause of the African
underdevelopment. The paper pinpoints that corruption is the core reason behind African
underdevelopment and it laid emphasis on corruption and underdevelopment interface in
Nigeria. For Africa to break the impasse of underdevelopment, the paper calls for good
governance and the establishment of special agencies to monitor all development projects
undertaking by African countries.
Keywords: Africa, Corruption, Socio-economic development, underdevelopment
INTRODUCTION
The attempt by countries in Africa to break the cycle underdevelopment has been hindered by
the high level of corruption in the continent. Africa is rich in natural resources and the proceeds
from the sales of these natural resources to other countries are mismanaged by African leaders
through corrupt process. Transparency International defines corruption as the abuse of
entrusted power for private benefit (Transparency International, 2006). Since the early 1960s
when most African countries were gaining independence, the rich nations of the world have
extended development aids to Africa, yet Africa remains the lease developed continent in the
world. Different schools of thought have come out with the causes of underdevelopment in
Africa. For instance, the modernist school believes that Africa needs to follow the development
part of the industrialized nations before it can develop. On the contrary, the dependency
theorists argued that the exploitation of African by the superpowers was responsible for African

 

underdevelopment. However, there is the new school of thought that postulates corruption in
Africa hinders development. Corruption affects the development in various ways. For example,
billion of dollars that would have been used to provide social amenities in some African
countries such as Nigeria are siphon and kept in foreign accounts. The former World Bank
president, Paul Wolfowitz revealed that public officials in Nigeria have embezzled more than
$300 billion from the nation’s pulse for the past forty decades (Ndibe, 2006). This statement was
supported by the former chairman of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC),
Nuhu Ribadu and the former World Bank Vice President for Africa, Oby Ezekweili who stressed
that Nigerians leaders have stolen over $400 billion from the sales of crude oil since
independence. The over $400 billion that has been stolen from Nigeria would have impacted the
development progress in Nigeria if such a huge amount has been channelled to aid
development. Tanzi and Davoodi (1997) detect four outlets through which corruption may have
an adverse effect on economic growth: higher public investment, lower government revenues,
lower expenditures on business operations and maintenance, and lower quality of public
infrastructure. According to Uneke (2010):
Corruption, because of its pervasiveness in many countries in Africa South of the
Sahara, is detrimental to social, political, and economic development in a variety of ways. A
program of sustainable development is contingent on several conditions, including principled
and purposeful leadership; prudent, rational and far-sighted decision-making; and optimum use
of available resources. Corruption tends to undermine all these conditions in terms of public
cynicism and erosion of confidence on corrupt leadership; irrational, short sighted and ill-
motivated decision; and squandering of resources on ill-advised or unsuitable projects. The
result has developmental stagnation, poverty, the cynicism of the political leadership, and
disillusionment and hopelessness on the part of the masses and the deprived

High end corruption is practiced at procurement offices in every department in any government in Africa. Perpetrators are mostly senior civil servants.

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Africa’s Real State of Affairs

A Rwandan friend recently sent me a 9-minute speech via Whatsapp, thinking I might have already heard it. About a week later, I finally listened to it for the first time. I’m glad I did. Attributed to Kenya’s Professor Patrick Loch Otieno Lumumba – current Kenya School of Laws Director and a former director of Kenya’s Anti-Corruption Commission – the speech which seems to be fairly recent (2014/15) brings up a question that crops up whenever an African nation is celebrating its “independence”: How “free” are we really? Are these the throes of neo-colonization or the remnants of colonization? Is Pan-Africanism dead? More importantly, are we actually thinking or simply living and acting in oblivion?

In his proactive speech he is said and quote

“When I look at Africa, many questions come to mind. Many times I ask myself, what would happen if Mwalimu were to rise up and see what is happening. Many times I will ask myself what will happen if Kwame Nkrumah and Patrice Lumumba were to rise up and see what is happening. Because what they would be confronted with is an Africa where the Democratic Republic of Congo is unsettled.

 

“There is a war going on there but it is not on the front pages of our newspapers, because we don’t even control our newspapers and the media. “

 

As I speak to you the Central African Republic is at war. But we talk of it only mutedly. As I speak to you now, in South Sudan, the youngest nation in Africa, the Nuwera have risen against the Dinka. As I speak to you now, Eritrea is unsettled. As I speak to you now there is unease in Egypt, as there is unease in Libya. In Niger it is no better, in Senegal in the Cassamance, it is no better. In Somalia it is no better. Africa is at war with ourself.

This is what they would be confronted with. They would be confronted with an Africa which statistician and romantic economists say is growing, but which in truth is stagnated. That is the Africa that they would be confronted with. They would be confronted with an Africa which, as Professor Mlama intimated in our presentation here, is an Africa which is suffering from schizophrenia – it does not know herself.

 

“They would be confronted with an Africa whose young men and women have no interest and no love for their continent.”

 

They would be confronted with an Africa where young men and young women are constantly humiliated at embassies of European countries and the United States as they seek the almighty green card. They would be confronted with an Africa where young men and women from Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Mali and Mauritania drown in the Mediterranean as they seek to be enslaved in Europe. This time around, Africans are not wailing and kicking as they are being taken away to be enslaved, they are seen wailing and kicking as they seek to be enslaved in Europe and America. This is the tragedy of Africa.

They would be confronted with an Africa where people have lost their self-pride. An Africa where Africans are not proud of their things. An Africa where in the hotels of Dar es Salaam or Nairobi, even food has foreign names. When we fry potatoes we call them French fries even when they are fried in Dar es Salaam.

 

“They would be confronted with another Africa, an Africa which does not tell her story. An Africa whose story is told by Europe and America – the CNN, Radio Deutsche-Welle, Radia France.”

 

That is the Africa they would be confronted with. They would be confronted with young men and women who have no pride in Africa. When they want to enjoy themselves they sing the praises of football teams from Europe and America. It is Manchester United, it is Arsenal, it is Real Madrid and Barcelona. Not Yanga, not Mufulira Wanderers, not Gor Mahia, not FC Leopards. No, that is the Africa that they would be confronted with. They would be confronted with an Africa which does not enjoy its theatre and drama. That Africa celebrates Leonardo di Caprio, it celebrates Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt. The Africa does not celebrate Genevive Nnaji of Nigeria or Rita Dominic or Olu Jacobs of Nigeria. It does not celebrate Bongohood or Nollywood or Riverwood. It celebrates Hollywood. That is the Africa which with they would be confronted. They would be confronted with African women whose greatest source of joy is cheap Grade B Mexican soap opera: la patrona, la muher de me vida.

Why must we remind ourselves of these realities? Because throughout the ages, the battle has always been the battle of the mind. If your mind is conquered, then you are going nowhere. And that is why in the age of enlightenment in Europe, the great René Descartes said “Cogito ergo sum.” I think, therefore I am.

 

“And therefore if Africans are to begin to make a contribution in their affairs, Africans must begin to think. But the question is, are we thinking?”

 

We have universities in their numbers. Tanzania has universities including Dar es Salaam. Nairobi has universities as indeed Kampala, as indeed South Africa, Johannesburg. We have all these universities. We have engineers, but our roads are not being made by Tanzanian civil engineers, it is the Chinese who are present in this assembly who are making our roads. So we have engineers who cannot even make roads. We have doctors whom we have trained, but when we are sick – particularly if we are of the political class – depending on who colonized you, if you are colonized by the United Kingdom, you rush to London. If you colonized by the French, you rush to Paris. If you are colonized by the Portuguese, you rush to Lisbon, and if you are colonized by the Spaniards, you rush to Madrid, Spain.

And recently, because the Asians are beginning to get their act together, we run to India. And very lately, because the Arabs are also beginning to get their act together, we run to Dubai. Notwithstanding that we have the Kenyatta hospitals of this country, the Muhimbilis of Tanzania, the Chris Hani Baragwanaths of South Africa and the Mama Yemos of Kinshasa in Zaire or the DRC. But we have no faith in our doctors.

In the area of education we also don’t have faith. Our political class introduced something that they call free education, that is free indeed. Free of knowledge. Because they are so suspicious of those institutions, that the typical African politician will not dare take their children to those schools. Their children will be educated in the British system, in the American system, so that when they graduate they go to the United Kingdom, to the United States.

 

“Not that there is anything wrong with those institutions, but the agenda is wrong because our leaders long lost the script and ought to be described for who they are – our misleaders.”

 

But we are co-authors of our own misfortune. Whenever we are given an opportunity to elect our leaders, we are given a blank check. And if you permit me a little latitude, and if you give me a blank check and you allow me to analogize and you say that I am given the blank check to buy a Mercedes Benz, what we do is when we are called upon – having been so empowered – we buy what we call a tuk-tuk from India and we expect it to behave ike a Mercedes Benz. How does that happen?

 

“Because what we do is to elect thieves. We elect hyenas to take care of goats and when the goats are consumed, we wonder why.”

 

Agree or disagree with the Professor? Got ideas of your own? We’d love to hear your perspective!

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