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who really invented the internet that we all use today?
March 21, 2017
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Despite Al Gore’s claims to the contrary, the Internet was not originally invented by or created by a single person. The Internet as we know it today is a combination of a number of concepts that have ultimately been merged together to provide the service. Tim Berners-Lee (or Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee as officially known in the UK), is a British computer scientist who is credited with inventing the World Wide Web. First proposed in March 1989 and later implemented on Christmas Day, 1990 with the assistance of Robert Cailliau and a CERN student, he was able to implement the first communication between a client and server using the HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) on the Internet. To get to this point; however, required a significant amount of work by other academics, researchers, and organizations in the underlying technologies that now comprise the web.

Who Thought of the Internet First?

Leonard Kleinrock is credited with crafting the first public concept for the Internet with his paper, “Information Flow in Large Communication Nets” on May 31st, 1961. Dr. Kleinrock’s work in this timeframe (which comprised his PHD work at MIT) was to establish the mathematical theory of packet-based networks. In the same timeframe, J.C.R. Licklider would become the head of the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or at DARPA. He would provide his vision or dream of a world-wide network and would provide the vision that would later become ARPANET. Since Licklider was not an experienced computer programmer; however, he would recruit Lawrence Roberts to lead the team that would eventually create and deploy ARPANET in 1967. Roberts would be the first scientist or engineer to implement the packet switching network that Kleinrock first created. This form of packet switching is still used as the primary means of transferring information to this day on the web.

Origins of ARPANET

Over the 1960s, ARPA and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) corroborated to share technology and research information. Ivan Sutherland and Bob Taylor would perform a lot of the precursor work to the ARPANET by connecting separate computers via phone network with researchers in Santa Monica, University of California at Berkeley, and MIT. In 1966, Larry Roberts from MIT would introduce the ARPANET which would allow computers to be linked over long distances. In 1969, colleges were permitted to become a part of the network nodes with UCLA and Stanford being early adopters. The network was further expanded in 1971 and by 1973 had a node in London.

Early Networking Equipment

On August 29, 1969 the first network switch was sent to UCLA for use and was called an IMP (Interface Message Processor). The first data was moved to the switch from the UCLA host on September 2nd, 1969.  The IMP’s were developed by BBN technologies under contract to ARPA with the team led by Frank Heart. The IMPs were designed to function as gateways with the purpose to connect local resources. At each deployment site, the IMPs would conduct storage and forwarding of packet switching functions. The devices were connected via modems that were connected through leased phone lines running at an initial speed of 50 kbit/second. The host computers at each location were then connected to the IMPs via serial communication interfaces. The design to implementation of the IMPs was accomplished in just 9 months. The first IMPs made use of a Honeywell DDP-516 computer that was configured with 24KB of expandable core memory along with a 16 channel DMC (Direct Multiplex Control) direct memory access unit. The purpose of the DMC was to establish a communications interface between the host computer and modem. The early IMPs could support up to four local computer hosts and support communications with up to six remotely located IMPs.

Deploying ARPANET

In the initial deployment of ARPANET there were four IMPs. These were sent to UCLA, Stanford, University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), and the University of Utah. The first message transmitted on the ARPANET was sent at 10:30 PM / 2230 by UCLA student Charley Kline from Boelter Hall. Under the supervision of Leonard Kleinrock, he transmitted from the SDS Sigma 7 Host computer to the Stanford Research Institute’s SDS 940 Host computer. His message text was intended to be “login” by the system crashed after the letters “lo” were sent. As a result, the first message transmitted on ARPANET was “lo.” Approximately one hour later after recovering from the crash, a full “login” message was sent. The first permanent ARPANET link would be established on November 21st, 1969 between UCLA and the Stanford Research Institute. On December 5th, 1969 the entire four-node network would be established.

Development of Email

Often overshadowed by the development of ARPANET, the first use of network email occurred in 1972 by Ray Tomlinson. In 1968, Tomlinson was working for the U.S. Defense Department as a computer engineer. He first developed an application called SNDMSG whose purpose was to allow ARPANET users to relay messages. At first, the application was only used to allow communications between users of the same computer. The transfer protocol, CYPNET, was used as an enabler in the SNDMSG application. This would allow SNDMSG to send and receive email to any computer connected to the ARPANET. In order to extend the addressing to the network, Tomlinson picked the [email protected] symbol to combine user names and the host names. This resulted in the notation of [email protected] that is still used to this day for email addressing. The first email message that Tomlinson sent was “QWERTYUIOP.” The program has very basic functionality; but was the origin of the email transactional model that continues to be used today. The service would then be connected to the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Later, this would evolve to being replaced by the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). The FTP service continues to be used today for downloading and uploading files on the Internet and local networks. MIT developed a similar message sending system in 1961 with the Compatible Time Sharing System (CTSS). CTSS allowed users to collect and share files while on the network. SNDMSG would be the first application to send messages between users on different computer networks.

Combining Individual Networks

After the deployment of ARPANET, a number of different networks started to be deployed around the world to include NPL, Merit Network, and CYCLADES. With so many different networks and networking methods emerging, there became a need for an underlying technology to connect or unify them. Robert E. Kahn from DARPA and ARPANET would recruit Vinton Cerf from Stanford to work on the problem. In 1973, the design of TCP resulted and would be published along with the assistance of Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in December of 1974 as RFC 675, Specification of Internet Transmission Control Protocol. This key advance in networking technology would permit the difference in network protocols to be hidden by using a common internetwork protocol. TCP would also shift the responsibility for network reliability to the hosts vice with the network. This RFC would also contain the first use of the term “internet” as shorthand for “internetworking” and was used as an adjective. DARPA would go on to fund development of follow-on prototype software and on November 22nd, 1977 a three network demonstration was conducted between the Packet Radio Network, the Atlantic Packet Satellite network, and ARPANET. TCP/IP would emerge in mid-1978 and be published as standards 791, 792, and 793 in 1981.On January 1st, 1983, TCP/IP would become the only approved protocol to be used on ARPANET supplanting the previously used NCP protocol.

What was the First Commercial Network?

The first commercial version of ARPANET produced was Telnet which was introduced in 1974. Telnet is considered by many to be the first Internet Service Provider (ISP), although the term was not used at the time. Telnet is now known as a client-server protocol that is based on a reliable connection-orientated transport. It is used to establish a TCP connection via port 23 that has a Telnet server application waiting to receive incoming transmissions. Before the advent of TCIP/IP, the service was run using the Network Control Program (NCP) protocol and was not based on a RFC definition. Since that time, there have been a number of extensions to Telnet developed which have become international standards (IETF STD 27 through STD 32).

When Was Ethernet Developed?

Robert Metcalf is credited with developing Ethernet while at Xerox PARC between 1973 and 1974. The idea was first documented in a memorandum that Metcalf published on May 22nd, 1972. In 1974, Xerox filed a patent application that listed David Boggs, Chuck Thacker, Metcalfe, and Butler Lampson as the inventors. Ethernet is considered to be a family of networking technologies applicable for local networks and would later be introduced commercially in 1980 and is now standardized in IEEE 802.3. When systems or computer communicate over Ethernet, a stream of information is divided into individual packets that are referred to as frames. Each of the frames contains a destination and source address along with error checking data to ensure reliable delivery of information with an original data rate of 10 megabits per second. With succeeding improvements in twisted pair development, deployment of fiber optic links, and hubs and switches, these rates have increased to 100 gigabits per second.

When Was DNS Invented?

Prior to the invention of DNS in 1982, ARPANET made use of a hosts.txt file to lookup a simpler version of a computer host’s numerical address on a network. The hosts.txt file was retrieved from a computer at RI. As the number of computer hosts continued to grow; however, the use of the hosts.txt file quickly became unmanageable and could not scale. As a result, Paul Mockapetris invented the Domain Name System (DNS) and wrote the first implementation. DNS is designed to be a hierarchical, distributed naming system that can be used on private or distributed networks. In essence, it serves as a “phone book” for translating hostnames into IP addresses.  In 1984, the first UNIX implementation referred to as BIND was created by four Berkeley students; David Riggle, Mark Painter, Douglas Terry, and Songnian Zhou. BIND would be refined and maintained since then and was later ported to Windows NT in the early 1990s.  Today, DNS makes it possible for naming conventions to remain consistent despite changing in routing configurations or arrangements.

ARPANET Evolution

ARPANET would be connected to the Norwegian Seismic Array, or NORSAR, in 1973 making Norway the first country outside of the United States to connect to the network. Soon after, a London IMP was added and in 1975 ARPANET was declared operational. When this occurred, the Defense Communications Agency took control of the network. Then, in 1983 ARPANET was split between MILNET (for military use) and civilian use. Gateways were used to relay email between the two networks and MILNET would later become the NIPRNet that is still used today. On February 28th, 1990, ARPANET would be formally decommissioned.

The Impact of HTML

Like many of the great inventions we enjoy today, HTML was developed by Tim Berners-Lee while working in the computer services section of CERN out of the need to collaborate amongst other particle physics researchers. In 1989, he had the idea of trying to enable researchers located at remote sites in the world by allowing them to pool and organize information by linking the text in the files together. Berners-Lee had previously worked on document production and text processing before arriving at CERN having produced the hypertext system, “Enquire,” in 1980 for his personal use. He would then produce a prototype Web browser on the NeXT computer in 1990.

The HTML markup invented by Berners-Lee had a significant grounding in SGML (Standard Generalized Mark-Up), that was an internationally agreed upon method for marking text up into structural units (paragraphs, headings, lists, etc.). The primary idea of using a markup was that the language was independent of the formatter. HTML like SGML made use of pair tags such as the opening and closing tags: <TITLE> </TITLE>. Other elements of SGML that he used were the paragraph, heading, and both ordered and unordered lists amongst others. SGML did not include hypertext links with anchor elements which were purely Berners-Lee’s invention along with the www.sitename.name syntax for addressing sites on the Internet. By basing HTML on SGML which was already widely accepted, HTML was able to gain acceptance by the remainder of what would become the Internet community. He would then introduce the World Wide Web to the public on August 6th, 1991 and release HTML for public use.

The Turning Point for the Internet

A significant turning point for the widespread adoption of the Internet or World Wide Web came with the release of the Mosaic web browser in 1993. Mosaic was a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC). The funding for development of the browser came from the High Performance Computing Act of 1991 which is also known as the “Gore Bill.” Although Gore’s claims regarding his role in the “invention” of the Internet have been light a fair bit across the open press, he is credited with coining the term the “Information Superhighway.” Mosaic would later be superseded by Netscape Navigator in 1994 which would hold the title as the world’s most popular web browser for a number of years until supplanted by Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.

I will always choose android phones
March 6, 2017
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If you ask me to choose between nokia and android i will always go with android phones.

It is totally based on personal preference.

And Some people like Windows and some like Android.

And Windows is a product of Microsoft an Android is a product chiefly of Google.So In my opinion Android is much better than windows.

Because all knows that android gives us a large number of application to use and it also supports them and in windows section there are limited applications as compared to android.

You know Nokia shot up mainly because of it’s durability.However, it is the era of smart phones now, so why does not call just for durability or a good user interface but also a good OS and speed. And That is where,I personally feel,Nokia phones fall short. I am sorry if you find it offensive but in my opinion, Nokia Lumia are the worstest of phones. Whoever I know possessing these series of phones(especially 610 ,710), they have had problems all the time. I am not sure but I think Lumia 710 doesnnot even have bluetooth in it.

So what if whatsapp is in rage which allows media files to get transferred?Even the low end phones these days have bluetooth.

I think Nokia phones with qwerty keypad ones work pretty good.And Again, I have seen that whoever were possesses qwerty keypad phone of Nokia were happy with its working. I believe,seriously Nokia are good now,only if you require a phone for its most basic use only,It is smart phones do not provide that utility which means much broader usage,and much like a computer.In my opinion,Samsung phones and iphones are the best.

They also have myriad of models available within numerous price ranges.Moreover, in samsung you get the reliability of Android unlike Nokia phones which run on Windows OS.And I am not belittling Windows, but as far as OS for smart-phones is concerned, Android is a surefire success.

Advantages Of Social Media That You Don’t Know
March 6, 2017
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Social media is not just another distraction tool. Instead it can be really helpful for you when it comes to managing your brand, personal life and other noise on the web. There are plenty of sites coming out everyday. And it’s kind of harder to find out which site is benefitting us in any way. It could be that some of the social media sites may not turn out to be good in the long run. But it just makes you wonder if any site has anything good. Here in this article we are going to take a look at some of the sites which are good for us. Be it business or personal life, we take a look at how it benefits us.

Shy People

Those who are not comfortable around other people will find that social media has lot to offer. Many people who feel shy around others will find this as an opportunity to connect. And this can be later turned into effective real life socializing. I am sure some of the people will definitely find this as a good way to meet new people. I have found that there are some goood option to meet new people on the meetup. And this is definitely a good option for anyone who wants to find something to socialize everyday.

Point of View

The thing about social media is that point of view that you can learn from the others is good. So far when we think of any situation in one way. We end up being wrong all the time. And that means point of view of others is something we can learn and approach in our life. So a lot can be learned from other people if we pay attention. If you are into groups and finding out what is a good thing about others. It would be interesting to note that having different point of view is worth considering if you are serious about the way things care going on with the social media these days.

Keeping Touch

It’s hard to find the friends that you have in childhood to be around you all the time. On that point you’d find that keeping in touch with friend and overseas family can be one good thing. I would be considering if there are any serious things that can be done with this. Sites like facebook and instagram can be good for keeping in touch with others. And your privacy is maintained. You’d have to just post and then keep the account limited to some of the people. I’d recommend trying some of such social network which can be good for family or friends only.

Business

Social media is turning out to be one of the effective medium for the business. You’d find that some business can be really good if you are serious about everyday business. For example instead of paying for the ad, you can simply use the posting on pages. And then share with other pages. That definitely helps for many people. In fact these days many business are promoting through the pages. And they are getting some good returns and the leads through that way. In such case I’d recommend you to try out the business pages on social media.

These are some of the benefits many people are not keeping track of. And that is indeed a good option for you to learn as you go ahead with using the social media websites.

Image by pixabay.

Restoring Computer Hardware with a free Open Source Operating System
March 4, 2017
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What is Open Source?

Open source means that the people who develop the software and operating systems for your laptop, PC or computer make it available for free. Most ask for a donation if you can make one.

Computer Hardware needs an Operating system

To work your computer or laptop needs an Operating System.
Without a reinstall disk, replacing the OS with a Microsoft product can be expensive.

Buy an inexpensive disk

It is possible to download a Linux OS and burn it to a disk. It is easier to buy a cheap ready-made disk. I have one I bought from Ubuntu.com years ago. It is an older version, but I install and update it.

Open Source Operating Systems (OS)

There are several Open Source Operating Systems available, but Linux is the easiest to work with. Often, these OS will work even if you install them on an ancient laptop or PC. My own preference is for Ubuntu because I can buy a set of disks from the Ubuntu website, put them into the CD drive and follow instructions.

You can install Ubuntu over Windows or alongside it.

I prefer to backup my files to an external CD or drive and then let it knock Windows out. What you choose to do may depend on the amount of memory available on your laptop or PC.

Older versions of Windows run slowly and become hard to use so are not worth keeping.

The  difference between Linux and Microsoft OS

With Linux based systems is that you need to use a terminal to download and update anything not available via the software center. If it is included, then there it will install easily.

It is easy to find the code for most things you want to download. Ask for it on the Ubuntu website. Then copy and paste into the terminal. Watching the code appear is fun.

Will everything I used on Windows work?

For almost every expensive piece of software you can buy there is a free alternative and most of them work as well as the ones you part with your hard earned cash for.

TV and Video

Youtube, BBC iplayer and ITV player all work well.

Netflix and Now TV do not. This is because they require programming associated with Google Chrome to work. It is hard to use this on a Linux based distribution.

Web browsers

Linux-based OS will not work with the conventional Google Chrome browser.

This is replaced by Google Chrome, the original platform on which Chrome was built.

Internet Explorer can be installed, but you need a valid Microsoft license to use it.

Firefox works well and comes with the package.

Photos and Video calling

The Shotwell Image viewer works fine for viewing photos.

Skype and Facebook calling also work.

Social Media

There is no problem accessing any kind of social media from a Linux system.

Bought programs

Some programs will not work with Linux. It is best to check before you buy.

Updates

You can set Ubuntu to update daily. This means it is always functioning at its best.

Word Processor

Ubuntu and most other Linux-based distributions come with Libre Office installed.

Many writers prefer Libre Office as it is better for writing eBooks.

Restored!

Installing Ubuntu on my old imac is beyond me. However, I have had good success with non-Apple products. A Windows PC should not be fine.

So far, I have restored a Dell, an Acer and a Toshiba laptop. The Acer (bought 2000) and Toshiba (ancient,) were easy. I followed the instructions on the CD.

Update Firmware first if you can

Dell needs you to update the firmware using Windows before you install the new OS or it knocks out the Wireless capability.  Fixing the problem after installation can be tricky.

Would it be better to buy a Windows OS again?

If I bought a new laptop or PC, I would either purchase or install a Linux based operating system alongside or instead of the Windows OS.  Once I tried it I was hooked.

Work from Home is not a bad idea
February 27, 2017
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I once saw a book “Chicken Soup for the Soul: Married Life! Written by three authors Amy Newmark , Mark Victor Hansen and Jack Canfield. First I thought it was a recipe book with different chicken and chicken soup recipes good for keeping your partners happy. Incidentally I was a great chicken dishes lover especially Tandoori Chicken and Butter chicken at the time of reading that book (all Punjabis are).

I read that book out of curiosity as I borrowed it from my senior manager when I saw it lying on his car’s dashboard during my posting in Delhi office. Incidentally he had offered to drop me at my apartment on his way to his home. I was living alone then and cooking at times in my one room apartment so I thought I will give few of the recipes a try.

But after I read a few pages of that book my eyes opened wide for two reasons. The first, that book had nothing about chicken or soups but all about work from home. Second, the time I read that book work from home was not even heard in our country but work from home was only referred people doing small jobs from home in their spare time but it was not considered a full time job anyways.

Now we all know that developed countries like America, Britain, Australia, Germany France etc. offer this option for years to their employees and workers in certain fields take full advantage of ‘work from home’ facility. If I have my figures right in America only more than 15 million people work from home.

However, I would like to add here that work from home is good in certain sectors like IT, agency jobs, tour & traveling, writing and e-commerce. In our country also the concept of work from home is gaining popularity especially among the married female employees.

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My Learning Routine from Explainer Videos
February 19, 2017
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I came across this concept called explainer videos. I first saw the video from the TED education. And they have this nice presentation of the concept through explainer video. And they managed to explain the concept really well. I think there is a lot that can be learned with the explainer videos. I am not sure if this method can be good for even the classroom. But for me personally I have found this method really useful. I wish to show some of the videos from the TED ED to the nephew and the kids around. But it seems it is upto them to take some interest in those videos.

Here are two channels that I have found useful.

Kurzgesagt – This channel is very easily explaining some of the science concepts. And it has some really nice things in it. In terms of animation, they have very good animators with them. The voice narration is also good. Only thing is that they are posting one video each month. And I am sure that can be coslty for them. So it seems they are just providing the content free but at much effective price. So it can be really good option for anyone who want to learn things. For even adults there are some nice concept explained. Take example of stock market and some of the astronomy related videos. They have covered both of them nicely.

TED Ed – This is the channel that got me into the explainer videos. I have watched most of the riddles and explainer video concept into it. And found that the site explains a lot of concepts much effectively. I am not sure if the TED Ed is a good option for those who learn effectively through visualization. I can tell you the best videos in the TED Ed series are of the riddles. There are some of the nice riddles in the series. I have learned how to solve them effectively. I’d definitely recommend anyone to check out the TED Ed over any option. And make sure to subscribe as they regularly release the new videos in that.

These two are my priority as of now. And I am learning through them on regular basis. I think these are indeed good channels from Youtube worth keeping tab on.

Why ISRO hav launched 104 satellites in space
February 17, 2017
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This news that ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) has successfully launched 104 satellites is all over the globe.  It is however important to know why India launched so many satellites.

While it is indeed a feather in their cap one needs to know why so many satellites were launched by ISRO. The fact of the matter is that those satellites belong to many other countries . Only  3 were Indian-owned, while, 96 were from US companies, and the rest belonged to companies from other countries –  Israel, Kazakhstan, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Arab Emirates.

ISRO had spare capacity and it took advantage of it and took upon themselves to launch satellites that belonged to other countries.  In other words it got an opportunity to commercialise this event.

Apart from launching they would  also monitor activity of these satellites ofcourse they would be paid for these services by those owners.

ISRO has work to do.

The only country that has successfully launch mass satellites is Russia but the number is only around thirty plus.

Watching the activity on TV when the Rocket was ejecting these satellites all in a matter of minutes is not something one gets to see so often.

The question now is to see that they do not crash with each other.  This situation hopefully is kept in check may be with a programme created for the purpose.

The other exciting event was when there was a selfie arrangement which gave the earth an opportunity to see those satellites entering space one at a time.

ISRO has a long way to go, watching its great progress. There could be quite a few newer projects up their sleeve to be announced at the right time. We all have to wait and watch,.

These satellites will now collect information depending on how they are set and we will soon get to know their success.

Hopefully whatever the contribution it should  make the world a better place to live.

For more on this the following link could be visited.

http://gadgets.ndtv.com/science/features/isro-launches-pslv-c37-rocket-heres-the-list-of-104-satellites-on-board-1659740

Is Technology our friend or foe?
February 12, 2017
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The cost of living vs Technology.

There was recently an uproar to raise the minimum wage to $15 an hour. California was one of the few states that allowed a raise in the minimum wage to $15.00 hour. While this was a time of joyous occasion for some, it came with some bad side effects. McDonalds was starting to experiment with some automated cashier machines. All the customer had to do is submit the order and it would serve you a nice hot meal. In the meantime, some employees were on the way to losing their jobs. Sad state of affairs.

As a kid growing up in New York City, New York, I would see the personal customer service at a gas station. The attendant would check the oil, fill the radiator with water and fill up the gas tank for you. Sometimes, the attendant would detect some much needed repairs and you would avoid a breakdown along the way. Now, in today’s world, you tap a few buttons on a computer, slip in your credit/debit card and fill up your tank yourself. The oil? You would check it yourself at the gas station. Long gone are the personal attendants to serve you.

Recently, we have seen Uber get in on the act. Having driven for Uber, it was a nice way to make some extra money. Now, recently, Uber had stated that it was experimenting with driver-less cars. It will, only, take a few years until that technology is perfected and the Uber drivers will be history. Technology has its advantages but sadly, the people are who suffer, getting unemployed and without a job.

Robots to the scene

We are seeing how some houses are being cleaned by Robots! This process is in the experimental stages but soon, there won’t be any need to hire any housekeepers. People will have their own robots to assist them in their daily labor of housekeeping. Robots, on the other hand, are good. The US government has been experimenting with the idea of fighting wars with Robots. The Police Departments have some robots that can detect and deactivate bombs. The cost of saving lives is a good positive side of this. Of course, we have the drones which can serves many uses in the government as well as in the business world.

Robots are getting built to where they, actually, look like a human being. In about 10 years from now, we may well see some Robot Policemen as well as some other robots among society. Technology has even created life-like women robots to provide companionship. Some men have expressed a desire to even marry a Robot! Technology is full of surprises and, always, changing but can we expect it to be for the better?

Closing thoughts

I, for one, appreciate technology. I try to keep up with it in the news. It is a fascinating subject to me. When I brought my android, I was on cloud 9, entertaining myself for hours with my new toy. Believe it or not, I have used my android to help me make some money on the side. On the other hand, it is easy for hackers to steal your identity if you do not stay on top. Getting a good virus protection app is a necessity. So, having the good and the bad, whether we like it or not, Technology is here for the long haul. My only thoughts about this is to make the best of it and make it work for you and your family.

 

Benefits of calculator for Students and Business and All
February 11, 2017
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Most Desirable Gift to all Business persons and accountant.

The most Desirable Gift is our very own CALCULATOR it so very helpful to all of us. We can calculate number of calculations in seconds and minutes with it, we can even check and edit our input, so these days and from past few years it’s like a necessity of every desk in office and I can bet that you cannot see a desk with the calculator on it. But the main reason for its popularity and universal use is that it’s very affordable and it can be used very easily and no training is required to use it. It displays all the major uses as Multiplication, Subtraction, Addition, divide and Square route and other desired functions, we can even get the percentages with it with single click. It’s a Boon for all accountants as now they can easily make multiple calculations easily and efficiently as well. The calculations which take a long long time in the past are performed in single click and that to be completed in some seconds and minutes as well. Also we can trust the result outputs by the calculator but if the calculation is done manually then we cannot trust fully and chances of mistakes are present in that. But just think if someone needs to cross check then just think how much more time will be wasted and that time can be effectively used in some other work. Even Students these days use the calculator for mathematical works as its effective and they can save their time. Many Education schools have also started allowing students to use calculators in classes and even in exams as well, it will only help. But the only disadvantage or drawback of it is it has mostly made us fully relied on calculator for even simple calculations that small calculations are these days done and performed on calculator only.

 

But Benefits of calculator are much more then the Drawbacks.  

Smart Phone is of Utmost importance to us It can help a Lot
February 11, 2017
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These days Mobile phones or the Smart phones are of utmost important to us. We require to be up to date with the environment and for that we need to have the up to date Gadget as well. Gone are days where we can have the simple mobile to make calls or even the pager when we like to text or message only. Today’s generation demands that you need to Electronic mail or E-mail  on the go, you have whatsapp and  other social media websites which business man these days use to interact quickly and share projects as well.  Time is money and no one wants to waste that money cause with time we can earn more and more of dollars, Rupees, Euros or even pounds.

 

With the use of Smartphone we can share on the go pictures and messages, we can convey quickly and efficiently.

And for that we need to select the Smartphone which provides us all the features we desire, so we need to spend a Sizeable amount to have a Good Quality Smart Phone. But it should have Screen size of at least 5 Inch and with Ram of At least 4 GB and Internal memory of not less than 32 GB. Also the Mobile Processor is most important. It should have the QUALCOMM snapdragon processor so that we can multitask properly and effectively and also it will help the phone to work effectively and well as per our desires.

Also I think we should also insure our Mobile as well because these days mobile Phones are very costly, so we should insure it, Also insurance is available at very cheap rates and it will only help us. We should also use a Good service providers Sim card so that we can enjoy the mobile services properly also we can use the Good Wi-Fi connection as well, cause to remain updated we need to have unlimited data connection as well and then Wi-Fi will be a Good and cheap choice.

 

Smart Phone is of Utmost importance to us It can help a Lot