Majority of the world’s longest bridges are found in China thanks to their population boom.
Bridges have been used since the beginning of the human race to cross waterways, valleys and shorten distances.
Majority of the world’s longest bridges are found in China » thanks to their population boom.
Below are some of the longest bridges in the world:
1. Danyang-Kunshan Grand Train Bridge, China (164,800 Meters)
The Danyang-Kunshan Grand Train Bridge is the longest bridge in the world as it covers a distance of 164,800 meters, which is around 102.4 miles.
It took 10,000 contractors four years to complete the construction of the Danyang-Kunshan, which was finished in 2010. The railway then began operation in 2011 and was inducted into the Guinness Book of World Records.
2. Changhua-Kaohsiung Viaduct, Taiwan (157,317 Meters)
The Changhua-Kaohsiung Viaduct is the second largest bridge in the world. The bridge comprises Taiwan’s high-speed railway system which runs along the west coast of the island. It opened for service in January 2007.
3. Tianjin Grand Bridge, China (113,700 Meters)
The Tianjin Grand Bridge is a 70.6-mile long expanse located in China used as part of the country’s railway system and crosses a viaduct.
It formerly held the Guinness record for the world’s second longest bridge.
4. Cangde Grand Bridge, China (115,900 Meters)
The Cangde Grand Bridge is also a part of the high-speed railway between Beijing and Shanghai. The bridge runs for a total of 115,900 meters, or 105 km. It was built with great strength in an effort to withstand earthquake pressure.
5. Weinan Weihe Grand Bridge, China (79,732 Meters)
The Weinan Weihe Grand is part of the Zhengzhou–Xi’an High-Speed Railway. It is the world’s fifth longest bridge and was completed in 2008. It held the title of the world’s largest bridge for a while. However, as newer and longer bridges came into existence, the Weinan Weihe Grand Bridge slipped to hold the position of the world’s fifth longest bridge.
Majority of the world’s longest bridges are found in China thanks to their population boom.
Michelin Reminds Us Of Some Basic Road Safety Facts Through Michelin Cares Campaign
How much do you actually know about tyre care?
Michelin is a French tyre manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France. It is the second largest tyre manufacturer in the world after Bridgestone and larger than both Goodyear and Continental.In addition to the Michelin brand, it also owns the BFGoodrich, Kleber, Tigar, Riken, Kormoran and Uniroyal (in North America) tyre brands. Michelin is also notable for its Red and Green travel guides, its roadmaps, the Michelin stars that the Red Guide awards to restaurants for their cooking, and for its company mascot Bibendum, colloquially known as the Michelin Man.
Michelin’s numerous inventions include the removable tyre, the pneurail (a tyre for trains made to run on rails) and the radial tyre.
Michelin manufactures tyres for space shuttles, aircraft, automobiles, heavy equipment, motorcycles, and bicycles. In 2012, the Group produced 166 million tyres at 69 facilities located in 18 countries.
In 1889 two brothers, Édouard Michelin and André Michelin, ran a rubber factory in Clermont-Ferrand, France. One day, a cyclist whose pneumatic tyre needed repair turned up at the factory. The tyre was glued to the rim, and it took over three hours to remove and repair the tyre, which then needed to be left overnight to dry. The next day, Édouard Michelin took the repaired bicycle into the factory yard to test. After only a few hundred metres, the tyre failed. Despite the setback, Édouard was enthusiastic about the pneumatic tyre, and he and his brother worked on creating their own version, one that did not need to be glued to the rim. Michelin was incorporated on 28 May 1889. In 1891 Michelin took out its first patent for a removable pneumatic tyre which was used by Charles Terront to win the world’s first long distance cycle race, the 1891 Paris–Brest–Paris.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Michelin operated large rubber plantations in Vietnam. Conditions at these plantations led to the famous labour movement Phu Rieng Do.
Michelin’s domination of the supply of rubber in French Indochina led to the Phu Rieng Do strike in 1930. This resulted in France investigating Michelin’s treatment of workers on its rubber plantations.
In 1934, Michelin introduced a tyre which, if punctured, would run on a special foam lining; a design now known as a run-flat tyre (self-supporting type).
Michelin developed and patented a key innovation in tyre history, the 1946 radial tyre, and successfully exploited this technological innovation to become one of the worlds leading tyre manufacturers. The radial was initially marketed as the “X” tyre. It was developed with the front-wheel-drive Citroën Traction Avant and Citroën 2CV in mind. Michelin had bought the then-bankrupt Citroën in the 1930s. Because of its superiority in handling and fuel economy, use of this tyre quickly spread throughout Europe and Asia. In the U.S., the outdated bias-ply tyre persisted, with market share of 87% in 1967.
In 1968, Michelin opened its first North American sales office, and was able to grow that market for its products rapidly; by 1989 the company had 10% market share for OEM tyres purchased by American automobile makers.
Also in 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of the radial construction, setting off a rapid decline in Michelin’s competitor technology. In the U.S., the radial tyre now has a market share of 100%.
In addition to the private label and replacement tyre market, Michelin scored an early OEM tyre win in North America, when it received the contract for the 1970 Lincoln Continental Mark III, the first American car with radial tyres fitted as standard.
In 1989, Michelin acquired the recently merged tyre and rubber manufacturing divisions of the American firms B.F. Goodrich Company (founded in 1870) and Uniroyal, Inc. (founded in 1892 as the United States Rubber Company). Uniroyal Australia had already been bought by Bridgestone in 1980. This purchase included the Norwood, North Carolina manufacturing plant which supplied tyres to the U.S. Space Shuttle Program.
Michelin also controls 90% of Taurus Tyre in Hungary, as well as Kormoran, a Polish brand.
As of 1 September 2008, Michelin is again the world’s largest tyre manufacturer after spending two years as number two behind Bridgestone. Michelin produces tyres in France, Poland, Spain, Germany, the USA, the UK, Canada, Brazil, Thailand, Japan, Italy and several other countries. On 15 January 2010, Michelin announced the closing of its Ota, Japan plant, which employs 380 workers and makes the Michelin X-Ice tyre. Production of the X-Ice will be moved to Europe, North America, and elsewhere in Asia.
Link : http://ijul2000.sharethisstory.net/my-1259336-11610
Road accident is a global tragedy with the ever-
rising trend. Almost every day, we hear the news
of the accident on the television, radio and internet.
Most people continue to negligent and ignore the
danger involved in their driving and so, these
accidents happen. This essay will discuss all the
possible causes and solution of the road accidents.
To begin with, carelessness is one of the major
cause of the road accident in our planet. Under
carelessness, we have various examples, which
include, using the mobile phone while the vehicle
in moving, break the traffic rules and entering from
the side road into the path of the vehicle.
Furthermore, when inexperience and untrained
drivers and those with blur eyesight that drive at
night is one of the major cause of escalating
accident rate in our world. In addition, most of the
people drive after drinking alcohol, which may lead
to dangerous road accident.
Issue that need to be considered in order to curb
accidents are policies made by government to
make sure that road are well constructed and
maintained. In addition, enforcement of appropriate
legislation to make sure that all commercial and
private drivers should be well trained before they
attain driving licence to drive on the street.
Furthermore, passenger should also be vigilant
enough to check drivers when they are over
speeding and driving under the influence of
alcohol. Police can play the pivotal role to
decrease the ratio of the accidents.
To sum up, there are many causes of the road
accidents in our world, with good strategies and
with the participation of the both government and
individual; we can easily overcome with this
potential problem.causes of road accident are as following:
1. Over speeding: Some road users have
formed the habit of over speeding each
time they are on the road. Some believe
in their ability to maneuver any difficult
situation on the road, while others
believe in their vehicles ability to riggle
out of any danger. But these perceptions
are not always correct. According to the
FRSC, 50% of road crashes in Nigeria are
due to over speeding. Motorists should
therefore know that over speeding kills.
2. Bad roads: The failure of successive
governments in Nigeria to fix the death
traps called roads in Nigeria has no
doubt caused so much pain to temporal
and frequent road users. The bad roads
across the nation are nothing to write
home about. Government at all levels
must be alive to their responsibilities to
make sure all roads in Nigeria are safe
and motorable. While road users should
also exercise caution when driving in
danger spots like potholes ridden
portions, dangerous bends, roads
threatened by erosion, roads enveloped
with darkness at nights e.t.c
3. Over loading: This offence is mostly
committed by commercial vehicles and
some haulage companies. Although some
private road users are also known to
over load their vehicles too such that it
endangers their lives because it makes
the driver of the vehicle uncomfortable,
puts the vehicle in distress and also
affects other road users.
4. Bad weather: Many road accidents were
due to unfavourable weather conditions
either ignored by the driver or unknown
to him/her. It is important for road users
to check the weather conditions of their
routes through the Nigerian
Meteorological Agency to be sure that
their intended routes and destination are
weather friendly. Driving in unfriendly
weather conditions can hamper smooth
driving and can cause damage.
5. Poor vehicle maintenance: Road users
must ensure that their vehicles are in
good condition before they hit the road.
This way, road crashes caused by badly
managed vehicles are avoided to the
barest minimum. All parts of the vehicle
must be checked and re-checked to
ensure the vehicle is in perfect condition
before embarking on any journey,
6. Bad driving habits: It is important for
road users to respect other road users be
ensuring their driving is not only for
their own safety, but for others. Adhering
to all traffic rules and regulations is also
very important for safe driving.
Indeed, road users’ behaviour has to
change dramatically. Ignorance, lack of
information and neglect on road safety in
Nigeria has now made many preventable
road carnages appear normal.
7. Fatigue: This is mostly common among
commercial drivers and drivers of Very
Important Personalities (VIPs) and
government officials. These drivers are
usually over worked and hardly observe
rest. It is important for principals of such
drivers to ensure that they observe
maximum rest always, so that they can
be refreshed and geared up for the next
Relocation of travelers and cargo are the most common uses of transport. However, other uses exist, such as the strategic and tactical relocation of armed forces during warfare, or the civilian mobility construction or emergency equipment.
Passenger transport, or travel, is divided into public and private transport. Public transport is scheduled services on fixed routes, while private is vehicles that provide ad hoc services at the riders desire. The latter offers better flexibility, but has lower capacity, and a higher environmental impact. Travel may be as part of daily commuting, for business, leisure or migration.
Short-haul transport is dominated by the automobile and mass transit. The latter consists of buses in rural and small cities, supplemented with commuter rail, trams and rapid transit in larger cities. Long-haul transport involves the use of the automobile, trains, coaches and aircraft, the last of which have become predominantly used for the longest, including intercontinental, travel. Intermodal passenger transport is where a journey is performed through the use of several modes of transport; since all human transport normally starts and ends with walking, all passenger transport can be considered intermodal. Public transport may also involve the intermediate change of vehicle, within or across modes, at a transport hub, such as a bus or railway station.
Taxis and buses can be found on both ends of the public transport spectrum. Buses are the cheaper mode of transport but are not necessarily flexible, and taxis are very flexible but more expensive. In the middle is demand-responsive transport, offering flexibility whilst remaining affordable.
International travel may be restricted for some individuals due to legislation and visa requirements.
Main article: Shipping
Freight transport, or shipping, is a key in the value chain in manufacturing. With increased specialization and globalization, production is being located further away from consumption, rapidly increasing the demand for transport. Transportation creates place utility by moving the goods from the place of production to the place of consumption. While all modes of transport are used for cargo transport, there is high differentiation between the nature of the cargo transport, in which mode is chosen. Logistics refers to the entire process of transferring products from producer to consumer, including storage, transport, transshipment, warehousing, material-handling and packaging, with associated exchange of information. Incoterm deals with the handling of payment and responsibility of risk during transport.
Containerization, with the standardization of ISO containers on all vehicles and at all ports, has revolutionized international and domestic trade, offering huge reduction in transshipment costs. Traditionally, all cargo had to be manually loaded and unloaded into the haul of any ship or car; containerization allows for automated handling and transfer between modes, and the standardized sizes allow for gains in economy of scale in vehicle operation. This has been one of the key driving factors in international trade and globalization since the 1950s.
Bulk transport is common with cargo that can be handled roughly without deterioration; typical examples are ore, coal, cereals and petroleum. Because of the uniformity of the product, mechanical handling can allow enormous quantities to be handled quickly and efficiently. The low value of the cargo combined with high volume also means that economies of scale become essential in transport, and gigantic ships and whole trains are commonly used to transport bulk. Liquid products with sufficient volume may also be transported by pipeline.
Air freight has become more common for products of high value; while less than one percent of world transport by volume is by airline, it amounts to forty percent of the value. Time has become especially important in regards to principles such as postponement and just-in-time within the value chain, resulting in a high willingness to pay for quick delivery of key components or items of high value-to-weight ratio. In addition to mail, common items sent by air include electronics and fashion clothing.
Humans’ first means of transport involved walking, running and swimming. The domestication of animals introduced a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing the hauling of heavier loads, or humans riding animals for greater speed and duration. Inventions such as the wheel and the sled helped make animal transport more efficient through the introduction of vehicles. Water transport, including rowed and sailed vessels, dates back to time immemorial, and was the only efficient way to transport large quantities or over large distances prior to the Industrial Revolution.
The first forms of road transport involved animals, such as horses (domesticated in the 4th or 3rd millennium BCE), oxen (from about 8000 BCE) or humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that often followed game trails. Many early civilizations, including Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilization, constructed paved roads. In classical antiquity, the Persian and Roman empires built stone-paved roads to allow armies to travel quickly. Deep roadbeds of crushed stone underneath kept such roads dry. The medieval Caliphate later built tar-paved roads. The first watercraft were canoes cut out from tree trunks. Early water transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, or a combination of the two. The importance of water has led to most cities that grew up as sites for trading being located on rivers or on the sea-shore, often at the intersection of two bodies of water. Until the Industrial Revolution, transport remained slow and costly, and production and consumption gravitated as close to each other as feasible.
The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century saw a number of inventions fundamentally change transport. With telegraphy, communication became instant and independent of the transport of physical objects. The invention of the steam engine, closely followed by its application in rail transport, made land transport independent of human or animal muscles. Both speed and capacity increased rapidly, allowing specialization through manufacturing being located independently of natural resources. The 19th century also saw the development of the steam ship, which sped up global transport.
With the development of the combustion engine and the automobile around 1900, road transport became more competitive again, and mechanical private transport originated. The first “modern” highways were constructed during the 19th century with macadam. Later, tarmac and concrete became the dominant paving materials. In 1903 the Wright brothers demonstrated the first successful controllable airplane, and after World War I (1914-1918)aircraft became a fast way to transport people and express goods over long distances.
After World War II (1939-1945) the automobile and airlines took higher shares of transport, reducing rail and water to freight and short-haul passenger services. Scientific spaceflight began in the 1950s, with rapid growth until the 1970s, when interest dwindled. In the 1950s the introduction of containerization gave massive efficiency gains in freight transport, fostering globalization. International air travel became much more accessible in the 1960s with the commercialization of the jet engine. Along with the growth in automobiles and motorways, rail and water transport declined in relative importance. After the introduction of the Shinkansen in Japan in 1964, high-speed rail in Asia and Europe started attracting passengers on long-haul routes away from airlines.
Early in U.S. history,[when?] private joint-stock corporations owned most aqueducts, bridges, canals, railroads, roads, and tunnels. Most such transportation infrastructure came under government control in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in the nationalization of inter-city passenger rail-service with the establishment of Amtrak. Recently,[when?] however, a movement to privatize roads and other infrastructure has gained some[quantify] ground and adherents.
Transport is a key necessity for specialization—allowing production and consumption of products to occur at different locations. Transport has throughout history been a spur to expansion; better transport allows more trade and a greater spread of people. Economic growth has always been dependent on increasing the capacity and rationality of transport. But the infrastructure and operation of transport has a great impact on the land and is the largest drainer of energy, making transport sustainability a major issue.
Due to the way modern cities and communities are planned and operated, a physical distinction between home and work is usually created, forcing people to transport themselves to places of work, study, or leisure, as well as to temporarily relocate for other daily activities. Passenger transport is also the essence of tourism, a major part of recreational transport. Commerce requires the transport of people to conduct business, either to allow face-to-face communication for important decisions or to move specialists from their regular place of work to sites where they are needed.
Main article: Transport planning
Transport planning allows for high utilization and less impact regarding new infrastructure. Using models of transport forecasting, planners are able to predict future transport patterns. On the operative level, logistics allows owners of cargo to plan transport as part of the supply chain. Transport as a field is also studied through transport economics, a component for the creation of regulation policy by authorities. Transport engineering, a sub-discipline of civil engineering, must take into account trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice and route assignment, while the operative level is handled through traffic engineering.
Because of the negative impacts incurred, transport often becomes the subject of controversy related to choice of mode, as well as increased capacity. Automotive transport can be seen as a tragedy of the commons, where the flexibility and comfort for the individual deteriorate the natural and urban environment for all. Density of development depends on mode of transport, with public transport allowing for better spatial utilization. Good land use keeps common activities close to people’s homes and places higher-density development closer to transport lines and hubs, to minimize the need for transport. There are economies of agglomeration. Beyond transportation some land uses are more efficient when clustered. Transportation facilities consume land, and in cities, pavement (devoted to streets and parking) can easily exceed 20 percent of the total land use. An efficient transport system can reduce land waste.
Too much infrastructure and too much smoothing for maximum vehicle throughput means that in many cities there is too much traffic and many—if not all—of the negative impacts that come with it. It is only in recent years that traditional practices have started to be questioned in many places, and as a result of new types of analysis which bring in a much broader range of skills than those traditionally relied on—spanning such areas as environmental impact analysis, public health, sociologists as well as economists—the viability of the old mobility solutions is increasingly being questioned.
Transport is a major use of energy and burns most of the world’s petroleum. This creates air pollution, including nitrous oxides and particulates, and is a significant contributor to global warming through emission of carbon dioxide, for which transport is the fastest-growing emission sector. By subsector, road transport is the largest contributor to global warming. Environmental regulations in developed countries have reduced individual vehicles’ emissions; however, this has been offset by increases in the numbers of vehicles and in the use of each vehicle. Some pathways to reduce the carbon emissions of road vehicles considerably have been studied. Energy use and emissions vary largely between modes, causing environmentalists to call for a transition from air and road to rail and human-powered transport, as well as increased transport electrification and energy efficiency.
Other environmental impacts of transport systems include traffic congestion and automobile-oriented urban sprawl, which can consume natural habitat and agricultural lands. By reducing transportation emissions globally, it is predicted that there will be significant positive effects on Earth’s air quality, acid rain, smog and climate change.
Transport or transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations.
Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations including roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals, refueling depots (including fueling docks and fuel stations) and seaports. Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance.
Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, people, helicopters, watercraft, spacecraft and aircraft.
Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose including financing, legalities and policies. In the transport industry, operations and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode.
Passenger transport may be public, where operators provide scheduled services, or private. Freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport plays an important part in economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land. While it is heavily subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow and restrain urban sprawl.
A mode of transport is a solution that makes use of a particular type of vehicle, infrastructure and operation. The transport of a person or of cargo may involve one mode or several of the modes, with the latter case being called intermodal or multimodal transport. Each mode has its own advantages and disadvantages, and will be chosen for a trip on the basis of cost, capability, and route.
Human powered transport, a form of sustainable transportation, is the transport of people and/or goods using human muscle-power, in the form of walking, running and swimming. Modern technology has allowed machines to enhance human power. Human-powered transport remains popular for reasons of cost-saving, leisure, physical exercise, and environmentalism; it is sometimes the only type available, especially in underdeveloped or inaccessible regions.
Although humans are able to walk without infrastructure, the transport can be enhanced through the use of roads, especially when using the human power with vehicles, such as bicycles and inline skates. Human-powered vehicles have also been developed for difficult environments, such as snow and water, by watercraft rowing and skiing; even the air can be entered with human-powered aircraft.
Main article: Animal-powered transport
Animal-powered transport is the use of working animals for the movement of people and commodities. Humans may ride some of the animals directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, alone or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles.
A fixed-wing aircraft, commonly called airplane, is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the air in relation to the wings is used to generate lift. The term is used to distinguish this from rotary-wing aircraft, where the movement of the lift surfaces relative to the air generates lift. A gyroplane is both fixed-wing and rotary-wing. Fixed-wing aircraft range from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners and military cargo aircraft.
Two things necessary for aircraft are air flow over the wings for lift and an area for landing. The majority of aircraft also need an airport with the infrastructure to receive maintenance, restocking, refueling and for the loading and unloading of crew, cargo and passengers. While the vast majority of aircraft land and take off on land, some are capable of take off and landing on ice, snow and calm water.
The aircraft is the second fastest method of transport, after the rocket. Commercial jets can reach up to 955 kilometres per hour (593 mph), single-engine aircraft 555 kilometres per hour (345 mph). Aviation is able to quickly transport people and limited amounts of cargo over longer distances, but incur high costs and energy use; for short distances or in inaccessible places helicopters can be used. As of April 28, 2009 The Guardian article notes that, “the WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any time.”
Rail transport is where a train runs along a set of two parallel steel rails, known as a railway or railroad. The rails are anchored perpendicular to ties (or sleepers) of timber, concrete or steel, to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge. The rails and perpendicular beams are placed on a foundation made of concrete, or compressed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast. Alternative methods include monorail and maglev.
A train consists of one or more connected vehicles that operate on the rails. Propulsion is commonly provided by a locomotive, that hauls a series of unpowered cars, that can carry passengers or freight. The locomotive can be powered by steam, diesel or by electricity supplied by trackside systems. Alternatively, some or all the cars can be powered, known as a multiple unit. Also, a train can be powered by horses, cables, gravity, pneumatics and gas turbines. Railed vehicles move with much less friction than rubber tires on paved roads, making trains more energy efficient, though not as efficient as ships.
Intercity trains are long-haul services connecting cities; modern high-speed rail is capable of speeds up to 350 km/h (220 mph), but this requires specially built track. Regional and commuter trains feed cities from suburbs and surrounding areas, while intra-urban transport is performed by high-capacity tramways and rapid transits, often making up the backbone of a city’s public transport. Freight trains traditionally used box cars, requiring manual loading and unloading of the cargo. Since the 1960s, container trains have become the dominant solution for general freight, while large quantities of bulk are transported by dedicated trains.
A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel; though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance. In urban areas, roads may pass through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route.
The most common road vehicle is the automobile; a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. Other users of roads include buses, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles and pedestrians. As of 2010, there were 1.015 billion automobiles worldwide. Road transport offers a complete freedom to road users to transfer the vehicle from one lane to the other and from one road to another according to the need and convenience. This flexibility of changes in location, direction, speed, and timings of travel is not available to other modes of transport. It is possible to provide door to door service only by road transport.
Automobiles provide high flexibility with low capacity, but require high energy and area use, and are the main source of noise and air pollution in cities; buses allow for more efficient travel at the cost of reduced flexibility. Road transport by truck is often the initial and final stage of freight transport.
Water transport is movement by means of a watercraft—such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat—over a body of water, such as a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. The need for buoyancy is common to watercraft, making the hull a dominant aspect of its construction, maintenance and appearance.
In the 19th century the first steam ships were developed, using a steam engine to drive a paddle wheel or propeller to move the ship. The steam was produced in a boiler using wood or coal and fed through a steam external combustion engine. Now most ships have an internal combustion engine using a slightly refined type of petroleum called bunker fuel. Some ships, such as submarines, use nuclear power to produce the steam. Recreational or educational craft still use wind power, while some smaller craft use internal combustion engines to drive one or more propellers, or in the case of jet boats, an inboard water jet. In shallow draft areas, hovercraft are propelled by large pusher-prop fans. (See Marine propulsion.)
Although slow, modern sea transport is a highly efficient method of transporting large quantities of goods. Commercial vessels, nearly 35,000 in number, carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in 2007. Transport by water is significantly less costly than air transport for transcontinental shipping; short sea shipping and ferries remain viable in coastal areas.
Pipeline transport sends goods through a pipe; most commonly liquid and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes can also send solid capsules using compressed air. For liquids/gases, any chemically stable liquid or gas can be sent through a pipeline. Short-distance systems exist for sewage, slurry, water and beer, while long-distance networks are used for petroleum and natural gas.
Cable transport is a broad mode where vehicles are pulled by cables instead of an internal power source. It is most commonly used at steep gradient. Typical solutions include aerial tramway, elevators, escalator and ski lifts; some of these are also categorized as conveyor transport.
Spaceflight is transport out of Earth’s atmosphere into outer space by means of a spacecraft. While large amounts of research have gone into technology, it is rarely used except to put satellites into orbit, and conduct scientific experiments. However, man has landed on the moon, and probes have been sent to all the planets of the Solar System.
Suborbital spaceflight is the fastest of the existing and planned transport systems from a place on Earth to a distant other place on Earth. Faster transport could be achieved through part of a low Earth orbit, or following that trajectory even faster using the propulsion of the rocket to steer it.
Infrastructure is the fixed installations that allow a vehicle to operate. It consists of a way, a terminal and facilities for parking and maintenance. For rail, pipeline, road and cable transport, the entire way the vehicle travels must be built up. Air and water craft are able to avoid this, since the airway and seaway do not need to be built up. However, they require fixed infrastructure at terminals.
Terminals such as airports, ports and stations, are locations where passengers and freight can be transferred from one vehicle or mode to another. For passenger transport, terminals are integrating different modes to allow riders to interchange to take advantage of each mode’s advantages. For instance, airport rail links connect airports to the city centers and suburbs. The terminals for automobiles are parking lots, while buses and coaches can operate from simple stops. For freight, terminals act as transshipment points, though some cargo is transported directly from the point of production to the point of use.
The financing of infrastructure can either be public or private. Transport is often a natural monopoly and a necessity for the public; roads, and in some countries railways and airports are funded through taxation. New infrastructure projects can have high cost, and are often financed through debt. Many infrastructure owners therefore impose usage fees, such as landing fees at airports, or toll plazas on roads. Independent of this, authorities may impose taxes on the purchase or use of vehicles. Because of poor forecasting and overestimation of passenger numbers by planners, there is frequently a benefits shortfall for transport infrastructure projects.
Main article: Vehicle
A Fiat Uno in 2008
A vehicle is a non-living device that is used to move people and goods. Unlike the infrastructure, the vehicle moves along with the cargo and riders. Unless being pulled/pushed by a cable or muscle-power, the vehicle must provide its own propulsion; this is most commonly done through a steam engine, combustion engine, electric motor, a jet engine or a rocket, though other means of propulsion also exist. Vehicles also need a system of converting the energy into movement; this is most commonly done through wheels, propellers and pressure.
Vehicles are most commonly staffed by a driver. However, some systems, such as people movers and some rapid transits, are fully automated. For passenger transport, the vehicle must have a compartment, seat, or platform for the passengers. Simple vehicles, such as automobiles, bicycles or simple aircraft, may have one of the passengers as a driver.
Incheon International Airport, South Korea
Private transport is only subject to the owner of the vehicle, who operates the vehicle themselves. For public transport and freight transport, operations are done through private enterprise or by governments. The infrastructure and vehicles may be owned and operated by the same company, or they may be operated by different entities. Traditionally, many countries have had a national airline and national railway. Since the 1980s, many of these have been privatized. International shipping remains a highly competitive industry with little regulation, but ports can be public owned.
What the heck about the Anti-Distracted Driving Act or ADDA. Isn’t it that rosary and faith should save us from accident and will not lead us to it? But not in the point of view of Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB)—the Philippine’s transportation regulatory department—because they are making ban on rosary to be put in front of the driver.
In the Philippines, the rosary and other religious icons are customary to be placed in front of the car particularly in the center mirror or rearview where it is hanging. The drivers believed that they are protected from any harm and accidents because the faith will save them from any accidents.
The ADDA now causing much confusion among the drivers. The law just recently signed into law by President Rodrigo Duterte to lessen the road accidents because of distractions. The distraction was supposed to concentrate on using mobile phones, gadgets and other electronic devices for geo-map and dashcam. These devices may distract the drivers especially when making calling, texting and searching locations that may lead to vehicular accidents.
But there are some confusion now. As some millennials said it’s overacting or OA now. And in this case it’s prohibiting the hanging of rosary and religious icons inside the car.
Because of these confusing some of the lawmakers like senators are looking for possible temporary suspension of implementation to review the controversial implementing and regulations of ADDA.
I second the thought that rosaries and other religious items cannot cause accidents in the road because it’s the mechanical trouble and driver’s inattentiveness and ignorance including those abusive drivers that can cause the road accidents.
Many people are in favor of the implementation because there are many things that are affected including the devices that may help the drivers—for example is the geo-map that help for navigational purposes of location in one place or the dashcam that can help to resolve the cause of road accidents.
It’s overacting and excessive. The LTFRB should have stick to the original purpose, banning the calling and texting in mobile phones.###
The narrow spaces between a car’s air conditioning vents can be difficult to clean using a cloth. However, inexpensive foam paintbrushes make the job quick and easy. Clean your A/C vents once every month or two, or more often if you notice they become dusty. If you smell a moldy odor when you turn your A/C on, clean your vent system using a disinfectant spray cleaner. To prevent mold growth, periodically dry out your vent system by blowing your fan on max with the A/C off, and be sure to clear away any debris that collects around the exterior air intakes.
Method One of Three:
Cleaning Your Vents Using a Foam Paintbrush
Purchase a set of foam paintbrushes. Foam paintbrushes are perfect for getting deep into the spaces between your air conditioner vents’ slats. They’re inexpensive and available at your nearest home improvement, craft, or dollar store. You could also purchase a set online.
Create a homemade cleaning solution. Combine equal parts of warm water and white vinegar. Try using lemon-scented cleaning vinegar if the smell bothers you. If you can’t find lemon-scented vinegar, add a teaspoon of lemon juice to your cleaning solution.
Insert the foam brush between each vent slat. Dab a foam brush in your cleaning solution and press it between your vent slats to remove dust and grime. Rinse your brush as needed to remove the debris it accumulates, or simply use another brush. Finish by wiping the vents down with a dry brush if you’ve left any excess cleaning solution.
Rinse and dry used brushes. Wash your used brushes with warm water and a dab of dish detergent. Squeeze them out and rinse well to remove excess soap. Let them dry, place them in a plastic baggie, and store them in your glove compartment for quick use.
Was this method helpful?
Cleaning Your Vents Using a Foam Paintbrush
Method Two of Three:
Cleaning the A/C Vent System
Replace your car’s cabin air filter. Most newer cars have an easily replaceable air filter that you can access from inside the cabin. You should consult your vehicle’s manual for specific instructions about how to remove and replace it.
In many newer models, including Hondas and Toyotas, you’ll start by lowering the glove compartment by unfixing the tabs that keep it in place. You might have to remove screws that hold a panel in place just below the glove compartment. On GM sedans, the filter is located in a casing beneath the dashboard on the driver’s side.
After lowering the glove compartment or removing the panel just beneath it, locate the clip that secures the air filter cover. Pinch the clip to release and remove the cover.
Pull the old filter straight out of its housing and replace it with a new one.
You should change your car’s cabin air filter once a year. Consider changing it more frequently if you live in a dense urban area or in an environment with lots of dust.
Clear off and spray the air intake vents. The air intakes are on the exterior of the car around the windshield cowling. Brush away dead leaves or any other accumulated debris using a broom or handheld dust brush. Spray inside the vents with a sanitizing enzymatic cleaner.
Enzymatic disinfectants will help kill mold or fungi growing in your vent system, while air fresheners will just act as a perfume. Go for a cleaner labeled “mold and mildew fighting,” “disinfectant” or “antibacterial,” as these sprays will contain an enzyme.
Spray all vents with disinfectant cleaner. Close your car doors and windows. Make sure the car is off and keys are out of the ignition. Spray liberally inside all of your car’s interior vents with the enzymatic cleaner.
Consult your car’s manual to make sure you’ve located all of the A/C vents.
Start the engine and set the air conditioner to max. After you’ve sprayed all of your vents, start your car’s engine. Set both the air conditioner and fan blower to max. After about ten minutes, turn your A/C off, open all the car doors, and let the fan blow for another five minutes.
Have your car serviced. If the smell persists, you might need to have your A/C serviced. For persistent moldy smell, consult your mechanic or dealership about replacing your evaporator core. Other smells, like gas or antifreeze, could indicate system leaks.
Depending on if any parts need to be flushed or replaced, the cost could be between $300 and $2000 (US).
Turn the air conditioner off before reaching your destination. Make it a habit to turn your air conditioner off while letting the fan blow a few minutes before you reach any destination. Try to do this about three to five minutes before turning off your engine. Letting the fan blow a few minutes after turning off the A/C will help dry your vent system, preventing mold growth.
Keep the air intakes clear of leaves and other debris. Never let anything collect around your A/C intakes. Brush away debris weekly, or more often if necessary. Leaves and other debris that accumulates around the windshield cowling are a leading cause of mold growth in the A/C vent system.
Run the blower without the air conditioner on periodically. Every two or three months, choose a warm, dry day to clear out your A/C vents using the fan blower. Open all the car doors, make sure the A/C is off, and turn the blower on max. Regularly drying out your vent systems using this technique will prevent future mold growth.
If your car smells bad or different lately, it may mean that it’s time to clean your air vents. Because parts of these vents aren’t easy to access, it’s easy to forget about cleaning them. To keep your vehicle smelling fresh, follow these steps.
Step 1 – Cleaning the Vent
To clean the front of the vents, use a cotton swab that’s been soaked in scent-free interior car cleaner. While you can use a cleaner that’s scented, keep in mind that you will smell the scent for a while in your car until it’s worked out of the vents. Make sure you get into all of the corners and crevices.
Don’t forget to clean your automobile’s lower air vents, too, that are used to warm or cool your legs. These are not immediately visible, and they can be found under the dash.
Step 2 – Getting Rid of the Smell
Though cleaning the outside of the vents will ease any bad car smells, you may need to go farther into the vents to fully eradicate musty and stale scents.
Change the Cabin Air Filter
To begin, change the cabin air filter in the engine. This filters performs a function similar to what a furnace air filter does. You should change the filter regularly to keep your car smelling fresh.
Its location and the type of filter you will need depends on the make and model of your vehicle. You can find this information in your car’s service manual.
Clean the Cabin Air Filter
Alternatively, you can spray the filter with disinfectant. This will kill the germs within the filter, improving the smell. However, it might make your vehicle smell like disinfectant for a while.
Step 3 – Clean the Drain
Finally, you should clean your air conditioner’s drain. In most cars, the drain can be found in the corners next to the fenders and will consist of rubber tubing that’s usually black.
Squeeze the tubing to ease out anything that’s accumulated inside. After doing this, straighten a wire hanger, and run it up the tube to remove the last of the debris.
When these steps are completed together, they will vastly improve your car’s smell coming from the air vents. If your vehicle still smells, trying getting rid of bad car smells with other methods like cleaning the carpets.
Top 10 Causes of Car Accidents
Every year auto accidents results in hundreds of
thousands of injuries and nearly 35,000 deaths in
the United States. In facts traffic collisions are
the leading cause of preventable deaths in our
country. Thus it is important to have an
understanding as to the leading factors
contributing to car accidents. A list of the leading
causes of traffic accidents in provided below.
1. Speeding While Driving and Reckless Driving:
Failing to follow the speed limit is the most
common cause of traffic accidents in the United
2. Use of Mobile Phone – Texting While Driving:
The proliferation of mobile phone use has
resulted an increased level of danger on our
roads. In response national and state legislatures
have passed strict anti texting laws; while the
judicial system has begun to charge individuals
who’s texting while driving resulted in deaths,
3. Other forms of Distracted Driving – There are
numerous types of distracted driving. Some of
the most common types of distractions resulting
in high incidences of traffic accidents include,
eating, smoking, listening to loud music or
changing the dial, reaching for objects in the
vehicle, and looking or talking with other
passengers in the vehicle.
4. Driver Fatigue – Falling Asleep in the Wheel –
According to recently published data driver
fatigue is the cause of 2.5-3.0 percent of all
roadway related fatalities in the United States.
Individual that have a history of falling asleep at
the wheel may be prosecuted for a criminal
5. Drunk Driving – and Driving While Under the
Influence of a Narcotic Substance: According to
studies driving while under the influence of
alcohol results in a 900% increase in the
probability of an auto accident.
6. Rubber-necking – Rubbernecking is another
type of distracted driving and takes place when
drivers look other things on the road not linked to
their driving. Examples include watching other
accidents, looking at sunsets, and nice views.
7. Defective Automobile and Automobile Parts –
Common auto defects that can cause severe
injuries to occupants include, tire defects,
defective design of Sport Inutility Vehicles
resulted in vehicles being more prone to
rollovers, seatbelt defects and defective airbags.
8. Defects on Roadway Construction – The
improper design of roadways result in hundreds
of auto accident fatalities each year. Liable
parties can include CALTRANS and construction
contractors for improper installment of traffic
lights and roadway signals.
9. Poor Weather Conditions – Example of
weather condition posing the greatest dangers to
motorists on the road includes, icy roads, high
winds, and rain after a prolonged drought
resultign in oily surfaces.
10. Improper Coning off of Construction Zones –
Road work is needed to maintain and built the
countries transportation infrastructure. However
in many cases road construction crews fail to
safely cordon off construction zones resulting in
an increased probability of auto accidents.
Uber taxi worst service
This review about Uber taxi after I tried them for a month and tried them maybe 20 times, very rarely you find a taxi in that company who knows your area and where to go to, not sure if they have GPS or they are stranger to the city that is why they do not know the place or what?
I used evening shifts and lives out side the city and I did not like aht my brother has to stay awake let to pick me up, so a friends told me about uber service in delhi and I said why not. I downloaded the app and start using it, called a cab from the hospital where used to work to the hotel. after long time and i see him on the appl that he stops for long time not moving at all, though no crowed, finaly after 20 minutes he came. I went in and reached and after more 20 minutes we arrived at a mall and the driver said that this is the place I ordered to reach.
the driver had no idea how to drive around the two blocks to reach the hotel. so until he try here and there we reached the hotel and had to pay :20 dollars
averagely It took the drivers 50 minutes taxi to arrive. though the hospital is 10 minutes far away & they dont know the streets nor the distance, when you complain on the phone; no apology, and hang up the phone
I do not advice anyone to use uber taxi service at least not in delhi
the rating they get online is 6/10, not sure why the six, I stopped using them, I take any taxi in the street but not them no more uber, unless you want to waste your time and money and stand in the hot weather waiting for the taxi to come to you and the problem is that when they are lost they stop and wait for you to call them to tell him where are you
So today started off quite well, except for my 2-year-old getting up at 6am, I managed to get him back off to sleep until 7.30am and then we got up. We had a pleasant Sunday Morning, played some games, watched some films. Well some bits of some films, we watched half of Inside Out, some of Cars and some of the Lion King. He is 2 he gets bored easily. Then he went for his nap and slept which hardly ever happens anymore.
So, I got him up from his nap, gave him some lunch and we decided to go out to the garden to play on his slide as it was Sunny. I thought I would hoover the car while he played. It may sound strange that I can hover my car while in the garden but my house is a strange layout and my Garage is between the house and the Garden.
What might also sound strange is that my next-door neighbour was in my garden doing some gardening, but she is my landlord’s mum and the garden used to be hers. She loves gardening and we don’t have the time to do it so she keeps it tidy when she wants to.
Anyway, I didn’t want to leave my son in the garden with my neighbour as I didn’t want her to think I was expecting her to watch him, as I could see him from the car but I know she would worry. So, I stayed in the garden with them for half an hour or so and played ball and all the slide.
Then he started helping her with the gardening, just picking up the leaves and putting them in the bucket, that sort of thing. While he did that I managed to hover some of the car. Then my neighbour decided it would be fun to get my son to help wash the car. Well I wasn’t even planning to wash the car but it did need doing so I agreed.
He did a very good job for a 2-year-old and left the wheels alone as instructed. He got bored quick so it was a struggle to finish and watch him but we managed.
I then thought I should top up the windscreen wash as it had been empty for too long and with the weather warming up the windows get dirty quite quickly.
I opened the bonnet and looked around for the washer fluid compartment, while trying to keep an eye on my son. My neighbour looked as well but we couldn’t see anywhere obvious where it went. There was a compartment with a picture of steam and a hand and I thought well steam comes from water maybe it’s there. Thinking straight now that makes no sense as there is no reason the windscreen washers would get hot, but being distracted by a 2-year-old does funny things to your head.
So, I went ahead and poured it in, it was at this exact moment that my neighbour found the right compartment. We both panicked a bit worrying that I may have put it in the oil compartment but we followed the pipes and we’re sure it was the radiator.
I did a bit of searching around online and I shouldn’t have done any damage but I guess I won’t know until I drive it. I will try and top it up with neat coolant as soon as I can to elevate any potential damage I may have done.
I am going to drive it on the nursery and work run tomorrow so fingers crossed I don’t break down as I live in the middle of nowhere so that would be disastrous.
Wish me luck.
P.S The image is of the bottle ca I removed to add the water, that is not where the water is meant to go. That is where the coolant is meant to go.