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One of the unsolved mysteries about the Atlantic : TRUE OR MYTH?

They mention that Atlantis was as big as a continent !!

A great archaeological discovery at the bottom of Lake Van in Turkey again lightens the scenarios for the lost Atlantis.

Platonas say it was an island located on the seabed of Gibraltar The existence of the hidden city in the Antarctic “confirmed” according to the absurd theory of an ancient map, known as the Piri Reis map, which allegedly written in 1513 AD

The letter to Christians explains how Atlantis was created and because it was circular like a ring, with a sea and a small island in the middle (just like the ancient Thira just before the big blast). “When the gods shared the earth, Neptune received Atlantis and handed it to the sons of the demigods to cultivate it. One of them married Lefkipi and they made Kleito, whom Poseidon fell in love with, and he wanted to make her forever. Then he chose a place and protected it with circular zones of fertile land and sea to ensure her heavenly life (as if we were seeing Crete along with the ancient Kallisti). ”

The name Atlantis is probably derived from the mythical giant Atlanta, which held the whole earth and the sky on its shoulders. According to the discoveries of American geologists Haiken and McKoy, made in Santorini in 1990, they all refer to the famous fresco found in the western building of Akrotiri. Here we see a beach of ancient Thira with a wealthy life on a central island that was drenched by the sea around. Just as he described Plato the lost Atlantis. And this islet is claimed to have disappeared from a major explosion that caused terrible earthquakes and smoke. According to Plato, the fumes were projected into the sky, 40 km high. If that was the case, then it certainly seemed to be on the shores of the Eastern and Central Mediterranean. People watched the nature’s rumors bewildering, seeing that they were watching Atlanta himself holding the sky on his shoulders.


https://gr.pinterest.com/pin/237072367862016853/
https://www.madata.gr/epikairotita/world/483492.html

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One of the unsolved mysteries about the Atlantic : TRUE OR MYTH?

They mention that Atlantis was as big as a continent !!

A great archaeological discovery at the bottom of Lake Van in Turkey again lightens the scenarios for the lost Atlantis.

Platonas say it was an island located on the seabed of Gibraltar The existence of the hidden city in the Antarctic “confirmed” according to the absurd theory of an ancient map, known as the Piri Reis map, which allegedly written in 1513 AD

The letter to Christians explains how Atlantis was created and because it was circular like a ring, with a sea and a small island in the middle (just like the ancient Thira just before the big blast). “When the gods shared the earth, Neptune received Atlantis and handed it to the sons of the demigods to cultivate it. One of them married Lefkipi and they made Kleito, whom Poseidon fell in love with, and he wanted to make her forever. Then he chose a place and protected it with circular zones of fertile land and sea to ensure her heavenly life (as if we were seeing Crete along with the ancient Kallisti). ”

The name Atlantis is probably derived from the mythical giant Atlanta, which held the whole earth and the sky on its shoulders. According to the discoveries of American geologists Haiken and McKoy, made in Santorini in 1990, they all refer to the famous fresco found in the western building of Akrotiri. Here we see a beach of ancient Thira with a wealthy life on a central island that was drenched by the sea around. Just as he described Plato the lost Atlantis. And this islet is claimed to have disappeared from a major explosion that caused terrible earthquakes and smoke. According to Plato, the fumes were projected into the sky, 40 km high. If that was the case, then it certainly seemed to be on the shores of the Eastern and Central Mediterranean. People watched the nature’s rumors bewildering, seeing that they were watching Atlanta himself holding the sky on his shoulders.


https://gr.pinterest.com/pin/237072367862016853/
https://www.madata.gr/epikairotita/world/483492.html

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Someplace, somewhere, sometime, this will be happening…
January 23, 2018
0

SOMETIME SOON!

Written BY: Oyekunle LIzzy Oyebola

(A Whatsapp Group conversation)

A- Hello fam, good morning 😍

B- Good morning babes. How was your night?😊

C- Mine was great o🙌

A- Mine too. Glory be to God

B- The Lord is good o. I have a testimony Family 💃

C: Hey… 😂 God of Our group is doing wonders! He has done it again!

D- 😭 Good morning Family,….😥 how many of you are tuned to your television sets?

B- I am at work o.. No TV… 😋

C- I am in church actually

D- C, you are in the church? How is it going? 😭…is everything alright?

C: Sure! The pastor is preaching. Its boring though, so I’m chatting..hehehehe…God forgive me 🙈

A- But, what’s the problem D?☹

D: Ah, I guess it has happened o sisters! 😭 My mum had a bad fever yesternite and I slept with her on the same bed, my hands wrapped her all night

C: Following

B: 👀

D: When I woke up this morning, my hands were still wrapped round something but it was only her blouse and wrapper ooo….🙆

A: Ahh!😳

B: Jesus!🙆‍♂

C: What!👁

D: I have searched everywhere to no avail ooooo…..😿🙀😤

B: You know what, search more please, the Lord will take charge🙏

A: 💃💃💃💃💃💃💃Mama T is typing o… good!

Mama T: sighs May she be found in Jesus’ name 🙏. Please, prayer unit, let us take note ✍. It is well

C: 🏃🏻‍♀🏃🏻‍♀🏃🏻‍♀🏃🏻‍♀🏃🏻‍♀🏃🏻‍♀🏃🏻‍♀🏃🏻‍♀🏃🏻‍♀Ah! Something is wrong oooooo!🙆🙆🙆🙆 😳😳

Mama T: 👀 What is that?

C: It is time for offering collection ooo but the chief usher can’t be found 🙆….though his shoes, clothes, wristwatch and offering bags are on his seat… 😳😭😭😭😭😭 Ah, I don’t seem to get.

Mama T: Ah! 😳

D: 😤😭 that’s what I am saying ooooo….ah…it’s even on the news now that there are sudden disappearances everywhere!

Sister J: 😿 Good morning everyone. Are we not in church this morning that we are chatting like this?

Mama T: I am in church o, although I came to use the toilet 🙁

Sister J: 🤗 Hello fam, we need to be praying for our government ooo…people have just been disappearing anyhow….thank God none of my family has been kidnapped anyways.💃💃 😊🙌 May God keep us ooo

D: 🤔 I don’t think it’s the government ooo!…

A: What then?😲

B: Then what?😶

Mama H: Ladies…ah! 😰😢😪😪😓Morning ooooo….the rapture has taken place ooooooo 😭😭😭

A: 😳

B: Issalie! 🙄

C: It’s not possible oooo…how come my pastor didn’t make it? What of Mama T and Mama H See, sister J too? 😏😏😏😏…please, lets be confirming things before broadcasting it please!🙏🙏 That itself is sin!🙄🙄

Mama T: 😭😭😭 Sisters, I guess it has happened really!😭 I guess it’s the rapture. The bible says it would come in a twinkling of an eye, like a thief unannounced, fast like the movement of light!🙆‍♂🙆

D: But, what could have happened that you didn’t make it to heaven mama if that’s the case? 🤔😰

Mama T: 🙀🙈 I don’t deserve to o…I am Mama ooo but I have been sleeping with my fiancee since the inception of our relationship! 😭😭

A: 😳😳 Its a lie!

B: Unbelievable! 👁

E:😂😂😂 My sisters, my babes, don’t be scared at all. No disappearance occurred in my own church o and as far as I am concerned my church is one of the best gospel-upholding churches in Nigeria. Lemme send you a voice note of our ongoing spirit filled worship service sef👯👯

C: 👀 Eyes Waiting

B: 🙏🙏

Mama T: ☹

VOICENOTE: Somebody scream!…..huuuuuuuuuu…halleluyah! We go dey hail, hail, hail, hail, hail your name, day by day, all the way, all the way…come on, azonto for Jesus everybody! Yahoo to our heavenly father!….halleluyah…we go dey hail….

Mama H: 😔 Hmmmm…so, E, if it is not rapture, it is what?☹

E: My pastor just explained now when the panic became great that it was just an invasion of the aliens as it had been foretold by the scientists for how many years now mama…don’t be scared jhur!🙄

Mama T: Ah! That’s heresy! That’s falsehood!😭😭😭😭😭

E: My pastor wouldn’t have preached lies ma.Would you have missed it too if rapture had taken place?

Mama H: 🙌🏿🙈 Sadly, I would have! B actually said something to me last week that was so disrespectful to me and since then I had said I would intentionally avoid her chats. I had her in mind

B: 😳😳 Wow! Mama, why didn’t you tell me? Actually, F and G told me so so so and so about you and Mama T, since then, I had decided to steer clear of you both too and make your administration hell! I am sorry mama!🙏😔

Mama T: 😳👀 My goodness! Sister B!

Mama H: 👏🏾 Wonders shall never end

G: 📢📢📢📢📢 Hello everyone, I have a confession to make ooooo

H: Listening

G: The salvation experience we were asked to be sharing on Saturdays, it had been a lie for me oooo. I just decided to cook up something for the session to be interesting. I haven’t really experienced what salvation is. I just said my mind oooo….😭😭😭😭 Plus, my brother too can’t be found!

D: Lord Jesus!😳😭🙏

I: 😰😰😰😰😰 Good morning babes ooooo…ah, 🙆🙆🙆🙆🙆the apostle of our time is gone oooooo! During the service today, our general overseer suddenly disappeared oooo….the mic fell off! 😤😤😤😤😤

J: True! 😭😭😭😭😭😭 Gone into the heavenlies!…ahhh!😤😤😤

K: Ah! This can’t be happening!😳😳

F: 😭😭😭😭😭😭😭 My doctor just disappeared oooo…please help me tell the whole house to pray for me so that I won’t die! I am in the theatre but my doctor has disappeared…I am left just open like that, everyone has fled but I can’t! 😭😭

Mama H: 😳 hospital? left open? What are you doing in the hospital Sister F?

F: 😔😔🙈 I just had an abortion! My fourth abortion! Pray to God to have mercy on me! 😓😓😢😢

A: Ah!🙆🙆

C: Jesus!😳😳

E: Sister F!😿😿

Mama T: 😭😭😭 See, no need exclaiming babes! It is sure we have missed the rapture! 😭😭 What else can we do? What else? 😭😭😭😭

Mama H: Ah! Oh no! 🙆🙆🙆 Why have I preached to others and then I would be a cast away? 😿🤔Why?…oh Lord!😭😭😭

Mama P: 😭😭😭😭Good morning ooooo

L: 😳😳😳😳😳 Mama P, you didn’t make it too 🙆🙆

Mama P: ☹☹This is her cousin o…please, we can’t find Mama P oooo….Please let’s pray ooo…her undies and clothes and bag were on the seat beside me in church, but we can’t find her…many other people as well…please, they said your prayer works, help us pray oooo🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏

Mama T: Ah!🙌🏿🙌🏿🙌🏿Mama P made it! 😭😭😭😭 Ah! I missed it! Oh Lord! Oh Lord!😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭

M: But mama, what can be done now? Lets try to organize a discussion on something that can be done! 🙀😢

Mama T:😓 Its too late Sister M! Its too late!

M: Ah! 🙆 And its because of Porn ooo…and I begged God to help me oooo….see now! 😭 😭… Porn stopped me! Masturbation stabbed me!

N: No remedy! 😭😭😭😭

O: So, what next after this phase? What next? 🤔🤔🤔😰😰😰😥

Mama H: Sniffs It’s going to be 7 years of the reign of the Antichrist! 😭😭😭

Mama T: 😢We would have 3 and a half years of plenty and surplus and then three years of pain and tumult!😥😥

Q: Ah! 🙆🙆😭😭 How come I had never heard about this before? How come? 🤔

R: You attend a modern church now…all they preach to you is prosperity and miracles and tongues and deliverance! ☹🙄 You didn’t attend a church where the word is being preached!

S: Hisses Imagine! You that attended the Holier than thou church Sister R, how did you manage to still remain with us? How come the Word you know didn’t save you?🙄🙄🙄

R: 😷😷😷 😪😪😪 Oh my God! I can’t believe I missed it oooooo! Ah!

Mama T: The period of His mercy is over!😭😭😪

T: Ah! Oluwa mi ooooooo!🙆🙆🙆…..ah!😿😿 I had always preached it! I had been persecuted for my faith long enough yet, I am going to the same hell with my persecutors?🤔🤔🤔

U: Ah! As in! With yahoo boys, armed robbers, prostitutes, gangsters, ah! 🙆How I kept myself holy! 😰Of what use is my virginity and the decent dressing and going to church when we are going to the same hell? 🙁 Eh? How did I miss it Lord? Could it be because of my Pride? Because of my self righteousness? Because of my criticisms of which church is good and which one is bad? Could it be?😭😭😭😭

V: Oh how the whole congregation of over five thousand people fell on their faces while I ministered at the concert I organized yesterday! Oh how they wept bitterly when I sang with passion , ‘If you miss heaven you’ll cry!’😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭

W: 😧😧😦I should have known! 😭😭😭😭 Ah ah! When all these things were happening, I should have known! When we now have LGBT churches for lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgenders, I should have known! When, government upon government, things are getting worse and worse, I should have known! When wonderful singers of evergreen songs are declaring themselves gay, I should have known! When a popular person could stand up in the midst of the congregation to say Jesus is not the way to heaven but one of the ways! I should have known! When things are getting worst and worst, I should have known! Bomb blasts here and there every time, I should have known! War in Syrian today, Iraq tomorrow, Pakistan, the next, I should have known! I should have known! Going to hell with Boko Haram jihadists, with unbelievers! With Pharaoh! With Jezebel! Ah! I should have known…The times were at the corner…I should have known!😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭

Y: The times are here now! 👁👁👁The Book of Life is closed! 😔😔😿

Z: Ah! Fire oooooo! Ah! So, like, I would miss it and go to hell? Seriously?….ah! 😳😳😳😦😦😦😿😿😭😭

Mama T: We might not eventually go to hell after this o. 🙁

B: REally!😳

D: That would be great!🙌🏿🙀

E: What!👁

F: 👯

Mama T: If we can struggle not to get the marks 666, we could be saved!😪😪

J: AH! That’s all? Wipes tears I will do it! I don’t want the marks!

Mama H: It’s not as easy as that o Sister J! ☹

K: Ah ah! Why nah?🤔

Mama T: At first, Jesus died and shed His blood for us. The blood was free for us! Without the shedding of Blood, there is no remission of sin! We would have to buy our own salvation now with our blood! 😰😰

K: What! Ah!🙆🙆😪😪

L: I can do anything oooo…I can! I must make that heaven!🙌🏿

Mama H: The problem is that if under grace and mercy, we could not just stop doing some things because of temporal pains, what of now that mercy is gone, grace is withdrawn? Can we really go through the pains of having our eyes gouged out, our hands broken, our skin torn, our head smashed, our intestines spilt…..can we???…. 😭😭😭😭😭😭

H: 😭😭😭😭😭

J: I am crying LOrd, I have missed Heaven! I have missed the rapture! Ah!😪😪😪😪😪😪😭😭😭

S: And my pastors warned me oooo…that I should stop relationship with bad friends…I thought I could handle them but now they have handled me! they have thrown me to hell! I was warned😥😥😭😭

R: 😢😢😢😢 See, there is no use beating the dead horse ehn!….Please our mamas and our sisters, could you start sensitizing us on how it would be? Teach us about the tribulation period, about antichrist, about God’s wrath! About 666, tell us please, tell us….🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏👏🏾👏🏾👏🏾👏🏾🙌🏿🙌🏿🙌🏿😭😭😭

 

The chat continues……

 

My friends, in that whatsapp group, many of them missed it!

Whether we like it or not, what was typed here will happen somewhere, SOMETIME SOON!

For you, you don’t hear such preaching in your church, that is NOT a church ma and sir! Flee and seek the TRUTH!

The time is near!….its Sometime Soon!

The end time is here!….Are you ready
(In Tola Teriba’s song those days…)

Life is so funny
to which I can not understand
we live today and tomorrow we die
what is the meaning of life?
this might be your last chance, accept Jesus today….
tomorrow, might be too late for you
What is the meaning of life?

#Have _a_rethink_of_life’s_meaning
#Are_you_ready_for_the_day_of_His_wrath

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The Extortion of Foster Children By A Warped Mother – My Personal Childhood of Corruption and Worthlessness: Part 1

My mother was a beautiful, cunning, manipulative, abusive, alcoholic with a hatred for me.

After my parents divorced when I was nine years old she made it crystal clear she couldn’t stand me because I was “My Father’s child.” I was not allowed to be with her in public because I “embarrassed” her, and during her drunken nights with the neighbor’s wife (In which she eventually had an affair with her husband) I recall more than once that the reason I wasn’t sent away to live with my father is that I was giving he,r her “play money”, with the child support my father was sending in every month.

She had a love for gambling, and several times a month she would leave for Boomtown, Nevada for nearly a week (or until her money ran out) and I would be left alone in the house doing what I could to go to school, eat, and stay out of trouble.

I had an older half-brother (out of the house), who was the cherished son. My mother would remind me that her and him were together (in the worst of times, living together in a car) and that they shared a bond I would never have. I was not allowed to speak my brothers name to my mother or in public, as “I was not good-enough” to do so. That “rule” stayed in place until the last time I communicated with her in 2009.

Growing up in an environment like that leaves an impact on you. You learn quite early how to take care of yourself and understanding consequences. You begin to be resourceful and have alternative plans to things if the original plans do not work out. It also inhibits your emotional response, and retards emotional growth. I can remember nights I found my mother collapsed out on the front porch and I drug her in. Nights where I showered my own mother due to being covered in vomit and putting her to bed while she called me disgusting names and saying disgusting things (two I remember vividly was that she was going to wrap me up in my sleeping bag at night and kill me or pay somebody else to do it and that she was going to call the cops and tell them I beat her and they will believe her over my “punk ass”). One time in particular, I remember I was 11 years old and got a phone call on the house phone from a paramedic saying that my mother was having an emergency at a bar and that they were transporting her to the hospital. I knew where the spare key to the car was (I used it often) and so I drove to the bar I knew she was at, followed the ambulance with my mother to the hospital, and waited until she was released and drove her home. Again, this was at age 11.

The Shift Into Profiting From Other Children

Somehow her brain realized that having a child in this manner was profitable, and decided to get into foster care.

My mother met up with the director of a foster program (this program has since been shut down) and immediately they began a sexual relationship. This man would come over and I would have the privilege of hearing my mother have sex with him (this was whenever the neighbors husband wasn’t sneaking over).

It wasn’t long until I had 3 new siblings. However, I learned quickly that these children were not ordinary. All three were males with severe mental handicaps and heavily medicated. These children were in bad shape, malnourished and unhealthy, rotten teeth, poor eyesight and development (drug babies) and emotional unstable.

I’d grown accustomed to my broken environment that I was able to manage by doing my own thing as long as I stayed away from my mother, but I now had this chaos.

See, a typical day in my mothers house was to be a ghost. She wouldn’t leave her bedroom until about noon or so everyday. She would grab something from the kitchen or leave and get cigarettes (she also smoked in the house for what it’s worth) and booze, come back, make sure she displayed her feelings about me and disappeared back into her room. The only other engagement I got from her was screaming from her room if she heard me. I had to be as quiet as a mouse at all times, and lord help me if she heard me in the kitchen getting something to eat. On that note, I would go into the kitchen very early in the morning when I was pretty sure she was passed out, or when she was having sex, and I’d load up on whatever I could find and smuggle it outside or in my room so I could eat throughout the day and not get caught. Of course I would still get yelled at because food was missing, but at least I was full and I got very good at hiding things.

It was a horrible system and way of life, but I made it work. I just had to be a ghost.

With these new additions I was now on the radar even more. However, my mother actually solved this problem. The medication these children were on were very strong, they were almost like zombies all the time. She developed a schedule in which she would leave her bedroom around 3 times a day to medicate these kids, and as long as she put in that much work and there was a television and a couple Gameboys, we were all pacified.

That was life. Medication. Cartoons. Pokemon. Occasionally dinner or McDonald’s cheeseburger if they were on sale (I think back then we had the 29 cent Tuesdays or something).

The director continued to come to the house and have “private meetings” with my mother. There was never once a check on the children, not even questions besides the condescending “See you all again soon!” after he got done with my mother, who just stayed in the room afterwards.

Before long we had our fourth sibling, just as damaged and medicated as the rest. My mother never skipped a beat with her drinking and gambling outings, the only real change is that we had a babysitter as a few of the children were younger than myself. Having the sitter was a luxury in all honesty, we got attention and we got fed. Just a little bit of interaction went a very long ways, but sadly the turnover was high as it seemed my mother was difficult to work with or the sitters realized what was going on and didn’t want any part of it.

The Extortion of Foster Children By A Warped Mother – My Personal Childhood of Corruption and Worthlessness: Part 1

entrepreneur916 (56) in life •  10 hours ago
Abandonment-Issues.jpg

Backstory

My mother was a beautiful, cunning, manipulative, abusive, alcoholic with a hatred for me.

After my parents divorced when I was nine years old she made it crystal clear she couldn’t stand me because I was “My Father’s child.” I was not allowed to be with her in public because I “embarrassed” her, and during her drunken nights with the neighbor’s wife (In which she eventually had an affair with her husband) I recall more than once that the reason I wasn’t sent away to live with my father is that I was giving he,r her “play money”, with the child support my father was sending in every month.

She had a love for gambling, and several times a month she would leave for Boomtown, Nevada for nearly a week (or until her money ran out) and I would be left alone in the house doing what I could to go to school, eat, and stay out of trouble.

I had an older half-brother (out of the house), who was the cherished son. My mother would remind me that her and him were together (in the worst of times, living together in a car) and that they shared a bond I would never have. I was not allowed to speak my brothers name to my mother or in public, as “I was not good-enough” to do so. That “rule” stayed in place until the last time I communicated with her in 2009.

Growing up in an environment like that leaves an impact on you. You learn quite early how to take care of yourself and understanding consequences. You begin to be resourceful and have alternative plans to things if the original plans do not work out. It also inhibits your emotional response, and retards emotional growth. I can remember nights I found my mother collapsed out on the front porch and I drug her in. Nights where I showered my own mother due to being covered in vomit and putting her to bed while she called me disgusting names and saying disgusting things (two I remember vividly was that she was going to wrap me up in my sleeping bag at night and kill me or pay somebody else to do it and that she was going to call the cops and tell them I beat her and they will believe her over my “punk ass”). One time in particular, I remember I was 11 years old and got a phone call on the house phone from a paramedic saying that my mother was having an emergency at a bar and that they were transporting her to the hospital. I knew where the spare key to the car was (I used it often) and so I drove to the bar I knew she was at, followed the ambulance with my mother to the hospital, and waited until she was released and drove her home. Again, this was at age 11.

How To Make Money For Kids.jpg

The Shift Into Profiting From Other Children

Somehow her brain realized that having a child in this manner was profitable, and decided to get into foster care.

My mother met up with the director of a foster program (this program has since been shut down) and immediately they began a sexual relationship. This man would come over and I would have the privilege of hearing my mother have sex with him (this was whenever the neighbors husband wasn’t sneaking over).

It wasn’t long until I had 3 new siblings. However, I learned quickly that these children were not ordinary. All three were males with severe mental handicaps and heavily medicated. These children were in bad shape, malnourished and unhealthy, rotten teeth, poor eyesight and development (drug babies) and emotional unstable.

I’d grown accustomed to my broken environment that I was able to manage by doing my own thing as long as I stayed away from my mother, but I now had this chaos.

See, a typical day in my mothers house was to be a ghost. She wouldn’t leave her bedroom until about noon or so everyday. She would grab something from the kitchen or leave and get cigarettes (she also smoked in the house for what it’s worth) and booze, come back, make sure she displayed her feelings about me and disappeared back into her room. The only other engagement I got from her was screaming from her room if she heard me. I had to be as quiet as a mouse at all times, and lord help me if she heard me in the kitchen getting something to eat. On that note, I would go into the kitchen very early in the morning when I was pretty sure she was passed out, or when she was having sex, and I’d load up on whatever I could find and smuggle it outside or in my room so I could eat throughout the day and not get caught. Of course I would still get yelled at because food was missing, but at least I was full and I got very good at hiding things.

It was a horrible system and way of life, but I made it work. I just had to be a ghost.

With these new additions I was now on the radar even more. However, my mother actually solved this problem. The medication these children were on were very strong, they were almost like zombies all the time. She developed a schedule in which she would leave her bedroom around 3 times a day to medicate these kids, and as long as she put in that much work and there was a television and a couple Gameboys, we were all pacified.

That was life. Medication. Cartoons. Pokemon. Occasionally dinner or McDonald’s cheeseburger if they were on sale (I think back then we had the 29 cent Tuesdays or something).

The director continued to come to the house and have “private meetings” with my mother. There was never once a check on the children, not even questions besides the condescending “See you all again soon!” after he got done with my mother, who just stayed in the room afterwards.

Before long we had our fourth sibling, just as damaged and medicated as the rest. My mother never skipped a beat with her drinking and gambling outings, the only real change is that we had a babysitter as a few of the children were younger than myself. Having the sitter was a luxury in all honesty, we got attention and we got fed. Just a little bit of interaction went a very long ways, but sadly the turnover was high as it seemed my mother was difficult to work with or the sitters realized what was going on and didn’t want any part of it.

Child-Sexual-Abuse.jpg

Sex Makes Any Story Better, Right?

After about a year of this I was around 12 or 13. Life was the usual, mother making money off me in child support, making ridiculous money on the most damaged children she could get, the director still getting his “cut”, and honestly I was able to get out of the radar even further due to one of the children becoming too much of a “headache” for her…so for a time he became the scapegoat.

However, that all changed with child number five. A female.

This new child was I believe around eight or nine, about the “median” age of the others as I was the oldest by about a year.

This little girl had a troubled sexual history from family members as well and events in other homes, and was very much sexually active. It wasn’t long until three of the boys were engaging sexually with the girl in mother’s house, under her”watchful eye”. Now, there was no secret that putting a sexually active female in with troubled boys (some with sexual histories themselves) was probably not in the best interest of the child. However, since my childhood home was basically a brothel for my mother, it was just a different twist on the same thing I have dealt with most my childhood.

Now, this is just a summary of my world with five foster implants…it got ever more outrageous when there were a total of sevenchildren and my child support checks stopped coming in…

But that will be covered in Part 2

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The Extortion of Foster Children By A Warped Mother – My Personal Childhood of Corruption and Worthlessness: Part 1

My mother was a beautiful, cunning, manipulative, abusive, alcoholic with a hatred for me.

After my parents divorced when I was nine years old she made it crystal clear she couldn’t stand me because I was “My Father’s child.” I was not allowed to be with her in public because I “embarrassed” her, and during her drunken nights with the neighbor’s wife (In which she eventually had an affair with her husband) I recall more than once that the reason I wasn’t sent away to live with my father is that I was giving he,r her “play money”, with the child support my father was sending in every month.

She had a love for gambling, and several times a month she would leave for Boomtown, Nevada for nearly a week (or until her money ran out) and I would be left alone in the house doing what I could to go to school, eat, and stay out of trouble.

I had an older half-brother (out of the house), who was the cherished son. My mother would remind me that her and him were together (in the worst of times, living together in a car) and that they shared a bond I would never have. I was not allowed to speak my brothers name to my mother or in public, as “I was not good-enough” to do so. That “rule” stayed in place until the last time I communicated with her in 2009.

Growing up in an environment like that leaves an impact on you. You learn quite early how to take care of yourself and understanding consequences. You begin to be resourceful and have alternative plans to things if the original plans do not work out. It also inhibits your emotional response, and retards emotional growth. I can remember nights I found my mother collapsed out on the front porch and I drug her in. Nights where I showered my own mother due to being covered in vomit and putting her to bed while she called me disgusting names and saying disgusting things (two I remember vividly was that she was going to wrap me up in my sleeping bag at night and kill me or pay somebody else to do it and that she was going to call the cops and tell them I beat her and they will believe her over my “punk ass”). One time in particular, I remember I was 11 years old and got a phone call on the house phone from a paramedic saying that my mother was having an emergency at a bar and that they were transporting her to the hospital. I knew where the spare key to the car was (I used it often) and so I drove to the bar I knew she was at, followed the ambulance with my mother to the hospital, and waited until she was released and drove her home. Again, this was at age 11.

The Shift Into Profiting From Other Children

Somehow her brain realized that having a child in this manner was profitable, and decided to get into foster care.

My mother met up with the director of a foster program (this program has since been shut down) and immediately they began a sexual relationship. This man would come over and I would have the privilege of hearing my mother have sex with him (this was whenever the neighbors husband wasn’t sneaking over).

It wasn’t long until I had 3 new siblings. However, I learned quickly that these children were not ordinary. All three were males with severe mental handicaps and heavily medicated. These children were in bad shape, malnourished and unhealthy, rotten teeth, poor eyesight and development (drug babies) and emotional unstable.

I’d grown accustomed to my broken environment that I was able to manage by doing my own thing as long as I stayed away from my mother, but I now had this chaos.

See, a typical day in my mothers house was to be a ghost. She wouldn’t leave her bedroom until about noon or so everyday. She would grab something from the kitchen or leave and get cigarettes (she also smoked in the house for what it’s worth) and booze, come back, make sure she displayed her feelings about me and disappeared back into her room. The only other engagement I got from her was screaming from her room if she heard me. I had to be as quiet as a mouse at all times, and lord help me if she heard me in the kitchen getting something to eat. On that note, I would go into the kitchen very early in the morning when I was pretty sure she was passed out, or when she was having sex, and I’d load up on whatever I could find and smuggle it outside or in my room so I could eat throughout the day and not get caught. Of course I would still get yelled at because food was missing, but at least I was full and I got very good at hiding things.

It was a horrible system and way of life, but I made it work. I just had to be a ghost.

With these new additions I was now on the radar even more. However, my mother actually solved this problem. The medication these children were on were very strong, they were almost like zombies all the time. She developed a schedule in which she would leave her bedroom around 3 times a day to medicate these kids, and as long as she put in that much work and there was a television and a couple Gameboys, we were all pacified.

That was life. Medication. Cartoons. Pokemon. Occasionally dinner or McDonald’s cheeseburger if they were on sale (I think back then we had the 29 cent Tuesdays or something).

The director continued to come to the house and have “private meetings” with my mother. There was never once a check on the children, not even questions besides the condescending “See you all again soon!” after he got done with my mother, who just stayed in the room afterwards.

Before long we had our fourth sibling, just as damaged and medicated as the rest. My mother never skipped a beat with her drinking and gambling outings, the only real change is that we had a babysitter as a few of the children were younger than myself. Having the sitter was a luxury in all honesty, we got attention and we got fed. Just a little bit of interaction went a very long ways, but sadly the turnover was high as it seemed my mother was difficult to work with or the sitters realized what was going on and didn’t want any part of it.

The Extortion of Foster Children By A Warped Mother – My Personal Childhood of Corruption and Worthlessness: Part 1

entrepreneur916 (56) in life •  10 hours ago
Abandonment-Issues.jpg

Backstory

My mother was a beautiful, cunning, manipulative, abusive, alcoholic with a hatred for me.

After my parents divorced when I was nine years old she made it crystal clear she couldn’t stand me because I was “My Father’s child.” I was not allowed to be with her in public because I “embarrassed” her, and during her drunken nights with the neighbor’s wife (In which she eventually had an affair with her husband) I recall more than once that the reason I wasn’t sent away to live with my father is that I was giving he,r her “play money”, with the child support my father was sending in every month.

She had a love for gambling, and several times a month she would leave for Boomtown, Nevada for nearly a week (or until her money ran out) and I would be left alone in the house doing what I could to go to school, eat, and stay out of trouble.

I had an older half-brother (out of the house), who was the cherished son. My mother would remind me that her and him were together (in the worst of times, living together in a car) and that they shared a bond I would never have. I was not allowed to speak my brothers name to my mother or in public, as “I was not good-enough” to do so. That “rule” stayed in place until the last time I communicated with her in 2009.

Growing up in an environment like that leaves an impact on you. You learn quite early how to take care of yourself and understanding consequences. You begin to be resourceful and have alternative plans to things if the original plans do not work out. It also inhibits your emotional response, and retards emotional growth. I can remember nights I found my mother collapsed out on the front porch and I drug her in. Nights where I showered my own mother due to being covered in vomit and putting her to bed while she called me disgusting names and saying disgusting things (two I remember vividly was that she was going to wrap me up in my sleeping bag at night and kill me or pay somebody else to do it and that she was going to call the cops and tell them I beat her and they will believe her over my “punk ass”). One time in particular, I remember I was 11 years old and got a phone call on the house phone from a paramedic saying that my mother was having an emergency at a bar and that they were transporting her to the hospital. I knew where the spare key to the car was (I used it often) and so I drove to the bar I knew she was at, followed the ambulance with my mother to the hospital, and waited until she was released and drove her home. Again, this was at age 11.

How To Make Money For Kids.jpg

The Shift Into Profiting From Other Children

Somehow her brain realized that having a child in this manner was profitable, and decided to get into foster care.

My mother met up with the director of a foster program (this program has since been shut down) and immediately they began a sexual relationship. This man would come over and I would have the privilege of hearing my mother have sex with him (this was whenever the neighbors husband wasn’t sneaking over).

It wasn’t long until I had 3 new siblings. However, I learned quickly that these children were not ordinary. All three were males with severe mental handicaps and heavily medicated. These children were in bad shape, malnourished and unhealthy, rotten teeth, poor eyesight and development (drug babies) and emotional unstable.

I’d grown accustomed to my broken environment that I was able to manage by doing my own thing as long as I stayed away from my mother, but I now had this chaos.

See, a typical day in my mothers house was to be a ghost. She wouldn’t leave her bedroom until about noon or so everyday. She would grab something from the kitchen or leave and get cigarettes (she also smoked in the house for what it’s worth) and booze, come back, make sure she displayed her feelings about me and disappeared back into her room. The only other engagement I got from her was screaming from her room if she heard me. I had to be as quiet as a mouse at all times, and lord help me if she heard me in the kitchen getting something to eat. On that note, I would go into the kitchen very early in the morning when I was pretty sure she was passed out, or when she was having sex, and I’d load up on whatever I could find and smuggle it outside or in my room so I could eat throughout the day and not get caught. Of course I would still get yelled at because food was missing, but at least I was full and I got very good at hiding things.

It was a horrible system and way of life, but I made it work. I just had to be a ghost.

With these new additions I was now on the radar even more. However, my mother actually solved this problem. The medication these children were on were very strong, they were almost like zombies all the time. She developed a schedule in which she would leave her bedroom around 3 times a day to medicate these kids, and as long as she put in that much work and there was a television and a couple Gameboys, we were all pacified.

That was life. Medication. Cartoons. Pokemon. Occasionally dinner or McDonald’s cheeseburger if they were on sale (I think back then we had the 29 cent Tuesdays or something).

The director continued to come to the house and have “private meetings” with my mother. There was never once a check on the children, not even questions besides the condescending “See you all again soon!” after he got done with my mother, who just stayed in the room afterwards.

Before long we had our fourth sibling, just as damaged and medicated as the rest. My mother never skipped a beat with her drinking and gambling outings, the only real change is that we had a babysitter as a few of the children were younger than myself. Having the sitter was a luxury in all honesty, we got attention and we got fed. Just a little bit of interaction went a very long ways, but sadly the turnover was high as it seemed my mother was difficult to work with or the sitters realized what was going on and didn’t want any part of it.

Child-Sexual-Abuse.jpg

Sex Makes Any Story Better, Right?

After about a year of this I was around 12 or 13. Life was the usual, mother making money off me in child support, making ridiculous money on the most damaged children she could get, the director still getting his “cut”, and honestly I was able to get out of the radar even further due to one of the children becoming too much of a “headache” for her…so for a time he became the scapegoat.

However, that all changed with child number five. A female.

This new child was I believe around eight or nine, about the “median” age of the others as I was the oldest by about a year.

This little girl had a troubled sexual history from family members as well and events in other homes, and was very much sexually active. It wasn’t long until three of the boys were engaging sexually with the girl in mother’s house, under her”watchful eye”. Now, there was no secret that putting a sexually active female in with troubled boys (some with sexual histories themselves) was probably not in the best interest of the child. However, since my childhood home was basically a brothel for my mother, it was just a different twist on the same thing I have dealt with most my childhood.

Now, this is just a summary of my world with five foster implants…it got ever more outrageous when there were a total of sevenchildren and my child support checks stopped coming in…

But that will be covered in Part 2

 

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MacroEconomics: what is the supply side policy and how does it work. Without diagrams (text only)

1.0. SUPPLY-SIDE POLICIES
1.1 Objectives of Supply-side Policies
Supply-side policies are policies that are used to increase the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply. The production capacity in the economy can be increased through increasing the quantity or the quality of the factors of production in the economy. Although supply-side policies are used to increase the production capacity in the economy, they may also decrease the cost of production in the economy. For example, in addition to an increase in the production capacity in the economy, an increase in the quality of labour or the quality of capital in the economy will lead to an increase in labour productivity and hence a fall in the cost of production in the economy resulting in an increase in aggregate supply. Potential economic growth is an increase in potential output and actual economic growth is an increase in actual output. An increase in the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply will lead to potential economic growth. Potential economic growth per se will not lead to a rise in the standard of living. However, as actual economic growth is constrained by potential economic growth, potential economic growth is essential for achieving sustained economic growth. Apart from potential economic growth, an increase in the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply will also lead to actual economic growth, although to a lesser extent. In addition, assuming aggregate demand is rising which is the normal state of the economy, an increase in the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply will lead to lower inflation. Supply-side policies can be classified into interventionist supply-side policies and market-oriented supply-side policies. Interventionist supply-side policies are policies that are used to increase the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply through government intervention that reduces the deficiencies of the market. Market-oriented supply-side policies are policies that are used to increase the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply by freeing up the market. The following is a list of supply-side policies that are useful for the examination.
1.2 Interventionist Supply-side Policies
1.2.1 Education and Training
Education and training will lead to greater human capital which will increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy. The government can provide education and training directly, by setting up educational institutes, or indirectly, by giving subsidies or tax incentives to firms to encourage them to send their workers for education and training. For example, the Singapore government has set up the Institute of Technical Education, polytechnics and Continuing Education and Training campuses to provide education and training.
1.2.2 Research and Development
Research and development will lead to technological advancement which will increase the efficiency of capital in the economy. The government can engage in research and development directly, by setting up research institutes, or indirectly, by giving subsidies or tax incentives to firms to encourage them to engage in research and development. For example, the Singapore government has set up the Biomedical Research Council (BMRC) and the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) under the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) to engage in research and development.
1.2.3 Infrastructural Development
Government expenditure on infrastructure will increase investment expenditure which will lead to a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. For example, the Singapore government has provided infrastructures such as Jurong Island for high-end chemical manufacturing and Biopolis for pharmaceutical manufacturing which have attracted many foreign high-end chemical firms and pharmaceutical firms to invest in Singapore. Market-oriented Supply-side Policies
1.2.4 Privatisation
Privatisation refers to the conversion of a state-owned firm to a private firm. Unlike state-owned firms, private firms need to consider factors such as profitability and survival. Therefore, privatisation will induce firms to increase labour productivity to reduce costs. It may also lead to an increase in the number of firms in the market and hence greater competition which will induce firms to increase labour productivity to reduce costs. To increase labour productivity, firms will adopt better production technologies or engage in research and development and engage in education and training. Adopting better production technologies and research and development will lead to technological advancement which will increase the efficiency of capital in the economy. Education and training will lead to greater human capital which will increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy.
1.2.5 Deregulation
Deregulation refers to the removal of restrictive regulations. Deregulation will lead to an increase in the number of firms in the market and hence greater competition which will induce firms to increase labour productivity to reduce costs. To increase labour productivity, firms will adopt better production technologies or engage in research and development and engage in education and training. Adopting better production technologies and research and development will lead to technological advancement which will increase the efficiency of capital in the economy. Education and training will lead to greater human capital which will increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy.
1.2.6 Cuts in Income Taxes and Capital Gains Tax
A decrease in personal income tax will increase after-tax personal income resulting in an increase in the quantity of labour in the economy. A decrease in corporate income tax will increase expected after-tax returns on planned investments and hence investment expenditure resulting in a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. A capital gains tax is a tax imposed on the profit from the sale of a certain type of asset. For example, many governments impose a capital gains tax on the profit from the sale of properties. A decrease in capital gains tax on properties will increase the incentive to invest and hence investment expenditure resulting in a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy.
1.3 Labour Market Reforms
The government can implement labour market reforms to increase the quantity of labour in the economy. For example, it can increase retirement age and incentivise firms to employ older workers through subsidies or tax incentives. It can encourage firms to provide flexible work arrangements which will encourage non-working mothers to enter the labour force. It can loosen restrictions on foreign workers through increasing the dependency ratio ceiling, reducing the foreign worker levy or lowering the eligibility criteria for the application of work pass, which will increase the number of foreign workers. It can loosen restrictions on immigrants through lowering the eligibility criteria for the application of citizenship or permanent residence, which will increase the number of immigrants.
1.3.1 Trade Liberalisation
A reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers will lead to greater competition which will induce firms to increase labour productivity to reduce costs. To increase labour productivity, firms will adopt better production technologies or engage in research and development and engage in education and training. Adopting better production technologies and research and development will lead to technological advancement which will increase the efficiency of capital in the economy. Education and training will lead to greater human capital which will increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy.
The Singapore government has been using supply-side policies to increase the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply in order to achieve potential economic growth. As actual economic growth is constrained by potential economic growth, potential economic growth is essential for achieving sustained economic growth. The Singapore government has been using interventionist supply-side policies extensively which include education and training, research and development and infrastructural development. It has also been using market-oriented supply-side policies which include cuts in income taxes and labour market reforms, and to a lesser extent, privatisation and deregulation. In recent years, however, in an attempt to induce firms to increase labour productivity, the Singapore government has been tightening restrictions on foreign workers by decreasing the dependency ratio ceiling, increasing the foreign worker levy and raising the eligibility criteria for the application of work pass. This has led to a slower growth of the labour force resulting in a tighter labour market and hence an upward pressure on wages. Note:   Although supply-side policies are mainly used to increase the production capacity in the economy, many supply-side policies will also lead to a decrease in the cost of production in the economy. For example, education and training will lead to an increase in labour productivity resulting in a fall in the cost of production in the economy. Nevertheless, the main objective of supply-side policies is to increase the production capacity rather than to decrease the cost of production in the economy. In the examination, students are often required to explain how supply-side policies can be used to increase the production capacity in the economy to achieve potential economic growth.
The effect of supply-side policies will fall more on potential output than on actual output. Indeed, if the economy is far from the full-employment equilibrium¸ actual output may not rise, at least not significantly.
1.4 Limitations of Supply-side Policies
The effects of supply-side policies will be realised only in the long run and this long effectiveness time lag makes them ineffective in the short run. For example, it takes time for education and training to increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy. Furthermore, although supply-side policies can be used to increase actual output, the effect will fall more on potential output than on actual output. Indeed, if the economy is far from the full-employment equilibrium¸ actual output may not rise, at least not significantly. Therefore, supply-side policies may not be effective for increasing actual economic growth.
2.0 SHORT-TERM SUPPLY-SIDE POLICIES
2.1 Objectives of Short-term Supply-side Policies
Short-term supply-side policies are policies that are used to decrease the cost of production in the economy in the short term and hence increase aggregate supply. As explained earlier, the effects of supply-side policies will be realised only in the long run and this long effectiveness time lag makes them ineffective in the short run. For example, it takes time for education and training to increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy. Therefore, supply-side policies are generally not used to deal with a recession. However, unlike supply-side policies, short-term supply-side policies are often used to deal with a recession, as part of a policy mix. In a recession, the government can increase economic growth by using short-term supply-side policies to reduce the cost of production in the economy in the short term. When the cost of production in the economy falls, aggregate supply will rise which will lead to an increase in national output. When firms increase production, they will employ more factor inputs from households and hence will pay them more factor income which will lead to an increase in national income. An increase in national output will lead to a rise in the demand for labour in the economy resulting in a fall in unemployment.
Short-term supply-side policies are used in Singapore. To increase economic growth in a recession, the Singapore government may reduce the employers’ CPF contribution rate in the short term to decrease the labour cost in the economy. For example, it reduced the employers’ CPF contribution rate from 20 per cent to 10 per cent in the 1997-1998 Asian Financial Crisis. The Singapore government may also help firms pay a certain proportion of wages in the short term to decrease the labour cost in the economy. For example, it implemented the Jobs Credit Scheme which helped firms pay 12 per cent of the wages of a worker up to the first $2500 in the 2008-2009 Global

2.2 Supply-side Effect of Fiscal Policy
Fiscal policy is referred to as a demand-side policy because it is used to influence aggregate demand. However, apart from aggregate demand, fiscal policy may also have an effect on aggregate supply. For example, government expenditure on education and training will lead to greater human capital which will increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy. Government expenditure on research and development will lead to technological advancement which will increase the efficiency of capital in the economy. Government expenditure on infrastructure will lead to an increase in investment expenditure resulting in a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. A decrease in corporate income tax will increase expected after-tax returns on planned investments and hence investment expenditure resulting in a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. A decrease in personal income tax will increase after-tax personal income resulting in an increase in the quantity of labour in the economy. An increase in the quantity of capital, the quantity of labour, the efficiency of capital and the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy will lead to an increase in the production capacity in the economy. In addition, an increase in the efficiency of capital and the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy will lead to an increase in labour productivity resulting in a fall in the cost of production in the economy. An increase in the production capacity and a fall in the cost of production in the economy will lead to an increase in aggregate supply. However, when economists talk about fiscal policy, unless otherwise stated, they are normally referring to the use of it to influence aggregate demand.
Fiscal policy has been mainly used for its supply-side effect in Singapore to increase the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply, which is known as fiscal policy with a supply-side intent. For example, the Singapore government spends on education and training which will lead to greater human capital and hence increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy. It has set up the Institute of Technical Education, polytechnics and Continuing Education and Training campuses to provide education and training. The Singapore government also spends on research and development which will lead to technological advancement and hence increase the efficiency of capital in the economy.
2.3 Supply-side Effect of Monetary Policy
Monetary policy is referred to as demand-side policy because it is used to influence aggregate demand. However, apart from aggregate demand, monetary policy also has an effect on aggregate supply. Expansionary monetary policy will lead to an increase in investment expenditure resulting in a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. Contractionary monetary policy will lead to a decrease in investment expenditure resulting in a less rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. However, when economists talk about monetary policy, unless otherwise stated, they are normally referring to the use of it to influence aggregate demand.

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MacroEconomics: what is the supply side policy and how does it work. Without diagrams (text only)

1.0. SUPPLY-SIDE POLICIES
1.1 Objectives of Supply-side Policies
Supply-side policies are policies that are used to increase the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply. The production capacity in the economy can be increased through increasing the quantity or the quality of the factors of production in the economy. Although supply-side policies are used to increase the production capacity in the economy, they may also decrease the cost of production in the economy. For example, in addition to an increase in the production capacity in the economy, an increase in the quality of labour or the quality of capital in the economy will lead to an increase in labour productivity and hence a fall in the cost of production in the economy resulting in an increase in aggregate supply. Potential economic growth is an increase in potential output and actual economic growth is an increase in actual output. An increase in the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply will lead to potential economic growth. Potential economic growth per se will not lead to a rise in the standard of living. However, as actual economic growth is constrained by potential economic growth, potential economic growth is essential for achieving sustained economic growth. Apart from potential economic growth, an increase in the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply will also lead to actual economic growth, although to a lesser extent. In addition, assuming aggregate demand is rising which is the normal state of the economy, an increase in the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply will lead to lower inflation. Supply-side policies can be classified into interventionist supply-side policies and market-oriented supply-side policies. Interventionist supply-side policies are policies that are used to increase the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply through government intervention that reduces the deficiencies of the market. Market-oriented supply-side policies are policies that are used to increase the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply by freeing up the market. The following is a list of supply-side policies that are useful for the examination.
1.2 Interventionist Supply-side Policies
1.2.1 Education and Training
Education and training will lead to greater human capital which will increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy. The government can provide education and training directly, by setting up educational institutes, or indirectly, by giving subsidies or tax incentives to firms to encourage them to send their workers for education and training. For example, the Singapore government has set up the Institute of Technical Education, polytechnics and Continuing Education and Training campuses to provide education and training.
1.2.2 Research and Development
Research and development will lead to technological advancement which will increase the efficiency of capital in the economy. The government can engage in research and development directly, by setting up research institutes, or indirectly, by giving subsidies or tax incentives to firms to encourage them to engage in research and development. For example, the Singapore government has set up the Biomedical Research Council (BMRC) and the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) under the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) to engage in research and development.
1.2.3 Infrastructural Development
Government expenditure on infrastructure will increase investment expenditure which will lead to a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. For example, the Singapore government has provided infrastructures such as Jurong Island for high-end chemical manufacturing and Biopolis for pharmaceutical manufacturing which have attracted many foreign high-end chemical firms and pharmaceutical firms to invest in Singapore. Market-oriented Supply-side Policies
1.2.4 Privatisation
Privatisation refers to the conversion of a state-owned firm to a private firm. Unlike state-owned firms, private firms need to consider factors such as profitability and survival. Therefore, privatisation will induce firms to increase labour productivity to reduce costs. It may also lead to an increase in the number of firms in the market and hence greater competition which will induce firms to increase labour productivity to reduce costs. To increase labour productivity, firms will adopt better production technologies or engage in research and development and engage in education and training. Adopting better production technologies and research and development will lead to technological advancement which will increase the efficiency of capital in the economy. Education and training will lead to greater human capital which will increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy.
1.2.5 Deregulation
Deregulation refers to the removal of restrictive regulations. Deregulation will lead to an increase in the number of firms in the market and hence greater competition which will induce firms to increase labour productivity to reduce costs. To increase labour productivity, firms will adopt better production technologies or engage in research and development and engage in education and training. Adopting better production technologies and research and development will lead to technological advancement which will increase the efficiency of capital in the economy. Education and training will lead to greater human capital which will increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy.
1.2.6 Cuts in Income Taxes and Capital Gains Tax
A decrease in personal income tax will increase after-tax personal income resulting in an increase in the quantity of labour in the economy. A decrease in corporate income tax will increase expected after-tax returns on planned investments and hence investment expenditure resulting in a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. A capital gains tax is a tax imposed on the profit from the sale of a certain type of asset. For example, many governments impose a capital gains tax on the profit from the sale of properties. A decrease in capital gains tax on properties will increase the incentive to invest and hence investment expenditure resulting in a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy.
1.3 Labour Market Reforms
The government can implement labour market reforms to increase the quantity of labour in the economy. For example, it can increase retirement age and incentivise firms to employ older workers through subsidies or tax incentives. It can encourage firms to provide flexible work arrangements which will encourage non-working mothers to enter the labour force. It can loosen restrictions on foreign workers through increasing the dependency ratio ceiling, reducing the foreign worker levy or lowering the eligibility criteria for the application of work pass, which will increase the number of foreign workers. It can loosen restrictions on immigrants through lowering the eligibility criteria for the application of citizenship or permanent residence, which will increase the number of immigrants.
1.3.1 Trade Liberalisation
A reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers will lead to greater competition which will induce firms to increase labour productivity to reduce costs. To increase labour productivity, firms will adopt better production technologies or engage in research and development and engage in education and training. Adopting better production technologies and research and development will lead to technological advancement which will increase the efficiency of capital in the economy. Education and training will lead to greater human capital which will increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy.
The Singapore government has been using supply-side policies to increase the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply in order to achieve potential economic growth. As actual economic growth is constrained by potential economic growth, potential economic growth is essential for achieving sustained economic growth. The Singapore government has been using interventionist supply-side policies extensively which include education and training, research and development and infrastructural development. It has also been using market-oriented supply-side policies which include cuts in income taxes and labour market reforms, and to a lesser extent, privatisation and deregulation. In recent years, however, in an attempt to induce firms to increase labour productivity, the Singapore government has been tightening restrictions on foreign workers by decreasing the dependency ratio ceiling, increasing the foreign worker levy and raising the eligibility criteria for the application of work pass. This has led to a slower growth of the labour force resulting in a tighter labour market and hence an upward pressure on wages. Note:   Although supply-side policies are mainly used to increase the production capacity in the economy, many supply-side policies will also lead to a decrease in the cost of production in the economy. For example, education and training will lead to an increase in labour productivity resulting in a fall in the cost of production in the economy. Nevertheless, the main objective of supply-side policies is to increase the production capacity rather than to decrease the cost of production in the economy. In the examination, students are often required to explain how supply-side policies can be used to increase the production capacity in the economy to achieve potential economic growth.
The effect of supply-side policies will fall more on potential output than on actual output. Indeed, if the economy is far from the full-employment equilibrium¸ actual output may not rise, at least not significantly.
1.4 Limitations of Supply-side Policies
The effects of supply-side policies will be realised only in the long run and this long effectiveness time lag makes them ineffective in the short run. For example, it takes time for education and training to increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy. Furthermore, although supply-side policies can be used to increase actual output, the effect will fall more on potential output than on actual output. Indeed, if the economy is far from the full-employment equilibrium¸ actual output may not rise, at least not significantly. Therefore, supply-side policies may not be effective for increasing actual economic growth.
2.0 SHORT-TERM SUPPLY-SIDE POLICIES
2.1 Objectives of Short-term Supply-side Policies
Short-term supply-side policies are policies that are used to decrease the cost of production in the economy in the short term and hence increase aggregate supply. As explained earlier, the effects of supply-side policies will be realised only in the long run and this long effectiveness time lag makes them ineffective in the short run. For example, it takes time for education and training to increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy. Therefore, supply-side policies are generally not used to deal with a recession. However, unlike supply-side policies, short-term supply-side policies are often used to deal with a recession, as part of a policy mix. In a recession, the government can increase economic growth by using short-term supply-side policies to reduce the cost of production in the economy in the short term. When the cost of production in the economy falls, aggregate supply will rise which will lead to an increase in national output. When firms increase production, they will employ more factor inputs from households and hence will pay them more factor income which will lead to an increase in national income. An increase in national output will lead to a rise in the demand for labour in the economy resulting in a fall in unemployment.
Short-term supply-side policies are used in Singapore. To increase economic growth in a recession, the Singapore government may reduce the employers’ CPF contribution rate in the short term to decrease the labour cost in the economy. For example, it reduced the employers’ CPF contribution rate from 20 per cent to 10 per cent in the 1997-1998 Asian Financial Crisis. The Singapore government may also help firms pay a certain proportion of wages in the short term to decrease the labour cost in the economy. For example, it implemented the Jobs Credit Scheme which helped firms pay 12 per cent of the wages of a worker up to the first $2500 in the 2008-2009 Global

2.2 Supply-side Effect of Fiscal Policy
Fiscal policy is referred to as a demand-side policy because it is used to influence aggregate demand. However, apart from aggregate demand, fiscal policy may also have an effect on aggregate supply. For example, government expenditure on education and training will lead to greater human capital which will increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy. Government expenditure on research and development will lead to technological advancement which will increase the efficiency of capital in the economy. Government expenditure on infrastructure will lead to an increase in investment expenditure resulting in a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. A decrease in corporate income tax will increase expected after-tax returns on planned investments and hence investment expenditure resulting in a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. A decrease in personal income tax will increase after-tax personal income resulting in an increase in the quantity of labour in the economy. An increase in the quantity of capital, the quantity of labour, the efficiency of capital and the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy will lead to an increase in the production capacity in the economy. In addition, an increase in the efficiency of capital and the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy will lead to an increase in labour productivity resulting in a fall in the cost of production in the economy. An increase in the production capacity and a fall in the cost of production in the economy will lead to an increase in aggregate supply. However, when economists talk about fiscal policy, unless otherwise stated, they are normally referring to the use of it to influence aggregate demand.
Fiscal policy has been mainly used for its supply-side effect in Singapore to increase the production capacity in the economy and hence aggregate supply, which is known as fiscal policy with a supply-side intent. For example, the Singapore government spends on education and training which will lead to greater human capital and hence increase the skills and knowledge of labour in the economy. It has set up the Institute of Technical Education, polytechnics and Continuing Education and Training campuses to provide education and training. The Singapore government also spends on research and development which will lead to technological advancement and hence increase the efficiency of capital in the economy.
2.3 Supply-side Effect of Monetary Policy
Monetary policy is referred to as demand-side policy because it is used to influence aggregate demand. However, apart from aggregate demand, monetary policy also has an effect on aggregate supply. Expansionary monetary policy will lead to an increase in investment expenditure resulting in a more rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. Contractionary monetary policy will lead to a decrease in investment expenditure resulting in a less rapid increase in the quantity of capital in the economy. However, when economists talk about monetary policy, unless otherwise stated, they are normally referring to the use of it to influence aggregate demand.

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Inflation explained: types, causes, effects without diagrams

Inflation and unemployment are the two most talked-about words in the contemporary society.

These two are the big problems that plague all the economies.

Almost everyone is sure that he knows what inflation exactly is, but it remains a source of great deal of confu­sion because it is difficult to define it unam­biguously.

1. Meaning of Inflation:

Inflation is often defined in terms of its supposed causes. Inflation exists when money supply exceeds available goods and services. Or inflation is attributed to budget deficit financing. A deficit budget may be financed by the additional money creation. But the situation of monetary expansion or budget deficit may not cause price level to rise. Hence the difficulty of defining ‘inflation’.

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Inflation may be defined as ‘a sustained upward trend in the general level of prices’ and not the price of only one or two goods. G. Ackley defined inflation as ‘a persistent and appreciable rise in the general level or aver­age of prices’. In other words, inflation is a state of rising prices, but not high prices.

It is not high prices but rising price level that con­stitute inflation. It constitutes, thus, an over­all increase in price level. It can, thus, be viewed as the devaluing of the worth of money. In other words, inflation reduces the purchasing power of money. A unit of money now buys less. Inflation can also be seen as a recurring phenomenon.

While measuring inflation, we take into ac­count a large number of goods and services used by the people of a country and then cal­culate average increase in the prices of those goods and services over a period of time. A small rise in prices or a sudden rise in prices is not inflation since they may reflect the short term workings of the market.

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It is to be pointed out here that inflation is a state of disequilib­rium when there occurs a sustained rise in price level. It is inflation if the prices of most goods go up. Such rate of increases in prices may be both slow and rapid. However, it is difficult to detect whether there is an upward trend in prices and whether this trend is sus­tained. That is why inflation is difficult to define in an unambiguous sense.

Let’s measure inflation rate. Suppose, in December 2007, the consumer price index was 193.6 and, in December 2008, it was 223.8. Thus, the inflation rate during the last one year was

223.8- 193.6/ 193.6 x 100 = 15.6

As inflation is a state of rising prices, de­flation may be defined as a state of falling prices but not fall in prices. Deflation is, thus, the opposite of inflation, i.e., a rise in the value of money or purchasing power of money. Disinflation is a slowing down of the rate of inflation.

2. Types of Inflation:

As the nature of inflation is not uniform in an economy for all the time, it is wise to distin­guish between different types of inflation. Such analysis is useful to study the distribu­tional and other effects of inflation as well as to recommend anti-inflationary policies. Infla­tion may be caused by a variety of factors. Its intensity or pace may be different at different times. It may also be classified in accordance with the reactions of the government toward inflation.

Thus, one may observe different types of inflation in the contemporary society:

A. On the Basis of Causes:

(i) Currency inflation:

This type of infla­tion is caused by the printing of cur­rency notes.

(ii) Credit inflation:

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Being profit-making institutions, commercial banks sanction more loans and advances to the public than what the economy needs. Such credit expansion leads to a rise in price level.

(iii) Deficit-induced inflation:

The budget of the government reflects a deficit when expenditure exceeds revenue. To meet this gap, the government may ask the central bank to print additional money. Since pumping of additional money is required to meet the budget deficit, any price rise may the be called the deficit-induced inflation.

(iv) Demand-pull inflation:

An increase in aggregate demand over the available output leads to a rise in the price level. Such inflation is called demand-pull in­flation (henceforth DPI). But why does aggregate demand rise? Classical economists attribute this rise in aggre­gate demand to money supply. If the supply of money in an economy ex­ceeds the available goods and services, DPI appears. It has been described by Coulborn as a situation of “too much money chasing too few goods.”

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Keynesians hold a different argu­ment. They argue that there can be an autonomous increase in aggregate de­mand or spending, such as a rise in con­sumption demand or investment or government spending or a tax cut or a net increase in exports (i.e., C + I + G + X – M) with no increase in money sup­ply. This would prompt upward adjust­ment in price. Thus, DPI is caused by monetary factors (classical adjustment) and non-monetary factors (Keynesian argument).

DPI can be explained in terms of Fig. 4.2, where we measure output on the horizontal axis and price level on the vertical axis. In Range 1, total spending is too short of full employment out­put, YF. There is little or no rise in the price level. As demand now rises, out­put will rise. The economy enters Range 2, where output approaches towards full employment situation. Note that in this region price level begins to rise. Ul­timately, the economy reaches full em­ployment situation, i.e., Range 3, where output does not rise but price level is pulled upward. This is demand-pull in­flation. The essence of this type of in­flation is that “too much spending chas­ing too few goods.”

Demand-Pull Inflation

(v) Cost-push inflation:

Inflation in an economy may arise from the overall increase in the cost of production. This type of inflation is known as cost-push inflation (henceforth CPI). Cost of pro­duction may rise due to an increase in the prices of raw materials, wages, etc. Often trade unions are blamed for wage rise since wage rate is not completely market-determinded. Higher wage means high cost of production. Prices of commodities are thereby increased.

A wage-price spiral comes into opera­tion. But, at the same time, firms are to be blamed also for the price rise since they simply raise prices to expand their profit margins. Thus, we have two im­portant variants of CPI wage-push in­flation and profit-push inflation.

Any­way, CPI stems from the leftward shift of the aggregate supply curve:

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B. On the Basis of Speed or Intensity:

(i) Creeping or Mild Inflation:

If the speed of upward thrust in prices is slow but small then we have creeping inflation. What speed of annual price rise is a creeping one has not been stated by the economists. To some, a creeping or mild inflation is one when annual price rise varies between 2 p.c. and 3 p.c. If a rate of price rise is kept at this level, it is con­sidered to be helpful for economic development. Others argue that if annual price rise goes slightly beyond 3 p.c. mark, still then it is considered to be of no danger.

(ii) Walking Inflation:

If the rate of annual price increase lies between 3 p.c. and 4 p.c., then we have a situation of walking inflation. When mild inflation is allowed to fan out, walking inflation appears. These two types of inflation may be described as ‘moderate inflation’.

Often, one-digit inflation rate is called ‘moder­ate inflation’ which is not only predict­able, but also keep people’s faith on the monetary system of the country. Peoples’ confidence get lost once moderately maintained rate of inflation goes out of control and the economy is then caught with the galloping inflation.

(iii) Galloping and Hyperinflation:

Walking inflation may be converted into running inflation. Running inflation is danger­ous. If it is not controlled, it may ulti­mately be converted to galloping or hyperinflation. It is an extreme form of inflation when an economy gets shatter­ed.”Inflation in the double or triple digit range of 20, 100 or 200 p.c. a year is labelled “galloping inflation”.

(iv) Government’s Reaction to Inflation:

In­flationary situation may be open or suppressed. Because of anti-infla­tionary policies pursued by the govern­ment, inflation may not be an embar­rassing one. For instance, increase in income leads to an increase in con­sumption spending which pulls the price level up.

If the consumption spending is countered by the govern­ment via price control and rationing device, the inflationary situation may be called a suppressed one. Once the government curbs are lifted, the sup­pressed inflation becomes open infla­tion. Open inflation may then result in hyperinflation.

3. Causes of Inflation:

Inflation is mainly caused by excess demand/ or decline in aggregate supply or output. Former leads to a rightward shift of the aggregate demand curve while the latter causes aggregate supply curve to shift left­ward. Former is called demand-pull inflation (DPI), and the latter is called cost-push infla­tion (CPI). Before describing the factors, that lead to a rise in aggregate demand and a de­cline in aggregate supply, we like to explain “demand-pull” and “cost-push” theories of inflation.

(i) Demand-Pull Inflation Theory:

There are two theoretical approaches to the DPI—one is classical and other is the Keynesian.

According to classical economists or mon­etarists, inflation is caused by an increase in money supply which leads to a rightward shift in negative sloping aggregate demand curve. Given a situation of full employment, classi­cists maintained that a change in money supply brings about an equiproportionate change in price level.

That is why monetarists argue that inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon. Keynesians do not find any link between money supply and pricelevel causing an upward shift in aggregate demand.

According to Keynesians, aggregate demand may rise due to a rise in consumer demand or investment demand or govern­ment expenditure or net exports or the com­bination of these four components of aggreate demand. Given full employment, such in­crease in aggregate demand leads to an up­ward pressure in prices. Such a situation is called DPI. This can be explained graphically.

DPI: Shifts in AD Curve

Just like the price of a commodity, the level of prices is determined by the interaction of aggregate demand and aggregate supply. In Fig. 4.3, aggregate demand curve is negative sloping while aggregate supply curve before the full employment stage is positive sloping and becomes vertical after the full employ­ment stage is reached. AD1 is the initial aggregate demand curve that intersects the aggregate supply curve AS at point E1.

The price level, thus, determined is OP1. As ag­gregate demand curve shifts to AD2, price level rises to OP2. Thus, an increase in aggre­gate demand at the full employment stage leads to an increase in price level only, rather than the level of output. However, how much price level will rise following an increase in aggregate demand depends on the slope of the AS curve.

(ii) Causes of Demand-Pull Inflation:

DPI originates in the monetary sector. Mon­etarists’ argument that “only money matters” is based on the assumption that at or near full employment excessive money supply will in­crease aggregate demand and will, thus, cause inflation.

An increase in nominal money supply shifts aggregate demand curve rightward. This enables people to hold excess cash bal­ances. Spending of excess cash balances by them causes price level to rise. Price level will continue to rise until aggregate demand equals aggregate supply.

Keynesians argue that inflation originates in the non-monetary sector or the real sector. Aggregate demand may rise if there is an increase in consumption expenditure following a tax cut. There may be an autonomous increase in business investment or government expendi­ture. Government expenditure is inflationary if the needed money is procured by the gov­ernment by printing additional money.

In brief, increase in aggregate demand i.e., in­crease in (C + I + G + X – M) causes price level to rise. However, aggregate demand may rise following an increase in money supply gen­erated by the printing of additional money (classical argument) which drives prices up­ward. Thus, money plays a vital role. That is why Milton Friedman argues that inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenom­enon.

There are other reasons that may push ag­gregate demand and, hence, price level up­wards. For instance, growth of population stimulates aggregate demand. Higher export earnings increase the purchasing power of the exporting countries. Additional purchasing power means additional aggregate demand. Purchasing power and, hence, aggregate de­mand may also go up if government repays public debt.

Again, there is a tendency on the part of the holders of black money to spend more on conspicuous consumption goods. Such tendency fuels inflationary fire. Thus, DPI is caused by a variety of factors.

(iii) Cost-Push Inflation Theory:

In addition to aggregate demand, aggregate supply also generates inflationary process. As inflation is caused by a leftward shift of the aggregate supply, we call it CPI. CPI is usu­ally associated with non-monetary factors. CPI arises due to the increase in cost of produc­tion. Cost of production may rise due to a rise in cost of raw materials or increase in wages.

However, wage increase may lead to an in­crease in productivity of workers. If this hap­pens, then the AS curve will shift to the right- ward not leftward—direction. We assume here that productivity does not change in spite of an increase in wages.

Such increases in costs are passed on to consumers by firms by rais­ing the prices of the products. Rising wages lead to rising costs. Rising costs lead to rising prices. And, rising prices again prompt trade unions to demand higher wages. Thus, an inflationary wage-price spiral starts. This causes aggregate supply curve to shift leftward.

CPI Shifts in AS Curve

This can be demonstrated graphically where AS1 is the initial aggregate supply curve. Below the full employment stage this AS curve is positive sloping and at full em­ployment stage it becomes perfectly inelastic.

Intersection point (E1) of AD1 and AS1 curves determine the price level (OP1). Now there is a leftward shift of aggregate supply curve to AS2. With no change in aggregate demand, this causes price level to rise to OPand output to fall to OY2. With the reduction in output, employment in the economy de­clines or unemployment rises. Further shift in AS curve to AS3results in a higher price level (OP3) and a lower volume of aggregate out­put (OY3). Thus, CPI may arise even below the full employment (YF) stage.

(iv) Causes of Cost-Push Inflation:

It is the cost factors that pull the prices up­ward. One of the important causes of price rise is the rise in price of raw materials. For in­stance, by an administrative order the govern­ment may hike the price of petrol or diesel or freight rate. Firms buy these inputs now at a higher price. This leads to an upward pres­sure on cost of production.

Not only this, CPI is often imported from outside the economy. Increase in the price of petrol by OPEC com­pels the government to increase the price of petrol and diesel. These two important raw materials are needed by every sector, espe­cially the transport sector. As a result, trans­port costs go up resulting in higher general price level.

Again, CPI may be induced by wage-push inflation or profit-push inflation. Trade unions demand higher money wages as a compen­sation against inflationary price rise. If in­crease in money wages exceed labour produc­tivity, aggregate supply will shift upward and leftward. Firms often exercise power by push­ing prices up independently of consumer de­mand to expand their profit margins.

Fiscal policy changes, such as increase in tax rates also leads to an upward pressure in cost of production. For instance, an overall in­crease in excise tax of mass consumption goods is definitely inflationary. That is why govern­ment is then accused of causing inflation.

Finally, production setbacks may result in decreases in output. Natural disaster, gradual exhaustion of natural resources, work stop­pages, electric power cuts, etc., may cause ag­gregate output to decline. In the midst of this output reduction, artificial scarcity of any goods created by traders and hoarders just simply ignite the situation.

Inefficiency, corruption, mismanagement of the economy may also be the other reasons. Thus, inflation is caused by the interplay of various factors. A particular factor cannot be held responsible for any inflationary price rise.

4. Effects of Inflation:

People’s desires are inconsistent. When they act as buyers they want prices of goods and services to remain stable but as sellers they expect the prices of goods and services should go up. Such a happy outcome may arise for some individuals; “but, when this happens, others will be getting the worst of both worlds.”

When price level goes up, there is both a gainer and a loser. To evaluate the conse­quence of inflation, one must identify the na­ture of inflation which may be anticipated and unanticipated. If inflation is anticipated, peo­ple can adjust with the new situation and costs of inflation to the society will be smaller.

In reality, people cannot predict accurately fu­ture events or people often make mistakes in predicting the course of inflation. In other words, inflation may be unanticipated when people fail to adjust completely. This creates various problems.

One can study the effects of unanticipated inflation under two broad head­ings:

(a) Effect on distribution of income and wealth; and

(b) Effect on economic growth.

(a) Effects of Inflation on Distribution of Income and Wealth:

During inflation, usu­ally people experience rise in incomes. But some people gain during inflation at the ex­pense of others. Some individuals gain be­cause their money incomes rise more rapidly than the prices and some lose because prices rise more rapidly than their incomes during inflation. Thus, it redistributes income and wealth.

Though no conclusive evidence can be cited, it can be asserted that following catego­ries of people are affected by inflation differ­ently:

(i) Creditors and debtors:

Borrowers gain and lenders lose during inflation because debts are fixed in rupee terms. When debts are repaid their real value declines by the price level increase and, hence, creditors lose. An individual may be interested in buying a house by taking loan of Rs. 7 lakh from an in­stitution for 7 years.

The borrower now wel­comes inflation since he will have to pay less in real terms than when it was borrowed. Lender, in the process, loses since the rate of interest payable remains unaltered as per agree­ment. Because of inflation, the borrower is given ‘dear’ rupees, but pays back ‘cheap’ ru­pees. However, if in an inflation-ridden economy creditors chronically loose, it is wise not to advance loans or to shut down business.

Never does it happen. Rather, the loan-giving institution makes adequate safeguard against the erosion of real value. Above all, banks do not pay any interest on current account but charges interest on loans.

(ii) Bond and debenture-holders:

In an economy, there are some people who live on interest income—they suffer most. Bondhold­ers earn fixed interest income: These people suffer a reduction in real income when prices rise. In other words, the value of one’s sav­ings decline if the interest rate falls short of inflation rate. Similarly, beneficiaries from life insurance programmes are also hit badly by inflation since real value of savings deterio­rate.

(iii) Investors:

People who put their money in shares during inflation are expected to gain since the possibility of earning of business profit brightens. Higher profit induces own­ers of firm to distribute profit among inves­tors or shareholders.

(iv) Salaried people and wage-earners:

Any­one earning a fixed income is damaged by in­flation. Sometimes, unionised worker suc­ceeds in raising wage rates of white-collar workers as a compensation against price rise. But wage rate changes with a long time lag. In other words, wage rate increases always lag behind price increases. Naturally, inflation results in a reduction in real purchasing power of fixed income-earners.

On the other hand, people earning flexible incomes may gain during inflation. The nominal incomes of such people outstrip the general price rise. As a re­sult, real incomes of this income group in­crease.

(v) Profit-earners, speculators and black marketers:

It is argued that profit-earners gain from inflation. Profit tends to rise during inflation. Seeing inflation, businessmen raise the prices of their products. This results in a bigger profit. Profit margin, however, may not be high when the rate of inflation climbs to a high level.

However, speculators dealing in business in essential commodities usually stand to gain by inflation. Black marketers are also ben­efited by inflation.

Thus, there occurs a redistribution of in­come and wealth. It is said that rich becomes richer and poor becomes poorer during infla­tion. However, no such hard and fast gener­alisation can be made. It is clear that someone wins and someone loses during inflation.

These effects of inflation may persist if in­flation is unanticipated. However, the redistributive burdens of inflation on income and wealth are most likely to be minimal if inflation is anticipated by the people. With anticipated inflation, people can build up their strategies to cope with inflation.

If the annual rate of inflation in an economy is anticipated correctly people will try to protect them against losses resulting from inflation. Workers will demand 10 p.c. wage increase if inflation is expected to rise by 10 p.c.

Similarly, a percent­age of inflation premium will be demanded by creditors from debtors. Business firms will also fix prices of their products in accordance with the anticipated price rise. Now if the en­tire society “learn to live with inflation”, the redistributive effect of inflation will be mini­mal.

However, it is difficult to anticipate prop­erly every episode of inflation. Further, even if it is anticipated it cannot be perfect. In addi­tion, adjustment with the new expected infla­tionary conditions may not be possible for all categories of people. Thus, adverse redistributive effects are likely to occur.

Finally, anticipated inflation may also be costly to the society. If people’s expectation regarding future price rise become stronger they will hold less liquid money. Mere hold­ing of cash balances during inflation is unwise since its real value declines. That is why peo­ple use their money balances in buying real estate, gold, jewellery, etc. Such investment is referred to as unproductive investment. Thus, during inflation of anticipated variety, there occurs a diversion of resources from priority to non-priority or unproductive sectors.

(b) Effect on Production and Economic Growth:

Inflation may or may not result in higher output. Below the full employment stage, inflation has a favourable effect on production. In general, profit is a rising function of the price level. An inflationary situation gives an incen­tive to businessmen to raise prices of their prod­ucts so as to earn higher volume of profit. Ris­ing price and rising profit encourage firms to make larger investments.

As a result, the multi­plier effect of investment will come into opera­tion resulting in a higher national output. How­ever, such a favourable effect of inflation will be temporary if wages and production costs rise very rapidly.

Further, inflationary situation may be as­sociated with the fall in output, particularly if inflation is of the cost-push variety. Thus, there is no strict relationship between prices and output. An increase in aggregate demand will increase both prices and output, but a supply shock will raise prices and lower output.

Inflation may also lower down further pro­duction levels. It is commonly assumed that if inflationary tendencies nurtured by experi­enced inflation persist in future, people will now save less and consume more. Rising sav­ing propensities will result in lower further outputs.

One may also argue that inflation creates an air of uncertainty in the minds of business community, particularly when the rate of in­flation fluctuates. In the midst of rising infla­tionary trend, firms cannot accurately estimate their costs and revenues. That is, in a situa­tion of unanticipated inflation, a great deal of risk element exists.

It is because of uncertainty of expected inflation, investors become reluc­tant to invest in their business and to make long-term commitments. Under the circum­stance, business firms may be deterred in in­vesting. This will adversely affect the growth performance of the economy.

However, slight dose of inflation is neces­sary for economic growth. Mild inflation has an encouraging effect on national output. But it is difficult to make the price rise of a creep­ing variety. High rate of inflation acts as a dis­incentive to long run economic growth. The way the hyperinflation affects economic growth is summed up here. We know that hyper-inflation discourages savings.

A fall in savings means a lower rate of capital forma­tion. A low rate of capital formation hinders economic growth. Further, during excessive price rise, there occurs an increase in unpro­ductive investment in real estate, gold, jewel­lery, etc. Above all, speculative businesses flourish during inflation resulting in artificial scarcities and, hence, further rise in prices.

Again, following hyperinflation, export earn­ings decline resulting in a wide imbalances in the balance of payment account. Often gallop­ing inflation results in a ‘flight’ of capital to foreign countries since people lose confidence and faith over the monetary arrangements of the country, thereby resulting in a scarcity of resources. Finally, real value of tax revenue also declines under the impact of hyperinfla­tion. Government then experiences a shortfall in investible resources.

Thus economists and policymakers are unanimous regarding the dangers of high price rise. But the consequence of hyperinfla­tion are disastrous. In the past, some of the world economies (e.g., Germany after the First World War (1914-1918), Latin American coun­tries in the 1980s) had been greatly ravaged by hyperinflation.

The German inflation of 1920s was also catastrophic:

During 1922, the German price level went up 5,470 per cent. In 1923, the situation wors­ened; the German price level rose 1,300,000,000 (1.3 billion) times. By October of 1923, the post­age in the lightest letter sent from Germany to the United States was 200,000 marks. But­ter cost 1.5 million marks per pound, meat 2 million marks, a loaf of bread 200,000 marks, and an egg 60,000 marks! Prices increased so rapidly that waiters changed the prices on the menu several times during the course of a lunch!! Sometimes, customers had to pay the double price listed on the menu when they observed it first!!! A photograph of the period shows a German housewife starting the fire in her kitchen stove with paper money and children playing with bundles of paper money tied together into building blocks!

Currently (September 2008), Indian economy experienced an inflation rate of al­most 13 p.c.—an unprecedented one over the last 16 or 17 years. However, an all-time record in price rise in India was struck in 1974-75 when it rose more than 25 p.c. Anyway, peo­ple are ultimately harassed by the high dose of inflation. That is why, it is said that ‘infla­tion is our public enemy number one.’ Rising inflation rate is a sign of failure on the part of the government.

 

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Red dead redemption 2 released date possibly leaked

consistent with a listing on Amazon, one of the most predicted game sequels of all time; crimson useless Redemption 2 is probably hitting shelves earlier than you might assume because the online retailer may have leaked crimson dead Redemption 2 launch Date.

purple useless Redemption 2 is a prequel to Rockstar video games 2010 smash-hit red useless Redemption that became released at the closing-gen PS3 and Xbox 360 consoles. It changed into released to a good deal crucial acclaim and became a massive monetary success for Rockstar video games, promoting over 15 million copies and winning many video games of the 12 months accolades.

The gritty western follows the tale of outlaw Arthur Morgan, a member of the notorious Dutch van der Linde gang as he and his gang “rob, combat, and scouse borrow their manner across the massive and rugged coronary heart of the united states so as to continue to exist”, as worded with the aid of Rockstar video games in a declaration.

purple lifeless Redemption 2 launch date in step with the list on Amazon is July twelfth, 2018.

even though, you must hold your horses because the red dead Redemption 2 launch date is simplest stated at the Mexican Amazon website online and no other international locations make any note of it.

this can only mean one of matters; both Mexican Amazon made a huge slip-up and by chance leaked the pink lifeless Redemption 2 release date or this is changed into simply positioned there for the sake of it.

This practice is occasionally called keeping a ‘placeholder’ and is a commonplace practice among most online outlets.

however, assuming the release date is accurate; that could make crimson lifeless Redemption 2 likely the largest sport release of this yr. And this in a year that’s full of sequels from 9aaf3f374c58e8c9dcdd1ebf10256fa5 and established franchises ranging from The ultimate folks 2, God of conflict 4 and Crackdown 3 among many others.

The date does fall in keeping with Rockstar games professional assertion that the sport might “release Spring 2018 on playstation four and Xbox One”.

however considering how the game has confronted numerous delays, with the game initially slated to release in autumn 2017.

Rockstar games claimed that it wants to deliver the “best revel in possible” for game enthusiasts and said in a statement after pronouncing the put off that they have been “very sorry for any unhappiness this postpone reasons, but we are firm believers in handing over a recreation most effective while it is prepared”.

It’s secure to mention that with Rockstars games excellent tune report of publishing severely acclaimed video games like their vastly famous 2013 Grand theft automobile 5 that we don’t want to fear approximately quality.

Do you observed Rockstar video games will hold their phrase and launch in Spring 2018?

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Check your the full list of soundcity MVP award winners

Finally, the 2017 Edition of Soundcity MVP Awards was Held yesterday, 12th of January at the Eko Hotel and Suite, Hosted by the 2018 Big Brother Nigeria Host, Ebuka.
Here Is The List Of Soundcity MVP Awards Winners :

BEST FEMALE MVP
TIWA SAVAGE (NG) – WINNER
NINIOLA (NG)
BABES WODUMO (SA)
SIMI (NG)
BECCA (GH)
SEYI SHAY (NG)
YEMI ALADE (NG)
BUCIE (SA)
VANESSA MDEE (TZ)

BEST HIP HOP

M.I ABAGA (NG)
SARKODIE (GH)
CASSPER NYOVEST (SA) – WINNER
OLAMIDE (NG)
NASTY C (SA)
FALZ (NG)
KWESTA (SA)
AKA (SA)

BEST POP

KISS DANIEL (NG)
TIWA SAVAGE (NG)
SIMI (NG)
DAVIDO (NG)
MALEEK BERRY (NG) – WINNER
NINIOLA (NG)
WANDE COAL (NG)
REEKADO BANKS (NG)

BEST MALE MVP

DAVIDO (NG)
RUNTOWN (NG)
DIAMOND PLATNUMZ (TZ) – WINNER
SARKODIE (GH)
NAVIO (UG)
2FACE IDIBIA (NG)
WIZKID (NG)
SHATTA WALE (GH)
OLAMIDE (NG)

BEST COLLABORATION

PARTICULA – MAJOR LAZER & DJ MAPHORISA FT. ICE PRINCE, JIDENNA, NASTY C
(SA)
MA LO – TIWA SAVAGE FT WIZKID
TONIGHT – R2BEES FT WIZKID
MA GIRL – TOOFAN FT. PATORANKING
AKANAMALI – SUN EL MUSICIAN FT. SAMTHING SOWETO
TELLI PERSON – TIMAYA FT. PHYNO & OLAMIDE
PAIN KILLER – SARKODIE FT RUNTOWN – WINNER
BOOTY LANGUAGE – SKALES FT SARKODIE
JUICE – YCEE FT MALEEKBERRY
DON’T FORGET TO PRAY – AKA & ANATII
NA WASH – BECCA FT PATORANKING
ISKABA – WANDE COAL / DJ TUNEZ
LOVE AGAIN – C4 PEDRO FT SAUTI SOL

DIGITAL ARTISTE OF THE YEAR

DAVIDO (NG)
WIZKID (NG) – WINNER
CASSPER NYOVEST (SA)
AKA (SA)
VANESSA MDEE (KQ)
YEMI ALADE (NG)
SHATTA WALE (GH)

VIDEO OF THE YEAR

MA LO – TIWA SAVAGE FT WIZKID (NG)
YOU RAPPERS SHOULD FIX UP YOUR LIFE – MI (NG)
CLOSER – WIZKID (NG)
UoK – NASTY C (SA)
10 FINGERS – AKA & ANATII (SA)
WHOLE THING – FRANK CASINO & RIKY RICK (SA)
BEEN CALLING – MALEEKBERRY (NG)
KOLOLO – BANKY W (NG)
ALL HAIL – KHULI CHANA (SA)
IF – DAVIDO (NG) – WINNER

BEST GROUP OR DUO

SAUTI SOL (KQ)
TOOFAN (TG)
MAFIKIZOLO (SA)
MICASA (SA)
DISTRUCTION BOYZ (SA) – WINNER
VVIP (GH)
R2Bees (GH)
NAVY KENZO (TZ)

SONG OF THE YEAR

PENALTY – SMALL DOCTOR (NG)
WO – OLAMIDE (NG)
SEDUCE ME – ALIKIBA
QOBISIQOLO – BHIZER FT BUSISWA, SC GORNA, BHEPEPE (SA)
GAGA SHUFFLE – 2FACE IDIBIA (NG)
IF – DAVIDO (NG) – WINNER
AKANAMALI – SUN EL MUSICIAN FT. SAMTHING SOWETO (SA)
MAD OVER YOU – RUNTOWN (NG)
CLOSER – WIZKID (NG)
JOROMI – SIMI (NG)
LEG OVER – MR EAZI (NG)

BEST NEW ARTISTE

MALEEK BERRY (NG) – WINNER
MAYORKUN (NG)
DICE AILES (NG)
SMALL DOCTOR (NG)
NADIA NAKAI (SA)
ASLAY (TZ)

VIEWERS CHOICE

WO – OLAMIDE (NG)
IF – DAVIDO (NG)
MAD OVER YOU – RUNTOWN (NG) – WINNER
LIVING THINGS – 9ICE (NG)
YEBA – KISS DANIEL (NG)
ISKABA – WANDE COAL, DJ TUNEZ (NG)
TONIGHT – NONSO AMADI (NG)
GAGA SHUFFLE – 2FACE IDIBIA

LISTENERS’ CHOICE

WO – OLAMIDE (NG) – WINNER
GAGA SHUFFLE – 2FACE IDIBIA (NG)
NASTY C –UOK (SA)
GOBISIQOLO – BHISER (SA)
MAD OVER YOU – RUNTOWN (NG)
MARADONA – NINIOLA (NG)
YOLO YOLO – SEYI SHAY (NG)
IF – DAVIDO

AFRICAN PRODUCER OF THE YEAR

MALEEKBERRY (NG).
KIDOMINANT (NG)
DJ MAPHORISA (SA)
MASTERKRAFT (NG)
JULZ (GH)
YOUNG JOHN (NG) – WINNER

AFRICAN ARTISTE OF THE YEAR

SARKODIE (GH)
CASSPER NYOVEST (SA)
DAVIDO (NG) – WINNER
WIZKID (NG)
TIWA SAVAGE (NG)
SHATTA WALE (GH)

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