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Earnably gifted me 2 books earning
May 27, 2017
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I have just joined a multiple tasks site recently for fun and some online earning. In fact, I am actively look around for a good earning site that can give me some promising income like others here.

I yet gifted myself anything even my birthday was somewhere in April. I am thinking how much should I spend as not able to cash out at any site this month.

Last few days, I found it! Luckily, I have joined an site which earned me few dollars in 30 minutes as starting. And, the first USD6 income was made in 30 minutes, it’s really a good welcome gift to me! Surprise, really a surprise!

I were happy with my first earning, and I have bought myself 2 books as a reward to myself.  This was my birthday gifts to myself as I haven’t buy anything yet even the birthday was in April.

Earnably is designed like other multiple tasks site, offers games, tasks, surveys, offers, action, etc. And, the site offers  10% of everything that the referrals earn by completing offers.  Moreover, the bonus might increase by levelling up.

We can earn 10 Points for every referral that signs up from the US, the UK, Canada or Australia, and 2 Points from everywhere else.  And, Level 3 members will earn 5% from second tier referrals.

The minimum cash out level is as low as USD1, 2, 5, 10, etc via PayPal account. And, we can redeem for Amazon gift card if live in U.S.A. What made me surprise again is, the site pays in about 72 hours time and no charge on the pay, i.e I receive the payment exactly equals to what I have redeem.

I would like to share more on the tips if you are keen to sign up under me. Come and have fun, friends!
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Mitigation of aviation’s environmental impact
May 25, 2017
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Aviation affects the environment due to aircraft engines emitting noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change[1][2] and global dimming.[3] Despite emission reductions from automobiles and more fuel-efficient (and therefore less polluting) turbofan and turboprop engines, the rapid growth of air travel in recent years contributes to an increase in total pollution attributable to aviation. In the EU, greenhouse gas emissions from aviation increased by 87% between 1990 and 2006.[4]

At present aviation accounts for 2.5% of global CO2 emissions.[5] Due to projected growth in air travel, in the most technologically radical scenarios for having a better than 50% chance of keeping global warming below 2 degrees Celsius, in 2050 aviation will make up 15% of global CO2 emissions. In more conventional scenarios its emissions will exceed the entire global carbon budget before then.[6] This presents governments and the operators of aircraft with a responsibility to reduce the aviation industry’s emissions.
Mitigation of aviation’s environmental impact can be achieved through a variety of measures, the most obvious and arguably the most economical of which is to reduce the fuel burn of the aircraft as this accounts for 28% of an airlines costs. However, there is a wide variety of other options available to minimise aviation’s growing impact upon the environment as are listed below:[7]

Aircraft efficiency Edit

The Boeing 787 Dreamliner promises to provide 20% lower fuel burn than current-generation aircraft.
As stated previously, reducing the direct fuel burn of an aircraft is the most obvious and arguably the most economical way of reducing emissions attributable to aviation. Over the last 40 years, commercial jet airliners have become 70% more fuel efficient and are predicted to be another 25% more fuel efficient by 2025.[7]

The next-generation of aircraft, including the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Airbus A350 and Bombardier CSeries, are 20% more fuel efficient per passenger kilometre than current generation aircraft. This is primarily achieved through more fuel-efficient engines and lighter airframes & supporting structures made of composite materials but is also achieved through more aerodynamic shapes, winglets, a “one-piece” fuselage and more advanced computer systems for optimising routes and loading of the aircraft. [8]

Route optimization Edit
Currently, air traffic corridors that aircraft are forced to follow place unnecessary detours on an aircraft’s route forcing higher fuel burn and an increase in emissions. An improved Air Traffic Management System with more direct routes and optimized cruising altitudes would allow airlines to reduce their emissions by up to 18%.[7]

In the European Union, a Single European Sky has been proposed for the last 15 years so that there are no overlapping airspace restrictions between countries in the EU and so reduce emissions. As yet, the Single European Sky is still only a plan but progress has been made. If the Single European Sky had been created 15 years ago, 12 million tons of CO2 could have been saved.[7]

Biofuels Edit

British Airways will be using half a million tonnes of waste annually to create biofuels for commercial use from 2014 onwards.
Biofuels are fuels derived from biomass material such as plants and waste. Plant derived biofuels offer large savings in CO2 emissions as they absorb Carbon Dioxide and release it as Oxygen when they grow and so in a life-cycle, emissions can be drastically reduced. A number of airlines have operated biofuel test flights including Virgin Atlantic Airways, which flew with one engine operating on a blend of 20% coconut oil and 80% traditional jet fuel, and Continental Airlines which flew with one engine operating on a blend of 44% Jatropha oil, 6% Algae oil and 50% traditional jet fuel. Other airlines to demonstrate biofuels include Air New Zealand and Japan Airlines.[9]

In the Continental Airlines test, the engine running partly on biofuel burned 46 kg less fuel than the conventionally fuelled engine in 1 and a half hours while producing more thrust from the same volume of fuel. Continental Airlines’ CEO, Larry Kellner, commented “This is a good step forward, an opportunity to really make a difference to the environment” citing jatropha’s 50-80% lower CO2 emissions as opposed to Jet-A1 in its lifecycle.[9]

From 2014 onwards, British Airways, in co-operation with Solena, is going to turn half a million tonnes of waste annually that would normally go to landfill from the City of London into biofuel to be used in the British Airways fleet. Waste derived biofuel produces up to 95% less pollution in its life-cycle and so therefore this measure will reduce emissions by the equivalent of taking 42,000 cars off the road every year.
Airlines and airports are looking at ways of reducing emissions and fuel burn through the use of improved operating procedures. Two of the more common ones in operation are a single-engine taxi to and from the runway and the use of a Continuous Descent Approach, or CDA, which can reduce emissions significantly during the operations in and around an airport.[11] Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) is now operating its Boeing 737 fleet at a slower cruising speed to help reduce emissions by 7-8%.[12]

Emission Trading Scheme Edit
In the EU, aviation will be including the European Emission Trading Scheme from 2012 onwards. The scheme places a cap on the emissions an aircraft operator can emit and forces the operator to either lower emissions through more efficient technology or to buy “Carbon Credits” from other companies who have produced fewer emissions than their cap. It is thought that this will reduce aviation’s net environmental impact.
Edit

Aviation produces a number of other pollutants besides carbon dioxide including nitrogen oxides (NOX), particulates, unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and contrails. A number of methods to reduce the level of these pollutants follows:

Nitrogen oxides (NOX) Edit
Nitrogen oxides have a far stronger impact upon climate change than Carbon Oxides and are produced in small quantities from aircraft engines. Engine designers have worked since the start of the jet age to reduce NOX emissions and the result is ever reducing levels of nitrogen oxide emissions. For example, between 1997 and 2003, NOX emissions from jet engines fell by over 40%.[13]

Particulates Edit
Particulates and smoke were a problem with early jet engines at high power settings but modern engines are designed so that no smoke is produced at any point in the flight.[13]

Unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) Edit

Contrails formed by high altitude aircraft.
Unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) are products of incomplete combustion of fuel and are produced in greater quantities in engines with low pressure gains in the compressors and/or relatively low temperatures in the combustor. As with particulates, UHC has all but been eliminated in modern jet engines through improved design and technology.[13]

Contrails Edit
Aircraft flying at high altitude form condensation trails or contrails in the exhaust plume of their engines. While in the Troposphere these have very little climatic impact. However, jet aircraft cruising in the Stratosphere do create an impact from their contrails, although the extent of the damage to the environment is as yet unknown. Contrails can also trigger the formation of high-altitude Cirrus cloud thus creating a greater climatic effect.[13] A 2015 study found that artificial cloudiness caused by contrail “outbreaks” reduce the difference between daytime and nighttime temperatures. The former are decreased and the latter are increased, in comparison to temperatures the day before and the day after such outbreaks.[14] On days with outbreaks the day/night temperature difference was diminished by about 6F° in the U.S. South and 5F° in the Midwest.[15]

In the three days following the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, when no commercial aircraft flew in the United States, climate scientists measured the daily temperature range over 5000 weather stations across the USA. The results showed a 1 ° Celsius change in the average daily temperature range for those days of the year, thus showing contrails do have a significant impact on climate.[3] Potential ways of reducing the impact of contrails on our climate include reducing the maximum cruising altitude of aircraft so high-altitude contrails can not form. Cruising at lower altitudes would marginally increase flight time and increase fuel consumption by 4%.
One of the by-products of an aircraft’s engine is noise and this has become an increasingly important issue which is being dealt with through many different methods:

Engines Edit
Next-Generation engines are not only more fuel-efficient but also tend to be quieter with Pratt & Whitney’s PurePower PW1000G fitted to the Bombardier CSeries aircraft being 4 times quieter than aircraft currently in service.[17] Engines can also incorporate serrated edges or ‘chevrons’ on the back of the nacelle to reduce noise impact as shown in this picture.[13]

Improved operating procedures Edit
A Continuous Descent Approach, or CDA, not only reduces fuel burn but also allows airlines to provide quieter approaches for part of the descent to a runway. As the engines are at close to idle power, less noise emissions are produced and combined with new engine technology, the reductions in noise emissions can be large.
A carbon offset is a means of reducing emissions to zero[citation needed] by saving enough carbon to balance the carbon emitted by a particular action. Several airlines have begun offering carbon offsets to passengers to offset the emissions created by their proportion of the flight. Money generated is put to projects around the world to invest in green technology such as renewable energy and research into future technology. Airlines offering carbon offsets include British Airways, easyJet, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Lufthansa and Qantas although there are many more carriers participating in such schemes.[18][19][20][21]

British Airways’ scheme Edit
British Airways’ carbon offsetting scheme involves paying a fee dependant on aircraft type, class of travel and distance flown and therefore prices vary. Funds generated are currently awarded to three renewable energy projects around the world: Bayin’aobao wind farm in Inner Mongolia, Faxinal dos Guedes hydroelectric power plant in Brazil and Xiaohe hydroelctric power plant in Gansu Province, China.[22]

Continental Airlines’ scheme Edit
Continental Airlines’ carbon offsetting scheme involves paying a fixed fee of $2 to cancel out emissions through reforestation. Passengers can also choose to pay $50 for offsetting emissions through renewable energy projects.

Human trafficking:: types, measures and efforts, structural factors, consequence and criticism.
May 24, 2017
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Trafficking of children involves the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of children for the purpose of exploitation. The commercial sexual exploitation of children can take many forms, including forcing a child into prostitution[68][69] or other forms of sexual activity or child pornography. Child exploitation may also involve forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, the removal of organs,[70] illicit international adoption, trafficking for early marriage, recruitment as child soldiers, for use in begging or as athletes (such as child camel jockeys[71] or football players[72]).

IOM statistics indicate that a significant minority (35%) of trafficked persons it assisted in 2011 were less than 18 years of age, which is roughly consistent with estimates from previous years. It was reported in 2010 that Thailand and Brazil were considered to have the worst child sex trafficking records.[73]

Traffickers in children may take advantage of the parents’ extreme poverty. Parents may sell children to traffickers in order to pay off debts or gain income, or they may be deceived concerning the prospects of training and a better life for their children. They may sell their children into labor, sex trafficking, or illegal adoptions.

The adoption process, legal and illegal, when abused can sometimes result in cases of trafficking of babies and pregnant women from developing countries to the West.[74] In David M. Smolin’s papers on child trafficking and adoption scandals between India and the United States,[75][76] he presents the systemic vulnerabilities in the inter-country adoption system that makes adoption scandals predictable.

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child at Article 34, states, “States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse”.[77] In the European Union, commercial sexual exploitation of children is subject to a directive – Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography.[78]

The Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (or Hague Adoption Convention) is an international convention dealing with international adoption, that aims at preventing child laundering, child trafficking, and other abuses related to international adoption.[79]

The Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict seeks to prevent forceful recruitment (e.g. by guerrilla forces) of children for use in armed conflicts.
Sex trafficking affects 4.5 million people worldwide.[81] Most victims find themselves in coercive or abusive situations from which escape is both difficult and dangerous.[82]

Trafficking for sexual exploitation was formerly thought of as the organized movement of people, usually women, between countries and within countries for sex work with the use of physical coercion, deception and bondage through forced debt. However, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (US),[83] does not require movement for the offence. The issue becomes contentious when the element of coercion is removed from the definition to incorporate facilitation of consensual involvement in prostitution. For example, in the United Kingdom, the Sexual Offences Act 2003 incorporated trafficking for sexual exploitation but did not require those committing the offence to use coercion, deception or force, so that it also includes any person who enters the UK to carry out sex work with consent as having been “trafficked.”[84] In addition, any minor involved in a commercial sex act in the US while under the age of 18 qualifies as a trafficking victim, even if no force, fraud or coercion is involved, under the definition of “Severe Forms of Trafficking in Persons” in the US Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000.[83]

Sexual trafficking includes coercing a migrant into a sexual act as a condition of allowing or arranging the migration. Sexual trafficking uses physical or sexual coercion, deception, abuse of power and bondage incurred through forced debt. Trafficked women and children, for instance, are often promised work in the domestic or service industry, but instead are sometimes taken to brothels where they are required to undertake sex work, while their passports and other identification papers confiscated. They may be beaten or locked up and promised their freedom only after earning – through prostitution – their purchase price, as well as their travel and visa costs.[85][86]

Forced marriage Edit
Main article: Forced marriage
A forced marriage is a marriage where one or both participants are married without their freely given consent.[87] Servile marriage is defined as a marriage involving a person being sold, transferred or inherited into that marriage.[88] According to ECPAT, “Child trafficking for forced marriage is simply another manifestation of trafficking and is not restricted to particular nationalities or countries”.[3]

A forced marriage qualifies as a form of human trafficking in certain situations. If a woman is sent abroad, forced into the marriage and then repeatedly compelled to engage in sexual conduct with her new husband, then her experience is that of sex trafficking. If the bride is treated as a domestic servant by her new husband and/or his family, then this is a form of labor trafficking.
Labour trafficking is the movement of persons for the purpose of forced labor and services.[90] It may involve bonded labor, involuntary servitude, domestic servitude, and child labor.[90] Labor trafficking happens most often within the domain of domestic work, agriculture, construction, manufacturing and entertainment; and migrant workers and indigenous people are especially at risk of becoming victims.[81]

Trafficking for organ trade Edit
Trafficking in organs is a form of human trafficking. It can take different forms. In some cases, the victim is compelled into giving up an organ. In other cases, the victim agrees to sell an organ in exchange of money/goods, but is not paid (or paid less). Finally, the victim may have the organ removed without the victim’s knowledge (usually when the victim is treated for another medical problem/illness – real or orchestrated problem/illness). Migrant workers, homeless persons, and illiterate persons are particularly vulnerable to this form of exploitation. Trafficking of organs is an organized crime, involving several offenders:[91]

the recruiter
the transporter
the medical staff
the middlemen/contractors
the buyers
Trafficking for organ trade often seeks kidneys. Trafficking in organs is a lucrative trade because in many countries the waiting lists for patients who need transplants are very long.
There are many different estimates of how large the human trafficking and sex trafficking industries are. According to scholar Kevin Bales, author of Disposable People (2004), estimates that as many as 27 million people are in “modern-day slavery” across the globe.[93][94] In 2008, the U.S. Department of State estimates that 2 million children are exploited by the global commercial sex trade.[95] In the same year, a study classified 12.3 million individuals worldwide as “forced laborers, bonded laborers or sex-trafficking victims.” Approximately 1.39 million of these individuals worked as commercial sex slaves, with women and girls comprising 98%, of the 1.36 million.[96]

The enactment of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) in 2000 by the United States Congress and its subsequent re-authorizations established the Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, which engages with foreign governments to fight human trafficking and publishes a Trafficking in Persons Report annually. The Trafficking in Persons Report evaluates each country’s progress in anti-trafficking and places each country onto one of three tiers based on their governments’ efforts to comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking as prescribed by the TVPA.[97] However, questions have been raised by critical anti-trafficking scholars about the basis of this tier system, its heavy focus on compliance with state department protocols, and its failure to consider “risk” and the likely prevalence of trafficking when rating the efforts of diverse countries.[98]

In particular, there were three main components of the TVPA, commonly called the three P’s:

PROTECTION: The TVPA increased the US Government’s efforts to protect trafficked foreign national victims including, but not limited to: Victims of trafficking, many of whom were previously ineligible for government assistance, were provided assistance; and a non-immigrant status for victims of trafficking if they cooperated in the investigation and prosecution of traffickers (T-Visas, as well as providing other mechanisms to ensure the continued presence of victims to assist in such investigations and prosecutions).

PROSECUTION: The TVPA authorized the US Government to strengthen efforts to prosecute traffickers including, but not limited to: Creating a series of new crimes on trafficking, forced labor, and document servitude that supplemented existing limited crimes related to slavery and involuntary servitude; and recognizing that modern-day slavery takes place in the context of fraud and coercion, as well as force, and is based on new clear definitions for both trafficking into sexual exploitation and labor exploitation: Sex trafficking was defined as, “a commercial sex act that is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age”. Labor trafficking was defined as, “the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery”.

PREVENTION: The TVPA allowed for increased prevention measures including: Authorizing the US Government to assist foreign countries with their efforts to combat trafficking, as well as address trafficking within the United States, including through research and awareness-raising; and providing foreign countries with assistance in drafting laws to prosecute trafficking, creating programs for trafficking victims, and assistance with implementing effective means of investigation.
Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton later identified a fourth P, “partnership”, in 2009 to serve as a, “pathway to progress in the effort against modern-day slavery.”
A complex set of factors fuel sex trafficking, including poverty, unemployment, social norms that discriminate against women, commercial demand for sex, institutional challenges, and globalization.

Poverty and globalization Edit
Poverty and lack of educational and economic opportunities in one’s hometown may lead women to voluntarily migrate and then be involuntarily trafficked into sex work.[101][102] As globalization opened up national borders to greater exchange of goods and capital, labor migration also increased. Less wealthy countries have fewer options for livable wages. The economic impact of globalization pushes people to make conscious decisions to migrate and be vulnerable to trafficking. Gender inequalities that hinder women from participating in the formal sector also push women into informal sectors.[103]

Long waiting lists for organs in the United States and Europe created a thriving international black market. Traffickers harvest organs, particularly kidneys, to sell for large profit and often without properly caring for or compensating the victims. Victims often come from poor, rural communities and see few other options than to sell organs illegally.[104] Wealthy countries’ inability to meet organ demand within their own borders perpetuates trafficking. By reforming their internal donation system, Iran achieved a surplus of legal donors and provides an instructive model for eliminating both organ trafficking and -shortage.[105]

Globalization and the rise of Internet technology has also facilitated sex trafficking. Online classified sites and social networks such as Craigslist have been under intense scrutiny for being used by johns and traffickers in facilitating sex trafficking and sex work in general. Traffickers use explicit sites and underground sites (e.g. Craigslist, Backpage, MySpace) to market, recruit, sell, and exploit females. Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites are suspected for similar uses. For example, Randal G. Jennings was convicted of sex trafficking five underage girls by forcing them to advertise on Craigslist and driving them to meet the customers.[citation needed] According to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, online classified ads reduce the risks of finding prospective customers.[106] Studies have identified the Internet as the single biggest facilitator of commercial sex trade, although it is difficult to ascertain which women advertised are sex trafficking victims.[107] Traffickers and pimps use the Internet to recruit minors, since Internet and social networking sites usage have significantly increased especially among children.[108]

Organized criminals can generate up to several thousand dollars per day from one trafficked girl, and the Internet has further increased profitability of sex trafficking and child trafficking. With faster access to a wider clientele, more sexual encounters can be scheduled.[109] Victims and clients, according to a New York City report on sex trafficking in minors, increasingly use the Internet to meet customers. Because of protests, Craigslist has since closed its adult services section. According to authorities, Backpage is now the main source for advertising trafficking victims.[110] Investigators also frequently browse online classified ads to identify potential underage girls who are trafficked.
While globalization fostered new technologies that may exacerbate sex trafficking, technology can also be used to assist law enforcement and anti-trafficking efforts. A study was done on online classified ads surrounding the Super Bowl. A number of reports have noticed increase in sex trafficking during previous years of the Super Bowl.[111] For the 2011 Super Bowl held in Dallas, Texas, the Backpage for Dallas area experienced a 136% increase on the number of posts in the Adult section on Super Bowl Sunday, where as Sundays typically have the lowest amount of posts. Researchers analyzed the most salient terms in these online ads, which suggested that many escorts were traveling across state lines to Dallas specifically for the Super Bowl, and found that the self-reported ages were higher than usual. Twitter was another social networking platform studied for detecting sex trafficking. Digital tools can be used to narrow the pool of sex trafficking cases, albeit imperfectly and with uncertainty.[112]

However, there has been no evidence found actually linking the Super Bowl – or any other sporting event – to increased trafficking or prostitution.[113][114]

Political and institutional challenges Edit
Corrupt and inadequately trained police officers can be complicit in sex trafficking and/or commit violence against sex workers, including sex trafficked victims.[115]

Anti-trafficking agendas from different groups can also be in conflict. In the movement for sex workers rights, sex workers establish unions and organizations, which seek to eliminate trafficking themselves. However, law enforcement also seek to eliminate trafficking and to prosecute trafficking, and their work may infringe on sex workers’ rights and agency. For example, the sex workers union DMSC (Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee) in Kolkata, India, has “self-regulatory boards” (SRBs) that patrol the red light districts and assist girls who are underage or trafficked. The union opposes police intervention and interferes with police efforts to bring minor girls out of brothels, on the grounds that police action might have an adverse impact on non-trafficked sex workers, especially because police officers in many places are corrupt and violent in their operations.[115] Critics argue that since sex trafficking is an economic and violent crime, it calls for law enforcement to intervene and prevent violence against victims.

Criminalization of sex work also may foster the underground market for sex work and enable sex trafficking.[101]

Difficult political situations such as civil war and social conflict are push factors for migration and trafficking. A study reported that larger countries, the richest and the poorest countries, and countries with restricted press freedom are likely to engage in more sex trafficking. Specifically, being in a transitional economy made a country nineteen times more likely to be ranked in the highest trafficking category, and gender inequalities in a country’s labor market also correlated with higher trafficking rates.[116]

An annual US State Department report in June 2013 cited Russia and China as among the worst offenders in combatting forced labour and sex trafficking, raising the possibility of US sanctions being leveraged against these countries.[117] In 1997 alone as many as 175,000 young women from Russia, as well as the former Soviet Union, were sold as commodities in the sex markets of the developed countries in Europe and the Americas.
Abolitionists who seek an end to sex trafficking explain the nature of sex trafficking as an economic supply and demand model. In this model, male demand for prostitutes leads to a market of sex work, which, in turn, fosters sex trafficking, the illegal trade and coercion of people into sex work, and pimps and traffickers become ‘distributors’ who supply people to be sexually exploited. The demand for sex trafficking can also be facilitated by some pimps’ and traffickers’ desire for women whom they can exploit as workers because they do not require wages, safe working circumstances, and agency in choosing customers.
Sex trafficking victims face threats of violence from many sources, including customers, pimps, brothel owners, madams, traffickers, and corrupt local law enforcement officials. Raids as an anti-sex trafficking measure have to potential to help, and also to harm sex trafficked victims. Because of their potentially complicated legal status and their potential language barriers, the arrest or fear of arrest creates stress and other emotional trauma for trafficking victims. Victims may also experience physical violence from law enforcement during raids.[121][122] The challenges facing victims often continue of course, after their experience of “rescue” or removal from coercive sexual exploitation. In addition to coping with their past traumatic experiences, former trafficking victims often experience social alienation in the host and home countries. Stigmatization, social exclusion, and intolerance often make it difficult for former victims to integrate into their host community, or to reintegrate into their former community. Accordingly, one of the central aims of protection assistance, is the promotion of (re)integration.[123][56] Too often however, governments and large institutional donors offer little funding to support the provision of assistance and social services to former trafficking victims. As the victims are also pushed into drug trafficking, many of them face criminal sanctions also.[124]

Psychological Edit
Short-term impact – psychological coercion Edit
The use of coercion by perpetrators and traffickers involves the use of extreme control. Perpetrators expose the victim to high amounts of psychological stress induced by threats, fear, and physical and emotional violence. Tactics of coercion are reportedly used in three phases of trafficking: recruitment, initiation, and indoctrination.[125] During the initiation phase, traffickers use foot-in-the-door techniques of persuasion to lead their victims into various trafficking industries. This manipulation creates an environment where the victim becomes completely dependent upon the authority of the trafficker.[125] Traffickers take advantage of family dysfunction, homelessness, and history of childhood abuse to psychologically manipulate women and children into the trafficking industry.[126]

One form of psychological coercion particularly common in cases of sex trafficking and forced prostitution is Stockholm syndrome. Many women entering into the sex trafficking industry are minors whom have already experienced prior sexual abuse.[127] Traffickers take advantage of young girls by luring them into the business through force and coercion, but more often through false promises of love, security, and protection. This form of coercion works to recruit and initiate the victim into the life of a sex worker, while also reinforcing a “trauma bond”, also known as Stockholm syndrome. Stockholm syndrome is a psychological response where the victim becomes attached to her perpetrator.[127][128]

The goal of a trafficker is to turn a human being into a slave. To do this, perpetrators employ tactics that can lead to the psychological consequence of learned helplessness for the victims, where they sense that they no longer have any autonomy or control over their lives.[126] Traffickers may hold their victims captive, expose them to large amounts of alcohol or use drugs, keep them in isolation, or withhold food or sleep.[126] During this time the victim often begins to feel the onset of depression, guilt and self-blame, anger and rage, and sleep disturbances, PTSD, numbing, and extreme stress. Under these pressures, the victim can fall into the hopeless mental state of learned helplessness.
For victims of specifically trafficked for the purpose of forced prostitution and sexual slavery, initiation into the trade is almost always characterized by violence.[126] Traffickers hunt down their victims and employ practices of sexual abuse, torture, brainwashing, repeated rape and physical assault until the victim submits to his or her fate as a sexual slave. Victims experience verbal threats, social isolation, and intimidation before they accept their role as a prostitute.[131]

For those enslaved in situations of forced labor, learned helplessness can also manifest itself through the trauma of living as a slave. Reports indicate that captivity for the person and financial gain of their owners adds additional psychological trauma. Victims are often cut off from all forms of social connection, as isolation allows the perpetrator to destroy the victim’s sense of self and increase his or her dependence on the perpetrator.[125]

Long-term impact Edit
Human trafficking victims may experience complex trauma as a result of repeated cases of intimate relationship trauma over long periods of time including, but not limited to, sexual abuse, domestic violence, forced prostitution, or gang rape. Complex trauma involves multifaceted conditions of depression, anxiety, self-hatred, dissociation, substance abuse, self-destructive behaviors, medical and somatic concerns, despair, and revictimization. Psychology researchers report that, although similar to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Complex trauma is more expansive in diagnosis because of the effects of prolonged trauma.[132]

Victims of sex trafficking often get “branded”[133] by their traffickers or pimps. These tattoos usually consist of bar codes or the trafficker’s name or rules. Even if a victim escapes their trafficker’s control or gets rescued, these tattoos are painful reminders of their past and results in emotional distress. To get these tattoos removed or covered-up can cost hundreds of dollars. [134]

Psychological reviews have shown that the chronic stress experienced by many victims of human trafficking can compromise the immune system.[126] Several studies found that chronic stressors (like trauma or loss) suppressed cellular and humoral immunity.[129] Victims may develop STDs and HIV/AIDS.[135] Perpetrators frequently use substance abuse as a means to control their victims, which leads to compromised health, self-destructive behavior, and long-term physical harm.[136] Furthermore, victims have reported treatment similar to torture, where their bodies are broken and beaten into submission.[136][137]

Children are especially vulnerable to these developmental and psychological consequences of trafficking due to their age. In order to gain complete control of the child, traffickers often destroy physical and mental health of the children through persistent physical and emotional abuse.[138] Victims experience severe trauma on a daily basis that devastates the healthy development of self-concept, self-worth, biological integrity, and cognitive functioning.[139] Children who grow up in constant environments of exploitation frequently exhibit antisocial behavior, over-sexualized behavior, self-harm, aggression, distrust of adults, dissociative disorders, substance abuse, complex trauma, and attention deficit disorders.[128][138][139][140] Stockholm syndrome is also a common problem for girls while they are trafficked, which can hinder them from both trying to escape, and moving forward in psychological recovery programs.
Although 98% of the sex trade is composed of women and girls[137] there is an effort to gather empirical evidence about the psychological impact of abuse common in sex trafficking upon young boys.[139][141] Boys often will experience forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, but also additional stressors of social stigma of homosexuality associated with sexual abuse for boys, and externalization of blame, increased anger, and desire for revenge.
Sex trafficking increases the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS.[143] The HIV/AIDS pandemic can be both a cause and a consequence of sex trafficking. On one hand, child-prostitutes are sought by customers because they are perceived as being less likely to be HIV positive, and this demand leads to child sex trafficking. On the other hand, trafficking leads to the proliferation of HIV, because victims, being vulnerable and often young/inexperienced, cannot protect themselves properly, and get infected.[144]

Economic impacts Edit
According to estimates from the International Labour Organization (ILO), every year the human trafficking industry generates 32 billion USD, half of which ($15.5 billion) is made in industrialized countries, and a third of which ($9.7 billion) is made in Asia.[145] A 2011 paper published in Human Rights Review, “Sex Trafficking: Trends, Challenges and Limitations of International Law”, notes that, since 2000, the number of sex-trafficking victims has risen while costs associated with trafficking have declined: “Coupled with the fact that trafficked sex slaves are the single most profitable type of slave, costing on average $1,895 each but generating $29,210 annually, [there are] stark predictions about the likely growth in commercial sex slavery in the future.”[96] Sex trafficking victims rarely get a share of the money that they make through coerced sex work, which further keeps them oppressed.
Miniseries about an Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent who are determined to stop the trafficking of women and children.
Both the human trafficking discourse and the actions undertaken by the anti-human traffickers have been criticized by some scholars[148][149] and journalists.[150] The criticism touches upon three main themes: 1) statistics and data on human trafficking; 2) the concept itself; 3) the anti-trafficking measures.

Problems with statistics and data Edit
Numerous NGOs and governmental agencies produce estimates and specific statistics on the numbers of potential and actual victims of trafficking.[151] According to the critics, these figures rarely have identifiable sources or transparent methodologies behind them and in most (if not all) instances, they are mere guesses.[152][153] Scholars argue that this is a result of the fact that it is impossible to produce any meaningful statistics on a reportedly illegal and covert phenomenon happening in the shadow economy.[148][154][155] Others argue that many of these statistics are inflated to aid advocacy of anti-trafficking NGOs and the anti-trafficking policies of governments. Because of the definition of trafficking as a process (not a singly defined act) and the fact that it is a dynamic phenomenon with constantly shifting patterns relating to economic circumstances, much of the statistical evaluation is flawed.[156]

A 2012 article in the International Communication Gazette examined the effect of two communication theories (agenda-building and agenda-setting) on media coverage on human trafficking in the United States and Britain. The article analyzed four newspapers including the Guardian and the Washington Post and categorized the content into various categories. Overall, the article found that sex trafficking was the most reported form of human trafficking by the newspapers that were analyzed (p. 154). Many of the other stories on trafficking were non-specific.[157]

Problems with the concept Edit
According to some scholars, the very concept of human trafficking is murky and misleading.[148] It has been argued that while human trafficking is commonly seen as a monolithic crime, in reality it is an act of illegal migration that involves various different actions: some of them may be criminal or abusive, but others often involve consent and are legal.[148] Laura Agustin argues that not everything that might seem abusive or coercive is considered as such by the migrant. For instance, she states that: ‘would-be travellers commonly seek help from intermediaries who sell information, services and documents. When travellers cannot afford to buy these outright, they go into debt’.[154] One scholar says that while these debts might indeed be on very harsh conditions, they are usually incurred on a voluntary basis.[148]

The critics of the current approaches to trafficking say that a lot of the violence and exploitation faced by illegal migrants derives precisely from the fact that their migration and their work are illegal and not primarily because of trafficking.[158] Tara McCormack, a lecturer in international relations at Brunel University, has opined in Spiked magazine that the whole trafficking discourse can actually be detrimental to the interests of migrants as it denies them agency and as it depoliticizes debates on migration.[159]

The international Save the Children organization also stated: “… The issue, however, gets mired in controversy and confusion when prostitution too is considered as a violation of the basic human rights of both adult women and minors, and equal to sexual exploitation per se. … trafficking and prostitution become conflated with each other. …. On account of the historical conflation of trafficking and prostitution both legally and in popular understanding, an overwhelming degree of effort and interventions of anti-trafficking groups are concentrated on trafficking into prostitution.”[

The Open Group Architecture Framework
May 24, 2017
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TMPDOODLE1495582071036

The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) is a framework for enterprise architecture that provides an approach for designing, planning, implementing, and governing an enterprise information technology architecture.[2] TOGAF is a high level approach to design. It is typically modeled at four levels: Business, Application, Data, and Technology. It relies heavily on modularization, standardization, and already existing, proven technologies and products.

TOGAF has been developed starting 1995 by The Open Group, based on DoD’s TAFIM. As of 2016, The Open Group reports that TOGAF is employed by 80% of Global 50 companies and 60% of Fortune 500 companies.[
An architecture framework is a set of tools which can be used for developing a broad range of different architectures.[4] It should:

describe a method for defining an information system in terms of a set of building blocks
show how the building blocks fit together
contain a set of tools
provide a common vocabulary
include a list of recommended standards
include a list of compliant products that can be used to implement the building blocks
The ANSI/IEEE Standard 1471-2000 specification of architecture (of software-intensive systems) may be stated as: “the fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution.”

However TOGAF has its own view, which may be specified as either a “formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at component level to guide its implementation”, or as “the structure of components, their interrelationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time.”

The Architecture Development Method (ADM) is core of TOGAF which describes a method for developing and managing the lifecycle of enterprise architecture.
TOGAF was initiated in the early 1990s as methodology for the development of technical architecture, and has been developed by The Open Group into an extensive enterprise architecture framework.[6] In 1995, the first version of TOGAF (TOGAF 1.0) was presented. This version was mainly based on the Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM), developed since the late 1980s by the US Department of Defense

In December 2001 TOGAF 7, the “Technical Edition”, was published.[7] TOGAF 8 (“Enterprise Edition”) was first published in December 2002 and republished in updated form as TOGAF 8.1 in December 2003. Around 2005 TOGAF became a registered trademark of The Open Group.[8] In November 2006 the Open Group released TOGAF 8.1.1. According to The Open Group, as of February 2011, over 15,000 individuals are TOGAF Certified.[9] As of September 2012 the official register has over 20,000 certified individuals.

An evolutionary development from TOGAF 8, TOGAF 9 includes many new features including:[10][11]

Increased rigor, including a formal Content Metamodel that links the artifacts of TOGAF together (although there are some problems with the Metamodel)[12]
Architecture repository and the Enterprise Continuum
Elimination of unnecessary differences, and many more examples and templates
Additional guidelines and techniques include:[citation needed]

A formal business-driven approach to architecture
Business capability-based planning
Guidance on how to use TOGAF to develop Security Architectures and SOA
The latest version is TOGAF 9.1, launched on 1 December 2011.[13]

The Open Group provides TOGAF free of charge to organizations for their own internal noncommercial purposes.
Enterprise architecture domains Edit
TOGAF is based on four interrelated areas of specialization called architecture domains:

Business architecture which defines the business strategy, governance, organization, and key business processes of the organization
Applications architecture which provides a blueprint for the individual systems to be deployed, the interactions between the application systems, and their relationships to the core business processes of the organization with the frameworks for services to be exposed as business functions for integration
Data architecture which describes the structure of an organization’s logical and physical data assets and the associated data management resources
Technical architecture, or technology architecture, which describes the hardware, software, and network infrastructure needed to support the deployment of core, mission-critical applications
Architecture Development Method Edit
The Architecture Development Method (ADM) is applied to develop an enterprise architecture which will meet the business and information technology needs of an organization. It may be tailored to the organization’s needs and is then employed to manage the execution of architecture planning activities.[15]

The process is iterative and cyclic. Each step checks with Requirements. Phase C involves some combination of both Data Architecture and Applications Architecture. Additional clarity can be added between steps B and C in order to provide a complete information architecture.

Performance engineering working practices are applied to the Requirements phase, and to the Business Architecture, Information System Architecture, and Technology architecture phases. Within Information System Architecture, it is applied to both the Data Architecture and Application Architecture.

Enterprise Continuum Edit
The Enterprise Continuum is a way of classifying solutions and architectures on a continuum that ranges from generic foundation architectures through to tailored organization-specific both within and outside the Architecture Repository.[16] These include architectural models, architectural patterns, architecture descriptions, and other artifacts. These artifacts may exist within the enterprise and also in the IT industry at large.

The Enterprise Continuum consists of both the Architecture Continuum and the Solutions Continuum. The Architecture Continuum specifies the structuring of reusable architecture assets and includes rules, representations, and relationships of the information system(s) available to the enterprise. The Solutions Continuum describes the implementation of the Architecture Continuum by defining reusable solutions building blocks.
TOGAF Certified Tools Edit
The Open Group has a certification program for TOGAF 9 Tools. For the latest register of certified tools see The Open Group register.[17]

Qualifications Edit
The Open Group oversees formal qualifications in TOGAF at two levels, which can be taken following formal training or self-study.[18]

Foundation Edit
(Level I) Ensures that an individual understands Enterprise Architecture along with core concepts and terminology of TOGAF.[18]

Certified Edit
(Level II) Further to the Foundation qualification, this establishes that the candidate is able to analyse and apply their knowledge to business problems.[18]

Gaining TOGAF Certified status automatically confers free membership of the Association of Enterprise Architects.
Despite TOGAF being considered as the de facto standard in an EA practice, it is not without its critics:

Research evidence shows that “most TOGAF recommendations are usually found inapplicable” and not followed even in the organizations included in the list of TOGAF-users provided by The Open Group.[20] That is why TOGAF can be considered only as “a toolkit of random EA-related recommendations” and “‘using TOGAF’ can be best explained as ‘studying TOGAF and then doing something else instead’”[21]
Real examples demonstrating the actual practical usage of TOGAF’s recommendations are missing. “There is a pressing need for some detailed worked examples and use cases. Although these were requested, they were not forthcoming from TOGAF trainers or The Open Group”[22]
EA practitioners report that TOGAF can hardly be followed step-by-step. “Our initial assumptions about TOGAF were that it would be a sort of ‘methodology’ that we could follow to produce our EA, however this turned out not to be the case”[22]
TOGAF’s prescriptions are vague and inarticulate since it “only states that the ADM should be adapted without specifying how”[23]
Jason Bloomberg argues that “for many organizations, TOGAF has gained traction simply because it’s better than doing nothing”

Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA)
May 24, 2017
0
TMPDOODLE1495577757355

ISACA is an international professional association focused on IT Governance. Previously known as the Information Systems Audit and Control Association, ISACA now goes by its acronym only.
ISACA originated in United States in 1967,[1] when a group of individuals working on auditing controls in computer systems started to become increasingly critical of the operations of their organizations. They identified a need for a centralized source of information and guidance in the field. In 1969, Stuart Tyrnauer, an employee of the (then) Douglas Aircraft Company, incorporated the group as the EDP Auditors Association (EDPAA).[3] Tyrnauer served as the body’s founding chairman for the first three years. In 1976 the association formed an education foundation to undertake large-scale research efforts to expand the knowledge of and value accorded to the fields of governance and control of information technology.

The association became the Information Systems Audit and Control Association in 1994.[4]

By 2008 the organization had dropped its long title and branded itself as ISACA.
ISACA currently serves more than 110,000 constituents (members and professionals holding ISACA certifications) in more than 180 countries. The job titles of members are such as IS auditor, consultant, educator, IS security professional, regulator, chief information officer and internal auditor. They work in nearly all industry categories. There is a network of ISACA chapters with more than 200 chapters established in over 180 countries. Chapters provide education, resource sharing, advocacy, networking and other benefits.
COBIT
Information System Control Journal
Risk IT
Standards, Guidelines and Procedures for information system auditing[6][7] (Guideline co-developed with the International Federation of Accountants)
Security, Audit and Control Features SAP ERP[8]
Val IT (Getting best value from IT investments)
The CSX-P, ISACA’s first cybersecurity certification, was introduced in the summer of 2015. It is one of the few certifications that require the individual to work in a live environment, with real problems, to obtain a certification. Specifically, the exam puts test takers in a live network with a real incident taking place. The student’s efforts to respond to the incident and fix the problem results in the type of score awarded.

Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA)
May 24, 2017
0
TMPDOODLE1495577757355

ISACA is an international professional association focused on IT Governance. Previously known as the Information Systems Audit and Control Association, ISACA now goes by its acronym only.
ISACA originated in United States in 1967,[1] when a group of individuals working on auditing controls in computer systems started to become increasingly critical of the operations of their organizations. They identified a need for a centralized source of information and guidance in the field. In 1969, Stuart Tyrnauer, an employee of the (then) Douglas Aircraft Company, incorporated the group as the EDP Auditors Association (EDPAA).[3] Tyrnauer served as the body’s founding chairman for the first three years. In 1976 the association formed an education foundation to undertake large-scale research efforts to expand the knowledge of and value accorded to the fields of governance and control of information technology.

The association became the Information Systems Audit and Control Association in 1994.[4]

By 2008 the organization had dropped its long title and branded itself as ISACA.
ISACA currently serves more than 110,000 constituents (members and professionals holding ISACA certifications) in more than 180 countries. The job titles of members are such as IS auditor, consultant, educator, IS security professional, regulator, chief information officer and internal auditor. They work in nearly all industry categories. There is a network of ISACA chapters with more than 200 chapters established in over 180 countries. Chapters provide education, resource sharing, advocacy, networking and other benefits.
COBIT
Information System Control Journal
Risk IT
Standards, Guidelines and Procedures for information system auditing[6][7] (Guideline co-developed with the International Federation of Accountants)
Security, Audit and Control Features SAP ERP[8]
Val IT (Getting best value from IT investments)
The CSX-P, ISACA’s first cybersecurity certification, was introduced in the summer of 2015. It is one of the few certifications that require the individual to work in a live environment, with real problems, to obtain a certification. Specifically, the exam puts test takers in a live network with a real incident taking place. The student’s efforts to respond to the incident and fix the problem results in the type of score awarded.

Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA)
May 24, 2017
0
TMPDOODLE1495577757355

ISACA is an international professional association focused on IT Governance. Previously known as the Information Systems Audit and Control Association, ISACA now goes by its acronym only.
ISACA originated in United States in 1967,[1] when a group of individuals working on auditing controls in computer systems started to become increasingly critical of the operations of their organizations. They identified a need for a centralized source of information and guidance in the field. In 1969, Stuart Tyrnauer, an employee of the (then) Douglas Aircraft Company, incorporated the group as the EDP Auditors Association (EDPAA).[3] Tyrnauer served as the body’s founding chairman for the first three years. In 1976 the association formed an education foundation to undertake large-scale research efforts to expand the knowledge of and value accorded to the fields of governance and control of information technology.

The association became the Information Systems Audit and Control Association in 1994.[4]

By 2008 the organization had dropped its long title and branded itself as ISACA.
ISACA currently serves more than 110,000 constituents (members and professionals holding ISACA certifications) in more than 180 countries. The job titles of members are such as IS auditor, consultant, educator, IS security professional, regulator, chief information officer and internal auditor. They work in nearly all industry categories. There is a network of ISACA chapters with more than 200 chapters established in over 180 countries. Chapters provide education, resource sharing, advocacy, networking and other benefits.
COBIT
Information System Control Journal
Risk IT
Standards, Guidelines and Procedures for information system auditing[6][7] (Guideline co-developed with the International Federation of Accountants)
Security, Audit and Control Features SAP ERP[8]
Val IT (Getting best value from IT investments)
The CSX-P, ISACA’s first cybersecurity certification, was introduced in the summer of 2015. It is one of the few certifications that require the individual to work in a live environment, with real problems, to obtain a certification. Specifically, the exam puts test takers in a live network with a real incident taking place. The student’s efforts to respond to the incident and fix the problem results in the type of score awarded.

The Open Group Architecture Framework
May 24, 2017
0
TMPDOODLE1495577298757

The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) is a framework for enterprise architecture that provides an approach for designing, planning, implementing, and governing an enterprise information technology architecture.[2] TOGAF is a high level approach to design. It is typically modeled at four levels: Business, Application, Data, and Technology. It relies heavily on modularization, standardization, and already existing, proven technologies and products.

TOGAF has been developed starting 1995 by The Open Group, based on DoD’s TAFIM. As of 2016, The Open Group reports that TOGAF is employed by 80% of Global 50 companies and 60% of Fortune 500 companies.[
An architecture framework is a set of tools which can be used for developing a broad range of different architectures.[4] It should:

describe a method for defining an information system in terms of a set of building blocks
show how the building blocks fit together
contain a set of tools
provide a common vocabulary
include a list of recommended standards
include a list of compliant products that can be used to implement the building blocks
The ANSI/IEEE Standard 1471-2000 specification of architecture (of software-intensive systems) may be stated as: “the fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution.”

However TOGAF has its own view, which may be specified as either a “formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at component level to guide its implementation”, or as “the structure of components, their interrelationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time.”

The Architecture Development Method (ADM) is core of TOGAF which describes a method for developing and managing the lifecycle of enterprise architecture.
TOGAF was initiated in the early 1990s as methodology for the development of technical architecture, and has been developed by The Open Group into an extensive enterprise architecture framework.[6] In 1995, the first version of TOGAF (TOGAF 1.0) was presented. This version was mainly based on the Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM), developed since the late 1980s by the US Department of Defense

In December 2001 TOGAF 7, the “Technical Edition”, was published.[7] TOGAF 8 (“Enterprise Edition”) was first published in December 2002 and republished in updated form as TOGAF 8.1 in December 2003. Around 2005 TOGAF became a registered trademark of The Open Group.[8] In November 2006 the Open Group released TOGAF 8.1.1. According to The Open Group, as of February 2011, over 15,000 individuals are TOGAF Certified.[9] As of September 2012 the official register has over 20,000 certified individuals.

An evolutionary development from TOGAF 8, TOGAF 9 includes many new features including:[10][11]

Increased rigor, including a formal Content Metamodel that links the artifacts of TOGAF together (although there are some problems with the Metamodel)[12]
Architecture repository and the Enterprise Continuum
Elimination of unnecessary differences, and many more examples and templates
Additional guidelines and techniques include:[citation needed]

A formal business-driven approach to architecture
Business capability-based planning
Guidance on how to use TOGAF to develop Security Architectures and SOA
The latest version is TOGAF 9.1, launched on 1 December 2011.[13]

The Open Group provides TOGAF free of charge to organizations for their own internal noncommercial purposes.
Enterprise architecture domains Edit
TOGAF is based on four interrelated areas of specialization called architecture domains:

Business architecture which defines the business strategy, governance, organization, and key business processes of the organization
Applications architecture which provides a blueprint for the individual systems to be deployed, the interactions between the application systems, and their relationships to the core business processes of the organization with the frameworks for services to be exposed as business functions for integration
Data architecture which describes the structure of an organization’s logical and physical data assets and the associated data management resources
Technical architecture, or technology architecture, which describes the hardware, software, and network infrastructure needed to support the deployment of core, mission-critical applications
Architecture Development Method Edit
The Architecture Development Method (ADM) is applied to develop an enterprise architecture which will meet the business and information technology needs of an organization. It may be tailored to the organization’s needs and is then employed to manage the execution of architecture planning activities.[15]

The process is iterative and cyclic. Each step checks with Requirements. Phase C involves some combination of both Data Architecture and Applications Architecture. Additional clarity can be added between steps B and C in order to provide a complete information architecture.

Performance engineering working practices are applied to the Requirements phase, and to the Business Architecture, Information System Architecture, and Technology architecture phases. Within Information System Architecture, it is applied to both the Data Architecture and Application Architecture.

Enterprise Continuum Edit
The Enterprise Continuum is a way of classifying solutions and architectures on a continuum that ranges from generic foundation architectures through to tailored organization-specific both within and outside the Architecture Repository.[16] These include architectural models, architectural patterns, architecture descriptions, and other artifacts. These artifacts may exist within the enterprise and also in the IT industry at large.

The Enterprise Continuum consists of both the Architecture Continuum and the Solutions Continuum. The Architecture Continuum specifies the structuring of reusable architecture assets and includes rules, representations, and relationships of the information system(s) available to the enterprise. The Solutions Continuum describes the implementation of the Architecture Continuum by defining reusable solutions building blocks.
TOGAF Certified Tools Edit
The Open Group has a certification program for TOGAF 9 Tools. For the latest register of certified tools see The Open Group register.[17]

Qualifications Edit
The Open Group oversees formal qualifications in TOGAF at two levels, which can be taken following formal training or self-study.[18]

Foundation Edit
(Level I) Ensures that an individual understands Enterprise Architecture along with core concepts and terminology of TOGAF.[18]

Certified Edit
(Level II) Further to the Foundation qualification, this establishes that the candidate is able to analyse and apply their knowledge to business problems.[18]

Gaining TOGAF Certified status automatically confers free membership of the Association of Enterprise Architects.
Despite TOGAF being considered as the de facto standard in an EA practice, it is not without its critics:

Research evidence shows that “most TOGAF recommendations are usually found inapplicable” and not followed even in the organizations included in the list of TOGAF-users provided by The Open Group.[20] That is why TOGAF can be considered only as “a toolkit of random EA-related recommendations” and “‘using TOGAF’ can be best explained as ‘studying TOGAF and then doing something else instead’”[21]
Real examples demonstrating the actual practical usage of TOGAF’s recommendations are missing. “There is a pressing need for some detailed worked examples and use cases. Although these were requested, they were not forthcoming from TOGAF trainers or The Open Group”[22]
EA practitioners report that TOGAF can hardly be followed step-by-step. “Our initial assumptions about TOGAF were that it would be a sort of ‘methodology’ that we could follow to produce our EA, however this turned out not to be the case”[22]
TOGAF’s prescriptions are vague and inarticulate since it “only states that the ADM should be adapted without specifying how”[23]
Jason Bloomberg argues that “for many organizations, TOGAF has gained traction simply because it’s better than doing nothing”

What do you know about business ???
May 23, 2017
0
TMPDOODLE1495532772642

A business (also known as an enterprise, a company, or a firm) is an organizational entity involved in the provision of goods and services to consumers.[1][2] Businesses serve as a form of economic activity, and are prevalent in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and provide goods and services allocated through a market to consumers and customers in exchange for other goods, services, money, or other forms of exchange that hold intrinsic economic value. Businesses may also be social non-profit enterprises or state-owned public enterprises operated by governments with specific social and economic objectives. A business owned by multiple private individuals may form as an incorporated company or jointly organise as a partnership. Countries have different laws that may ascribe different rights to the various business entities.

The word “business” can refer to a particular organization or to an entire market sector (for example: “the financial sector”) or to the sum of all economic activity (“the business sector”). Compound forms such as “agribusiness” represent subsets of the concept’s broader meaning, which encompasses all activity by suppliers of goods and services.

Businesses aim to maximize sales to have their income exceed their expenditures, resulting in a profit, gain or surplus.
Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common entities exist:

Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship, also known as a sole trader, is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner operates the business alone and may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, whether from operating costs or judgements against the business. All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, including, for example, computer infrastructure, any inventory, manufacturing equipment, or retail fixtures, as well as any real property owned by the sole proprietor.
Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business. The three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are: general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships.[3]
Corporation: The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a separate legal personality from its owners. Corporations can be either government-owned or privately owned. They can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A privately owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A privately owned, for-profit corporation can be either privately held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange.
Cooperative: Often referred to as a “co-op”, a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, and they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are typically classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives. Cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy.
Limited liability companies (LLC), limited liability partnerships, and other specific types of business organization protect their owners or shareholders from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections. In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are usually not as protected.[4][5]
Franchises: A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open and run a business from a larger corporation.[6] Franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of twelve retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business.
Agriculture such as the domestication of fish, animals and livestock, as well as lumber, oil and mining businesses that extract natural resources and raw materials, such as wood, petroleum, natural gas, ores, plants or minerals.
Financial services businesses include banks, brokerage firms, credit unions, credit cards, insurance companies, asset and investment companies such as private equity firms, real estate investment trusts, sovereign wealth funds, pension funds, mutual funds, index funds, and hedge funds, stock exchanges, and other companies that generate profits through investment and management of capital.
Entertainment and mass media companies generate profits primarily from the sale of intellectual property – they include film studios and production houses, mass media companies such as cable television networks, online digital media agencies, mobile media outlets, newspapers, book and magazine publishing houses.
Industrial manufacturers produce products, either from raw materials or from component parts, then export the finished products at a profit – they include tangible goods such as cars, glass, or aircraft.
Real estate businesses sell, invest, construct and develop properties – including land, residential homes, and other buildings.
Retailers, wholesalers, and distributors act as middlemen and get goods produced by manufacturers to the intended consumers; they make their profits by marking up their prices. Most stores and catalog companies are distributors or retailers.
Transportation businesses such as railways, airlines, shipping companies that deliver goods and individuals to their destinations for a fee.
Utilities produce public services such as electricity, waste management or sewage treatment, usually under the charge of a government.
Service businesses offer intangible goods or services and typically charge for labor or other services provided to government, to consumers, or to other businesses. Interior decorators, hairstylists, tanning salons, laundromats, and pest controllers are service businesses.
The efficient and effective operation of a business, and study of this subject, is called management. The major branches of management are financial management, marketing management, human resource management, strategic management, production management, operations management, service management, and information technology management.[citation needed]

Owners may manage their businesses themselves, or employ managers to do so for them. Whether they are owners or employees, managers administer three primary components of the business’ value: financial resources, capital (tangible resources), and human resources. These resources are administered in at least five functional areas: legal contracting, manufacturing or service production, marketing, accounting, financing, and human resources.[citation needed]

Restructuring state enterprises Edit
In recent decades, states modeled some of their assets and enterprises after business enterprises. In 2003, for example, the People’s Republic of China modeled 80% of its state-owned enterprises on a company-type management system.[8] Many state institutions and enterprises in China and Russia have transformed into joint-stock companies, with part of their shares being listed on public stock markets.

Business process management (BPM) is a holistic management approach focused on aligning all aspects of an organization with the wants and needs of clients. BPM attempts to improve processes continuously. It can therefore be described as a “process optimization process.” It is argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, effective and capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach.
Most legal jurisdictions specify the forms of ownership that a business can take, creating a body of commercial law for each type.

The major factors affecting how a business is organized are usually:

The size and scope of the business firm and its structure, management, and ownership, broadly analyzed in the theory of the firm. Generally, a smaller business is more flexible, while larger businesses, or those with wider ownership or more formal structures, will usually tend to be organized as corporations or (less often) partnerships. In addition, a business that wishes to raise money on a stock market or to be owned by a wide range of people will often be required to adopt a specific legal form to do so.
The sector and country. Private profit-making businesses are different from government-owned bodies. In some countries, certain businesses are legally obliged to be organized in certain ways.
Tax advantages. Different structures are treated differently in tax law, and may have advantages for this reason.
Disclosure and compliance requirements. Different business structures may be required to make less or more information public (or report it to relevant authorities), and may be bound to comply with different rules and regulations.
Many businesses are operated through a separate entity such as a corporation or a partnership (either formed with or without limited liability). Most legal jurisdictions allow people to organize such an entity by filing certain charter documents with the relevant Secretary of State or equivalent, and complying with certain other ongoing obligations. The relationships and legal rights of shareholders, limited partners, or members are governed partly by the charter documents and partly by the law of the jurisdiction where the entity is organized. Generally speaking, shareholders in a corporation, limited partners in a limited partnership, and members in a limited liability company are shielded from personal liability for the debts and obligations of the entity, which is legally treated as a separate “person”. This means that unless there is misconduct, the owner’s own possessions are strongly protected in law if the business does not succeed.

Where two or more individuals own a business together but have failed to organize a more specialized form of vehicle, they will be treated as a general partnership. The terms of a partnership are partly governed by a partnership agreement if one is created, and partly by the law of the jurisdiction where the partnership is located. No paperwork or filing is necessary to create a partnership, and without an agreement, the relationships and legal rights of the partners will be entirely governed by the law of the jurisdiction where the partnership is located. A single person who owns and runs a business is commonly known as a sole proprietor, whether that person owns it directly or through a formally organized entity. Depending on the business needs, an adviser can decide what kind is proprietorship will be most suitable.

A few relevant factors to consider in deciding how to operate a business include:

General partners in a partnership (other than a limited liability partnership), plus anyone who personally owns and operates a business without creating a separate legal entity, are personally liable for the debts and obligations of the business.
Most legal jurisdictions specify the forms of ownership that a business can take, creating a body of commercial law for each type.

The major factors affecting how a business is organized are usually:

The size and scope of the business firm and its structure, management, and ownership, broadly analyzed in the theory of the firm. Generally, a smaller business is more flexible, while larger businesses, or those with wider ownership or more formal structures, will usually tend to be organized as corporations or (less often) partnerships. In addition, a business that wishes to raise money on a stock market or to be owned by a wide range of people will often be required to adopt a specific legal form to do so.
The sector and country. Private profit-making businesses are different from government-owned bodies. In some countries, certain businesses are legally obliged to be organized in certain ways.
Tax advantages. Different structures are treated differently in tax law, and may have advantages for this reason.
Disclosure and compliance requirements. Different business structures may be required to make less or more information public (or report it to relevant authorities), and may be bound to comply with different rules and regulations.
Many businesses are operated through a separate entity such as a corporation or a partnership (either formed with or without limited liability). Most legal jurisdictions allow people to organize such an entity by filing certain charter documents with the relevant Secretary of State or equivalent, and complying with certain other ongoing obligations. The relationships and legal rights of shareholders, limited partners, or members are governed partly by the charter documents and partly by the law of the jurisdiction where the entity is organized. Generally speaking, shareholders in a corporation, limited partners in a limited partnership, and members in a limited liability company are shielded from personal liability for the debts and obligations of the entity, which is legally treated as a separate “person”. This means that unless there is misconduct, the owner’s own possessions are strongly protected in law if the business does not succeed.

Where two or more individuals own a business together but have failed to organize a more specialized form of vehicle, they will be treated as a general partnership. The terms of a partnership are partly governed by a partnership agreement if one is created, and partly by the law of the jurisdiction where the partnership is located. No paperwork or filing is necessary to create a partnership, and without an agreement, the relationships and legal rights of the partners will be entirely governed by the law of the jurisdiction where the partnership is located. A single person who owns and runs a business is commonly known as a sole proprietor, whether that person owns it directly or through a formally organized entity. Depending on the business needs, an adviser can decide what kind is proprietorship will be most suitable.

A few relevant factors to consider in deciding how to operate a business include:

General partners in a partnership (other than a limited liability partnership), plus anyone who personally owns and operates a business without creating a separate legal entity, are personally liable for the debts and obligations of the business.

Anything esle on Parikrma Humanity Foundation
May 23, 2017
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Parikrma Humanity Foundation is a non-profit organization located in Bangalore, India.[3] Parikrma addresses the growing gap in urban India between those benefitting from economic liberalization and those who are not, in which consequently only a minority of children in India can afford access to private schools where the content of education is of high quality and in the English medium. Children from slum and rural communities attend schools in the free government-run mass schooling system, where they only teach in the state language, which often proves insufficient in attaining job opportunities in a rapidly globalizing world. Parikrma believes that even the poorest children from the slums of urban India should be able to access the best opportunities in our globalized society and play a positive role in its evolution.[4]

The name Parikrma comes from a combination of two Sanskrit words, “pari” meaning circle, and “krma” meaning to complete. Parikrma strives to complete “The Circle of Life” by supporting children from kindergarten until they procure a job, thus ensuring that their students break out of the cycle of poverty.

Now in its 11th year, Parikrma runs 4 Centres for Learning and a Junior College for 1566 children from 69 slum communities and 4 orphanages in Bangalore. Parikrma is a nondenominational nonprofit that does not discriminate on the basis of caste, creed, or religion.
Parikrma was founded in 2003 by Shukla Bose, who left at the peak of her career as a CEO in the hospitality industry with 26 years of experience.

In order to establish Parikrma, she and her team personally visited numerous slum communities in order to understand the need and context of poverty in Bangalore, as well as to identify children who would potentially never have the opportunity to attend school, and convincing their parents that education could bring about positive change in their children’s lives. She realized that the reason that children from slum communities dropped out of school at an early age was not due to a lack of interest in education but rather due to difficult circumstances such as malnutrition, dysfunctional home environments, financial constraints, etc.

The first Parikrma school began June 2, 2003 on a space rented on the rooftop of a Tamil-medium school with 165 students and 11 staff members.
Parikrma’s mission is to unleash the potential of under-served children which will provide them with equal opportunities and make them valuable contributing members of society.

Their motto is “Love, Explore, Excel”,[5] which focuses on the importance of:

Loving oneself, family, friends, neighbors, the environment and life.
Exploration through imagination, curiosity, creativity, cutting-edge knowledge and dreams.
Excelling by striving for the best, taking on challenges and reaching out higher.
Parikrma’s vision is to create a sustainable model and a clear way for underserved children to transform their lives through top-class education, and in the process become a catalyst for effecting fundamental change in the way the poor and marginalized are educated.[6
Parikrma’s educational philosophy rests on “The Four Pillars”:[7]

Empowering children by imparting superior knowledge, mental and physical skills, and good values
Providing real-life experience and enhancing useful life-skills
Self-expression through art, music, dance, and other creative forms
Exposure to a wide range of knowledge, viewpoints, activities, etc.
Parikrma has adopted the CBSE English curriculum, built around the concept of understanding and making learning fun and experiential.

Parikrma operates on a 360-degree development model, supporting various aspects of a child’s life. They provide three meals a day, comprehensive healthcare including regular health check-ups, immunizations, and counseling, and community support for parents, including de-addiction programs, women’s empowerment, wellness workshops, vocational skills, etc.[8]

Parikrma also believes in an end-to-end (e2e) model in which they look after a child from kindergarten until they are placed in a job, ensuring that they break out of a cycle of poverty, which they call completing “the Circle of Life.” Their Final Leap program aids a student in choosing the right professional course which matches their strengths and interests, or provides scholarships to pursue college or vocational training.[9] Their Last Mile program provides a professional mentor while students acclimate to their first year in the workplace.
Parikrma schools boast 96% attendance, which is one of the highest in the country, with less than a 1% dropout rate. 98% of students go on to pursue a college education.

A key factor in the success of Parikrma’s model is establishing English language excellence. In order to accomplish this, Parikrma has an “English First” program in which teachers take the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) and children enrolled in Parikrma begin with a unique 3-month English program that enables them to grasp the rudiments of the language and lay a foundation for English-medium learning.

The Universe to You (Universe2U) is a science program crucial in providing a basis for the capacity for rational enquiry at Parikrma.

Furthermore, sport is an integral co-curricular activity. At the basic level, they provide a physical training program that helps all children develop their motor skills and improve their physical conditioning. The United Parikrma Sports Program identifies talented children who are further trained in football, athletics and taekwondo, providing them an opportunity to compete at the highest levels. Parikrma also organizes a yearly, under-16 inter-school football tournament called the Parikrma Champions League (PCL).

The honing of aesthetic sense, be it music, dance, theater or art, is also something that is taken extremely seriously at Parikrma. Art is seen as an essential method in which children can express themselves.
Parikrma schools boast 96% attendance, which is one of the highest in the country, with less than a 1% dropout rate. 98% of students go on to pursue a college education.

A key factor in the success of Parikrma’s model is establishing English language excellence. In order to accomplish this, Parikrma has an “English First” program in which teachers take the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) and children enrolled in Parikrma begin with a unique 3-month English program that enables them to grasp the rudiments of the language and lay a foundation for English-medium learning.

The Universe to You (Universe2U) is a science program crucial in providing a basis for the capacity for rational enquiry at Parikrma.

Furthermore, sport is an integral co-curricular activity. At the basic level, they provide a physical training program that helps all children develop their motor skills and improve their physical conditioning. The United Parikrma Sports Program identifies talented children who are further trained in football, athletics and taekwondo, providing them an opportunity to compete at the highest levels. Parikrma also organizes a yearly, under-16 inter-school football tournament called the Parikrma Champions League (PCL).

The honing of aesthetic sense, be it music, dance, theater or art, is also something that is taken extremely seriously at Parikrma. Art is seen as an essential method in which children can express themselves.
In its 11th year of operations, the first batch of Parikrma’s students are now pursuing higher education and beginning to enter the workforce. Alumni from Parikrma are studying at various universities in Bangalore, such as the MR Ambedkar Dental College, National Law School of India University, KLE Law College, and M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology. They have also pursued jobs such as a dialysis therapist at Manipal Teaching Hospital, a software engineer at Cisco Systems, and as an assistant chef at the Hilton Hotel in Bangalore.
Parikrma avoids playing into the numbers game, which is tempting when looking at the millions of children who do not attend school in India. Instead of looking at horizontal expansion, they focus on quality and depth of change. They strive to be a thought leader in education, and therefore their Educational Transformation Centre (ETC) works to spread their model by doing the following:

Training teachers from government schools and low-cost private English schools in delivering the Parikrma Model
Training social workers in managing expectations of parents and their communities
Providing leadership training to administrators of schools
Commitment to continuous pedagogy research to make education relevant and contemporary
The ETC will be managed as a stand-alone entity with a separate team headed by a director with experience in the area of leadership and teacher training. The funding for running the various programs of the ETC will come from donors as well as fees from the actual training programs. Parikrma believes this will be a way to replicate their successes by sharing best practices and making a larger impact within India’s government mass schooling system.[10]

The ETC began its operations in July, 2014. Teachers from 200 government schools are being trained and mentored to bring about change in the state education system, and Parikrma’s goal is to influence 60,000 children through its Centres as well as the ETC.
Derozio Award Excellence in Human Enrichment and Education
Governor’s Award for Exemplary Social Work, 2007