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8 Mind-Blowing Facts About Space – Mashable

Image: Flickr, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
When you look up at the stars, what do you think about? That we may be not be alone? The vastness of it all?

There’s a lot to wonder about space. The fact is we don’t know all the answers about it. We know it’s vast and beautiful, but we’re not really sure how vast (or how beautiful, for that matter).

Some of the things we do know, however, are downright mind-boggling. Below, we’ve collected some of the most amazing facts about space, so when you look up at the stars you can be ever more wowed by what you’re looking at.

Though the study of astronomy predates recorded history, and physical space exploration has been possible since the 1950s, humans still remain largely in the dark about what’s really out there.

For all that we’ve discovered, astronomers estimate that nearly 96% of the universe remains impossible to see or even comprehend.

See also: 55 Astonishing Images of Earth From Space

But for all the mystery surrounding space, one thing we’re sure of is its staggering beauty. Telescopes like NASA’s Hubble illuminate the observable universe with captivating images of far-off planets, galaxies and star clusters.

Take in the beauty our universe has to offer through these 30 stunning images of space.

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11 Facts About Volcanoes And What Thay Do
  1. A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur.
  2. In an eruption, gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. Eruptions can cause lava flows, hot ash flows, mudslides, avalanches, falling ash and floods.
  3. The danger area around a volcano covers about a 20-mile radius.
  4. Fresh volcanic ash, made of pulverized rock, can be harsh, acidic, gritty, glassy and smelly. The ash can cause damage to the lungs of older people, babies and people with respiratory problems.
  5. Volcanic lightning occurs mostly within the cloud of ash during an eruption, and is created by the friction of the ash rushing to the surface. Roughly 200 accounts of this lightning have been witnessed live.

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  1. An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, mudflows and rockfalls.
  2. More than 80% of the earth’s surface is volcanic in origin. The sea floor and some mountains were formed by countless volcanic eruptions. Gaseous emissions from volcano formed the earth’s atmosphere.
  3. There are more than 500 active volcanoes in the world. More than half of these volcanoes are part of the “Ring of Fire,” a region that encircles the Pacific Ocean.
  4. Active volcanoes in the U.S. are found mainly in Hawaii, Alaska, California, Oregon and Washington, but the greatest chance of eruptions near areas where many people live is in Hawaii and Alaska.
  5. The sound of an eruption volcano can be quiet and hissing or explosive and booming. The loud cracks travel hundreds of miles and do the most damage, including hearing loss and broken glass.
  6. The most deadly eruptions have occurred in Indonesia, with tens of thousands of lives lost to starvation, tsunami (as a result of the eruption), ash flows, and mudflows.
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9 tips to boost your energy — naturally – Harvard Health
February 14, 2018

9 tips to boost your energy — naturally

Go to the store, and you’ll see a multitude of vitamins, herbs, and other supplements touted as energy boosters. Some are even added to soft drinks and other foods. But there’s little or no scientific evidence that energy boosters like ginseng, guarana, and chromium picolinate actually work. Thankfully, there are things you can do to enhance your own natural energy levels. Here are nine tips:

1. Control stress

Stress-induced emotions consume huge amounts of energy. Talking with a friend or relative, joining a support group, or seeing a psychotherapist can all help diffuse stress. Relaxation therapies like meditation, self-hypnosis, yoga, and tai chi are also effective tools for reducing stress.

2. Lighten your load

One of the main reasons for fatigue is overwork. Overwork can include professional, family, and social obligations. Try to streamline your list of “must-do” activities. Set your priorities in terms of the most important tasks. Pare down those that are less important. Consider asking for extra help at work, if necessary.

3. Exercise

Exercise almost guarantees that you’ll sleep more soundly. It also gives your cells more energy to burn and circulates oxygen. And exercising causes your body to release epinephrine and norepinephrine, stress hormones that in modest amounts can make you feel energized. Even a brisk walk is a good start.

4. Avoid smoking

You know smoking threatens your health. But you may not know that smoking actually siphons off your energy by causing insomnia. The nicotine in tobacco is a stimulant, so it speeds the heart rate, raises blood pressure, and stimulates brain-wave activity associated with wakefulness, making it harder to fall asleep. And once you do fall asleep, its addictive power can kick in and awaken you with cravings.

5. Restrict your sleep

If you think you may be sleep-deprived, try getting less sleep. This advice may sound odd, but determining how much sleep you actually need can reduce the time you spend in bed not sleeping. This process makes it easier to fall asleep and promotes more restful sleep in the long run. Here’s how to do it:

  • Avoid napping during the day.
  • The first night, go to bed later than normal and get just four hours of sleep.
  • If you feel that you slept well during that four-hour period, add another 15–30 minutes of sleep the next night.
  • As long as you’re sleeping soundly the entire time you’re in bed, slowly keep adding sleep on successive nights.

6. Eat for energy

It’s better to eat small meals and snacks every few hours than three large meals a day. This approach can reduce your perception of fatigue because your brain needs a steady supply of nutrients.

Eating foods with a low glycemic index — whose sugars are absorbed slowly — may help you avoid the lag in energy that typically occurs after eating quickly absorbed sugars or refined starches. Foods with a low glycemic index include whole grains, high-fiber vegetables, nuts, and healthy oils such as olive oil. In general, high-carbohydrate foods have the highest glycemic indexes. Proteins and fats have glycemic indexes that are close to zero.

7. Use caffeine to your advantage

Caffeine does help increase alertness, so having a cup of coffee can help sharpen your mind. But to get the energizing effects of caffeine, you have to use it judiciously. It can cause insomnia, especially when consumed in large amounts or after 2 p.m.

8. Limit alcohol

One of the best hedges against the midafternoon slump is to avoid drinking alcohol at lunch. The sedative effect of alcohol is especially strong at midday. Similarly, avoid a five o’clock cocktail if you want to have energy in the evening. If you’re going to drink, do so in moderation at a time when you don’t mind having your energy wind down.

9. Drink water

What’s the only nutrient that has been shown to enhance performance for all but the most demanding endurance activities? It’s not some pricey sports drink. It’s water. If your body is short of fluids, one of the first signs is a feeling of fatigue.

For more information on the many things you can do to increase your natural energy, order our Special Health Report, Boosting Your Energy.

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i can’t sleep at night i need sleep
February 14, 2018

Tips for getting back to sleep at night. Avoid caffeine in the afternoon and evening, and alcohol close to bedtime. … If you are unable to fall back asleep for 20 minutes do not lay in bed and worry about not sleeping, get up and go to a space in the house to do a relaxing activity, like reading, with dim light.

People with insomnia tend to have trouble falling asleep, staying asleep throughout the night, or they wake up too early in the morning. There are ways to help with each of these patterns:

Tips for falling asleep

  • Carve out at least 30 minutes of wind-down time before bed in which you do something relaxing, such as read a book. Dim the lights in the house slightly for an hour or so before bed.
  • Disconnect from close-range electronic devices such as laptops, phones, and tablets, as the light from their screens can alert the brain and make it harder to fall asleep.
  • In order to calm your mind, do a breathing or relaxation exercise.
  • If you get into bed and cannot fall asleep after 20 minutes, get up and return to another space in the house to do a relaxing activity, such as reading or listening to music. Lying in bed awake can create an unhealthy link between your sleeping environment and wakefulness. Instead, you want your bed to conjure sleepy thoughts and feelings only.
  • Wake up at the same time every day. Even if you have a hard time falling asleep and feel tired in the morning, try to get up at the same time (weekends included). This can help adjust your body’s clock and aid in falling asleep at night.

Video production in partnership with Healthination Logo

Tips for getting back to sleep at night

  • Avoid caffeine in the afternoon and evening, and alcohol close to bedtime. These can promote wakeups during the night.
  • Make sure your sleep environment is quiet and dark throughout the night. Use darkening shades to block streetlights and early morning light, and a fan or noise machine to block sounds.
  • Practice a simple breathing exercise.
  • If you are unable to fall back asleep for 20 minutes do not lay in bed and worry about not sleeping, get up and go to a space in the house to do a relaxing activity, like reading, with dim light.

Tips for avoiding waking up too early

  • Make sure your sleep environment is quiet and dark throughout the night. Use darkening shades to block streetlights and early morning light. Consider earplugs or a fan or noise machine to block sounds.
  • Practice a simple breathing exercise.
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Why the Navajo Nation Banned Genetic Research
February 11, 2018

In 2003, Carletta Tilousi, a member of northern Arizona’s tiny Havasupai Tribe, listened to a student’s doctoral presentation. She was there to hear the results of a diabetes study conducted, in part, with her DNA.

Or so she thought. As the student spoke, Tilousi realized that her DNA—and that of other members of the Havasupai Tribe—had been used for other studies, too. Some of the findings, it turned out, challenged her tribe’s traditional stories by suggesting the Havasupai people did not originate in Arizona. That genetic analysis, tribe members worried, could potentially pose a threat to their claims to their traditional lands.

Tilousi’s case is part of the reason that the Navajo Nation, the second-largest federally recognized tribe in the United States, continues to ban research using its people’s DNA. Since 2002, Navajo leaders and community members have opted out of genetic research because of suspicions about how their DNA would be used and a long history of distrust of the medical community’s motivations and methods.

In August 2017, a group of Navajo Nation leaders and community members came together to decide whether to lift the moratorium. “Navajo leaders, researchers, tribal members and even medicine men are pretty much in consensus,” reports Pauly Denetclaw for the Navajo Times. It’s now likely that the Navajo Nation will lift the ban.

The specifics of the new policy are still being hashed out. But one thing is already clear: This time, the Navajo Nation will be in control of their own people’s DNA.

That’s a dramatic break from the past—one in which Native American people’s bodies and genetic material have been violated and used without consent.

Native Americans’ bodies have been subjects of curiosity and medical experimentation since Europeans began to colonize North America. In the 19th century, academics applied pseudoscience like phrenology, which claimed that skull shape reflected intellect and morality, to Native Americans. According to historian Marren Sanders, phrenologists used the skulls of Native Americans to “prove” that “the Indians were ‘more ignorant and vindictive, blood-thirsty and cruel in war,’ and would ultimately ‘prefer extermination to slavery.’”

Casts of Native American heads from the 19th century that are part of the phrenology collection at the Museum of Man (Musee de l'Homme) in Paris. (Credit: Patrick Kovarik/AFP/Getty Images)
Casts of Native American heads from the 19th century that are part of the phrenology collection at the Museum of Man (Musee de l’Homme) in Paris. (Credit: Patrick Kovarik/AFP/Getty Images)

Phrenologists weren’t the only people interested in Native American bodies. Anthropologists and museum curators were too. Over the course of the 19th century, they collected Native American remains, even digging up graves, out of a desire to compare them to those of other races.

Often, these practices were used to justify the mistreatment of Native Americans, fueling mistrust in any scientific use of people’s bodies. And experiences like those of Tilousi made it even more difficult to trust researchers.

Though Tilousi and other Havasupai Tribe members thought they were donating DNA to a research project on type 2 diabetes, the material was also used for studies on things like schizophrenia, inbreeding and the tribe’s geographical roots.

To Tilousi and other tribe members, that felt like a violation. Though each of those topics is relevant to the scientific community, they are taboo within Havasupai culture. Genetic evidence that the Havasupai people migrated from the Bering Strait directly conflicts with the tribe’s understanding of its origins. Those stories hold that the Havasupai has always lived in Arizona, and that belief underlies the tribe’s claims on its traditional lands.

Some questioned the need to do scientific research about the genetic origins of Native Americans at all. As Kim Tallbear, an expert in racial politics in science and member of the Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate Tribe asked The Atlantic’s Rose Eveleth, “We know who we are as a people, as an indigenous people, why would we be so interested in where scientists think our genetic ancestors came from?”

Though the researcher who used the Havasupai Tribe’s DNA for other purposes maintained she had received informed consent, the Havasupai Tribe sued. Eventually, it received a $700,000 payout. The case was compared to that of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman whose cells became the basis of thousands of medical studies and breakthroughs without her or her family’s knowledge or consent and without compensation.

Rex Tilousi, elder and spiritual leader of the Arizona Havasupai tribe, speaking during a news conference after a settled lawsuit alleging Arizona State University scientists of misusing blood samples to study schizophrenia, inbreeding and ancient population migration. (Credit: Ross D. Franklin/AP/REX/Shutterstock)
Rex Tilousi, elder and spiritual leader of the Arizona Havasupai tribe, speaking during a news conference after a settled lawsuit alleging Arizona State University scientists of misusing blood samples to study schizophrenia, inbreeding and ancient population migration. (Credit: Ross D. Franklin/AP/REX/Shutterstock)

Tribal sovereignty and a history of misused remains aren’t the only reason to question genetic research using the DNA of Native American people. To many Native Americans, there are serious ramifications for using a person’s biological material—whether they’re alive or dead.

“To us,” explained Frank Dukepoo, a Hopi geneticist, told the San Francisco Chronicle, “any part of ourselves is sacred. Scientists say it’s just DNA. For an Indian, it is not just DNA, it’s part of a person, it is sacred, with deep religious significance. It is part of the essence of a person.”

Now, reports Sara Reardon for Nature, the Navajo Nation will likely lift the ban and put a policy in place that dictates how testing is done, who oversees the genetic material and information about the DNA, and what’s done with the material once it’s been used.

That’s big news for scientists. The ban’s end means they’ll have the chance to work with genetic material donated by people from the Navajo Nation—material that could yield new scientific insights, fuel discoveries and potentially improve the health of Navajo people themselves with the development of specialized treatments based on genetic information.

Will the lift of the Navajo ban increase Native American participation in genetic studies? It’s hard to tell. But even if the use of Native Americans’ DNA becomes more common, misgivings will likely linger.

“As Native Americans, we have a problem with trust because we have been violated so much,” David Begay, a pharmaceutical scientist at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque and a member of the Navajo Nation’s human-research review board, told Reardon.

Those violations may end in the future, but new policies won’t undo the pain of the past—or make it easier to move forward without justified suspicion.

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Native American Cultures The buffalo was an essential part of Native American life, used in everything from religious rituals to teepee construction.
February 11, 2018

Many thousands of years before Christopher Columbus’ ships landed in the Bahamas, a different group of people discovered America: the nomadic ancestors of modern Native Americans who hiked over a “land bridge” from Asia to what is now Alaska more than 12,000 years ago. In fact, by the time European adventurers arrived in the 15th century A.D., scholars estimate that more than 50 million people were already living in the Americas. Of these, some 10 million lived in the area that would become the United States. As time passed, these migrants and their descendants pushed south and east, adapting as they went. In order to keep track of these diverse groups, anthropologists and geographers have divided them into “culture areas,” or rough groupings of contiguous peoples who shared similar habitats and characteristics. Most scholars break North America—excluding present-day Mexico—into 10 separate culture areas: the Arctic, the Subarctic, the Northeast, the Southeast, the Plains, the Southwest, the Great Basin, California, the Northwest Coast and the Plateau.

The Arctic culture area, a cold, flat, treeless region (actually a frozen desert) near the Arctic Circle in present-day Alaska, Canada and Greenland, was home to the Inuit and the Aleut. Both groups spoke, and continue to speak, dialects descended from what scholars call the Eskimo-Aleut language family. Because it is such an inhospitable landscape, the Arctic’s population was comparatively small and scattered. Some of its peoples, especially the Inuit in the northern part of the region, were nomads, following seals, polar bears and other game as they migrated across the tundra. In the southern part of the region, the Aleut were a bit more settled, living in small fishing villages along the shore.

The Inuit and Aleut had a great deal in common. Many lived in dome-shaped houses made of sod or timber (or, in the North, ice blocks). They used seal and otter skins to make warm, weatherproof clothing, aerodynamic dogsleds and long, open fishing boats (kayaks in Inuit; baidarkas in Aleut).

By the time the United States purchased Alaska in 1867, decades of oppression and exposure to European diseases had taken their toll: The native population had dropped to just 2,500; the descendants of these survivors still make their home in the area today.

The Subarctic culture area, mostly composed of swampy, piney forests (taiga) and waterlogged tundra, stretched across much of inland Alaska and Canada. Scholars have divided the region’s people into two language groups: the Athabaskan speakers at its western end, among them the Tsattine (Beaver), Gwich’in (or Kuchin) and the Deg Xinag (formerly—and pejoratively—known as the Ingalik), and the Algonquian speakers at its eastern end, including the Cree, the Ojibwa and the Naskapi.

In the Subarctic, travel was difficult—toboggans, snowshoes and lightweight canoes were the primary means of transportation—and population was sparse. In general, the peoples of the Subarctic did not form large permanent settlements; instead, small family groups stuck together as they traipsed after herds of caribou. They lived in small, easy-to-move tents and lean-tos, and when it grew too cold to hunt they hunkered into underground dugouts.

The growth of the fur trade in the 17th and 18th centuries disrupted the Subarctic way of life—now, instead of hunting and gathering for subsistence, the Indians focused on supplying pelts to the European traders—and eventually led to the displacement and extermination of many of the region’s native communities.

The Northeast culture area, one of the first to have sustained contact with Europeans, stretched from present-day Canada’s Atlantic coast to North Carolina and inland to the Mississippi River valley. Its inhabitants were members of two main groups: Iroquoian speakers (these included the Cayuga, Oneida, Erie, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora), most of whom lived along inland rivers and lakes in fortified, politically stable villages, and the more numerous Algonquian speakers (these included the Pequot, Fox, Shawnee, Wampanoag, Delaware and Menominee) who lived in small farming and fishing villages along the ocean. There, they grew crops like corn, beans and vegetables.

Life in the Northeast culture area was already fraught with conflict—the Iroquoian groups tended to be rather aggressive and warlike, and bands and villages outside of their allied confederacies were never safe from their raids—and it grew more complicated when European colonizers arrived. Colonial wars repeatedly forced the region’s natives to take sides, pitting the Iroquois groups against their Algonquian neighbors. Meanwhile, as white settlement pressed westward, it eventually displaced both sets of indigenous people from their lands.

The Southeast culture area, north of the Gulf of Mexico and south of the Northeast, was a humid, fertile agricultural region. Many of its natives were expert farmers—they grew staple crops like maize, beans, squash, tobacco and sunflower—who organized their lives around small ceremonial and market villages known as hamlets. Perhaps the most familiar of the Southeastern indigenous peoples are the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole, sometimes called the Five Civilized Tribes, who all spoke a variant of the Muskogean language.

By the time the U.S. had won its independence from Britain, the Southeast culture area had already lost many of its native people to disease and displacement. In 1830, the federal Indian Removal Act compelled the relocation of what remained of the Five Civilized Tribes so that white settlers could have their land. Between 1830 and 1838, federal officials forced nearly 100,000 Indians out of the southern states and into “Indian Territory” (later Oklahoma) west of the Mississippi. The Cherokee called this frequently deadly trek the Trail of Tears.

The Plains culture area comprises the vast prairie region between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, from present-day Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Before the arrival of European traders and explorers, its inhabitants—speakers of Siouan, Algonquian, Caddoan, Uto-Aztecan and Athabaskan languages—were relatively settled hunters and farmers. After European contact, and especially after Spanish colonists brought horses to the region in the 18th century, the peoples of the Great Plains became much more nomadic. Groups like the Crow, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Comanche and Arapaho used horses to pursue great herds of buffalo across the prairie. The most common dwelling for these hunters was the cone-shaped teepee, a bison-skin tent that could be folded up and carried anywhere. Plains Indians are also known for their elaborately feathered war bonnets.

As white traders and settlers moved west across the Plains region, they brought many damaging things with them: commercial goods, like knives and kettles, which native people came to depend on; guns; and disease. By the end of the 19th century, white sport hunters had nearly exterminated the area’s buffalo herds. With settlers encroaching on their lands and no way to make money, the Plains natives were forced onto government reservations.

The peoples of the Southwest culture area, a huge desert region in present-day Arizona and New Mexico (along with parts of Colorado, Utah, Texas and Mexico) developed two distinct ways of life.

Sedentary farmers such as the Hopi, the Zuni, the Yaqui and the Yuma grew crops like corn, beans and squash. Many lived in permanent settlements, known as pueblos, built of stone and adobe. These pueblos featured great multistory dwellings that resembled apartment houses. At their centers, many of these villages also had large ceremonial pit houses, or kivas.

Other Southwestern peoples, such as the Navajo and the Apache, were more nomadic. They survived by hunting, gathering and raiding their more established neighbors for their crops. Because these groups were always on the move, their homes were much less permanent than the pueblos. For instance, the Navajo fashioned their iconic eastward-facing round houses, known as hogans, out of materials like mud and bark.

By the time the southwestern territories became a part of the United States after the Mexican War, many of the region’s native people had already been exterminated. (Spanish colonists and missionaries had enslaved many of the Pueblo Indians, for example, working them to death on vast Spanish ranches known as encomiendas.) During the second half of the 19th century, the federal government resettled most of the region’s remaining natives onto reservations.

The Great Basin culture area, an expansive bowl formed by the Rocky Mountains to the east, the Sierra Nevadas to the west, the Columbia Plateau to the north, and the Colorado Plateau to the south, was a barren wasteland of deserts, salt flats and brackish lakes. Its people, most of whom spoke Shoshonean or Uto-Aztecan dialects (the Bannock, Paiute and Ute, for example), foraged for roots, seeds and nuts and hunted snakes, lizards and small mammals. Because they were always on the move, they lived in compact, easy-to-build wikiups made of willow poles or saplings, leaves and brush. Their settlements and social groups were impermanent, and communal leadership (what little there was) was informal.

After European contact, some Great Basin groups got horses and formed equestrian hunting and raiding bands that were similar to the ones we associate with the Great Plains natives. After white prospectors discovered gold and silver in the region in the mid-19th century, most of the Great Basin’s people lost their land and, frequently, their lives.

Before European contact, the temperate, hospitable California culture area had more people—an estimated 300,000 in the mid-16th century—than any other. It was also more diverse: Its estimated 100 different tribes and groups spoke more spoke more than 200 dialects. (These languages derived from the Penutian (the Maidu, Miwok and Yokuts), the Hokan (the Chumash, Pomo, Salinas and Shasta), the Uto-Aztecan (the Tubabulabal, Serrano and Kinatemuk; also, many of the “Mission Indians” who had been driven out of the Southwest by Spanish colonization spoke Uto-Aztecan dialects) and Athapaskan (the Hupa, among others). In fact, as one scholar has pointed out, California’s linguistic landscape was more complex than that of Europe.

Despite this great diversity, many native Californians lived very similar lives. They did not practice much agriculture. Instead, they organized themselves into small, family-based bands of hunter-gatherers known as tribelets. Inter-tribelet relationships, based on well-established systems of trade and common rights, were generally peaceful.

Spanish explorers infiltrated the California region in the middle of the 16th century. In 1769, the cleric Junipero Serra established a mission at San Diego, inaugurating a particularly brutal period in which forced labor, disease and assimilation nearly exterminated the culture area’s native population.

The Northwest Coast culture area, along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to the top of Northern California, has a mild climate and an abundance of natural resources. In particular, the ocean and the region’s rivers provided almost everything its people needed—salmon, especially, but also whales, sea otters, seals and fish and shellfish of all kinds. As a result, unlike many other hunter-gatherers who struggled to eke out a living and were forced to follow animal herds from place to place, the Indians of the Pacific Northwest were secure enough to build permanent villages that housed hundreds of people apiece. Those villages operated according to a rigidly stratified social structure, more sophisticated than any outside of Mexico and Central America. A person’s status was determined by his closeness to the village’s chief and reinforced by the number of possessions—blankets, shells and skins, canoes and even slaves—he had at his disposal. (Goods like these played an important role in the potlatch, an elaborate gift-giving ceremony designed to affirm these class divisions.)

Prominent groups in the region included the Athapaskan Haida and Tlingit; the Penutian Chinook, Tsimshian and Coos; the Wakashan Kwakiutl and Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka); and the Salishan Coast Salish.

The Plateau culture area sat in the Columbia and Fraser river basins at the intersection of the Subarctic, the Plains, the Great Basin, the California and the Northwest Coast (present-day Idaho, Montana and eastern Oregon and Washington). Most of its people lived in small, peaceful villages along stream and riverbanks and survived by fishing for salmon and trout, hunting and gathering wild berries, roots and nuts. In the southern Plateau region, the great majority spoke languages derived from the Penutian (the Klamath, Klikitat, Modoc, Nez Perce, Walla Walla and Yakima or Yakama). North of the Columbia River, most (the Skitswish (Coeur d’Alene), Salish (Flathead), Spokane and Columbia) spoke Salishan dialects.

In the 18th century, other native groups brought horses to the Plateau. The region’s inhabitants quickly integrated the animals into their economy, expanding the radius of their hunts and acting as traders and emissaries between the Northwest and the Plains. In 1805, the explorers Lewis and Clark passed through the area, drawing increasing numbers of disease-spreading white settlers. By the end of the 19th century, most of the remaining Plateau Indians had been cleared from their lands and resettled in government reservations.

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Should America Take Down Monuments That Romanticize Conquistadors?
February 11, 2018

Calls to remove Confederate statues have been on the rise since August 2017, when white supremacists held a violent rally in Charlottesville, Virginia. However, those aren’t the only types of monuments that have drawn recent criticism. In September, protesters painted the hand of a Christopher Columbus statue red in New York City, decapitated a statue of St. Junipero Serra and doused it with red paint in Santa Barbara, and painted the foot of a Don Juan de Oñate statue red in Alcalde, New Mexico.

All these monuments have one big thing in common: They depict men who systematically killed and enslaved Native peoples while advancing Spain’s foothold in the New World.

“There’s a bigger issue here, and that is what it means to tell the truth about history,” says Stephanie Fryberg, a professor of American Indian Studies and Psychology at the University of Washington. Depicting Columbus as heroic—for instance, by honoring him with a statue—presents a “sterilized, romanticized version of history.”

Columbus, who is credited with establishing European presence in the Americas, captured over a thousand Native people and took them to Spain to be sold at slave auctions. He also served time in a Spanish prison for the violence he inflicted upon the people of Hispaniola (the Caribbean island that includes the Dominican Republic and Haiti).

Painting Columbus’ hand red is a way of drawing attention to the blood on his hands, just as painting Oñate’s foot highlights the conquistador’s penchant for chopping off Native Americans’ feet (a protester also removed one of the statue’s feet in the 1990s). Oñate is famous for establishing the Spanish colony of New Mexico in the mid-1500s, but also for leading a massacre that killed 800 Acoma Pueblo people.

Statue of Juan De Onate in Alcalde, New Mexico. (Credit: Mario1952/Flickr Creative Commons/CC BY 2.0)
Statue of Juan De Onate in Alcalde, New Mexico. (Credit: Mario1952/Flickr Creative Commons/CC BY 2.0)

Statues of Serra, especially, have been targeted since 2015, when Pope Francis designated the Spanish Franciscan friar as a saint. Some people consider Serra an important evangelizer of what is now the American West. Yet his mission captured Native Americans and used them as forced labor.

What, then, should be done with these statues? Christopher B.Teuton, professor and chair of American Indian Studies at the University of Washington, isn’t sure. But he does think these historical figures need to be recontextualized through accurate historical education. “I think issues surrounding the colonization of North America continue to be ignored and erased in American history,” he says.

“When we celebrate these figures unreflectively, and have monuments made to them—such as Oñate—that just continues that colonial narrative that is such a huge part of American history,” he says. This narrative “includes ideas such as that North America was empty of people, or that Native peoples received Christianity and so-called civilization in exchange for their lands.”

Fryberg agrees that these statues present an inaccurately laudatory view of figures like Columbus, Oñate, and Serra. Continuing to reify figures who hurt Native Americans can be harmful for indigenous groups and non-Natives alike, she notes.

“When [Native American children] get an accurate view of history, then they can see their people as people who have survived, overcome, resisted, and pushed back,” she continues. “Moreover, for non-Natives, when they only know the sterilized version of history, they don’t have accurate empathy or compassion for the plight of Native people.”

Indeed, a tweet from filmmaker Ava DuVernay shows how different perspectives can reframe conversations around history: “If someone kidnapped your child and sold them, where would you want us to put the statue of that person?”

In this instance, DuVernay was talking about Confederate monuments. But the question could easily be posed regarding Columbus, or even one of the newest saints.

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is the best place to see the northern lights (aurora borealis)

The best places to see the northern lights

To experience the unbelievable colours that moves across the Arctic sky is on many travellers’ bucket list. Few places on earth offer more ways to witness the aurora borealis than Norway.

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dry skin on face I need help
February 10, 2018

Some facial soaps and cleansers can actually be too harsh for the sensitive skin on your face. If your skin feels tight and dry after you wash it, you could be using the wrong product for your skin. … Use a mild and moisturizing cleanser and remember to apply moisturizer after showering.

How to Deal with Dry Patches on the Face

No one wants irritable, dry, flaky skin on their face! Learn how to combat dry patches here.

We can develop dry skin at any period of our lives, on any part of our body. However, dry, flaky, skin on the face can be the hardest to hide, and covering this up with makeup can only make the issue worse. So how can we combat dry patches on the face and achieve a healthy, radiant complexion?

Usually, the skin contains natural oils that help to keep moisture in and hydrate the face. However, some aspects of everyday life, even activities like showering, can remove these oils. Without natural oils, our skin can be left looking and feeling dry.

Although dry patches on the face can also be caused by medications, hormone imbalances, or skin conditions, dry patches are commonly caused by incorrect skincare and extreme weather conditions. So, it’s important to learn how to moisturize your face properly to lock in moisture and protect your skin from drying out.

Here are five great tips on how to treat dry skin on the face quickly and easily

  • 1Some facial soaps and cleansers can actually be too harsh for the sensitive skin on your face. If your skin feels tight and dry after you wash it, you could be using the wrong product for your skin. Stick to mild, fragrance-free cleansers and avoid harsh anti-bacterial soaps that could dry your skin out more.
  • Harsh Ingredients Causing Dry, Flaky Skin on your Face?
  • 2Although you might think that keeping your face damp will help increase moisture, once the water evaporates your skin will be dryer than before! So, always dry thoroughly and moisturize properly after cleansing. However, keep in mind that rough towels can act like exfoliators – they can damage the skin, causing further dryness and irritation. Always use a clean, soft cloth and remember to pat your face, not rub.
  • Prevent Dry Patches by Drying Thoroughly
  • 3There’s nothing quite like a long, hot shower, especially after a hectic day, but this may not be what’s best for your dry face. Long showers – especially when you use harsh cleansers – strip the face of its natural oils, and you could notice that your face looks and feels drier after bathing. Instead, take shorter showers in warm, rather than hot, water. Use a mild and moisturizing cleanser and remember to apply moisturizer after showering.
  • Take Shorter Showers to Lock in Natural Oils
  • 4There are lots of different types of face creams and moisturizers out there, so how do you know which one to pick? For dry, flaky skin, petroleum-jelly-based moisturizers work well to lock in moisture and help relieve dryness. Although you may think otherwise, oily skin needs to be moisturized too, even an oily T-zone. If you do not moisturize, your skin will work overtime to produce more oils, in order to not dry out. Choose a non-comedogenic or lightweight moisturizer to leave your skin feeling hydrated and refreshed, not greasy.
  • Choose the Right Moisturizers for Dry Skin on the Face
  • 5Protect the skin with Vaseline® Petroleum Jelly, which locks in moisture to target the problem of dry, flaky skin on the face head on. Vaseline® Jelly forms a barrier on the surface of the skin, sealing in moisture and protecting from some of the most common causes of dry skin on the face – such as cold weather, high winds, or the strong summer sun. You can even apply Vaseline® Jelly before you go to bed. The jelly will help lock in those natural oils while you sleep and maximize the skin’s natural recovery process at night. Vaseline® Jelly is non-comedogenic (it won’t clog your pores) and is triple-purified so you can be sure it won’t irritate your facial skin, whenever you choose to apply it.
  • Protect Skin: Use Vaseline® Jelly for Face Care

By throwing out those harsh soaps and finding treatments that target moisture loss, healthy and soft skin really is possible!

Find more healthy skin tips and facts on the Skin Health page. >

The advice in this article does not constitute medical advice, it is solely available for information purposes.

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approved food Chep Food For All
February 10, 2018

The UK’s best selection of clearance food & drink at discount prices

Did you know?

Every year in the UK over 7 million tonnes of food and drink is thrown away, a lot of which has past its ‘best before’ date, but would still be perfectly good to eat.

We specialise in surplus and short-dated stock, food that is either near or just passed its ‘best before’ date – allowing us to pass on huge savings to our customers.

  • We have over 2000 products including – Big Brands, Cupboard Fillers, Ex Supermarket & Department store products across a wide range of Food, Drinks, Household & Toiletries, Gifts plus much more.. all at huge discounts.
  • Our regular customers typically save around £60 on their monthly shop compared to high street prices. That’s over a whopping £700 per year you too could be saving.
  • Our stock is constantly updating so we’ll always have something new for you – all at incredibly low prices.
  • We do not sell anything past its USE BY date.
  • Quick & Easy online ordering – delivered direct to your door.

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Mr. Geoffrey Probyn

I am a regular customer of Approved Food Ltd. and find them most helpful as well as being superb value for money. I shop carefully and by doing so have saved hundreds of pounds sterling by buying carefully through Approved Food Ltd. I think it a most sensible idea to be able to buy such products and thus cut down on the dreadful wastage. A most professional organisation and I have to say that deliveries are always on time and in fact in two years and 74 orders completed only one has been delivered out of specified time, and there was a very justifiable reason. A most impressive statistic well done DAN!!!!!

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Miss Miss Ide

Everything I ordered arrived quickly and packaged Well, was very happy to see there were some goods in my lucky box that my son (dairy and soya free) could eat too! Thank you 🙂

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Ms Sham Begum

Very happy with all the products. They are exactly what they display. I would have given them a 5 star but was confused about a fee they charged me which didn’t make sense. The postage should have been free because I was over the amount for free postage. The charge wasn’t explained what it was for, so a little confusing.

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Dr Rasheed Mohammed

Excellent price Great service Timely delivery

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Ordered on Monday, delivered on Wednesday. Amazing. Love receiving the delivery as it is always full of an eclectic mix of ‘useful’ items that I just cant say no to. But then there is always the bargains. Your deliveries always makes me happy. Thank you.

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A brief history

After starting out as market traders, Dan Cluderay and his wife Nicola moved into wholesale and a number of retail outlets that supplied both the public and trade.

The business became Approved Food in the spring of 2009, and through strong customer service and a keen use of social media still offers the same values and connections with its customers as those early market stall days in Hull and Doncaster.

Selling to us

With our high stock turnover we’re in near constant contact with our key partners and suppliers, looking for the best deals and opportunities.

If you have some excess stock or would like to discuss a longer-term relationship, please email [email protected]

Press and media

Approved Food and Dan Cluderay have featured on documentaries and exposes for the BBC and ITV, made appearances on Dragons Den, Loose Women and Bargain Fever Britain as well as multiple print and online media features.

If you’d like to discuss an opportunity, please email [email protected]

Company information

Approved Food Ltd. Registered business address: Approved Food Ltd. Parkway Close, Sheffield S9 4WJ. Company registration number 06949233. VAT registration number 120274263.

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Save money and reduce waste by learning more about dates on food & drink products

Every year in the UK over 7 million tonnes of food and drink is thrown away, a lot of which has past its ‘best before’ date, but would still be perfectly good to eat.

We specialise in surplus and short-dated stock, food that is either near or just passed its ‘best before’ date ? allowing us to pass on huge savings to our customers.

But we never sell anything past its ‘use by’ date.

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