Available Balance
This hormone controls how much you eat
November 14, 2017
1

New research published in the journal Nature Medicine suggests how a hormone called asprosin triggers hunger in the brain. The findings may help to treat obesity and overweightness.

Dr. Atul Chopra, a medical geneticist and assistant professor of molecular and human genetics and of molecular and cellular biology at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, TX, is a corresponding author on the study.

Previous research led by Dr. Chopra discovered the hormone for the very first time. Researchers then found that the hormone is generated by fat, and that it regulates blood sugar levels by traveling to the liver and “telling it” to release glucose into the bloodstream.

And now, Dr. Chopra and his colleagues have shown that the hormone also affects the brain’s hypothalamus, regulating appetite and weight.
Studying asprosin and appetite

When the hormone was first discovered in 2016, Dr. Chopra analyzed only two patients with a very rare genetic disorder called neonatal progeroid syndrome (NPS). One of the symptoms of the disease is extreme leanness, as the body is unable to accumulate fat.

The researchers were able to identify a genetic mutation in NPS that is responsible for a deficiency in asprosin.
“Compared with individuals with normal weight, [individuals with NPS have an] abnormally low appetite,” says Dr. Chopra. “Because these patients have low blood asprosin levels due to their mutations, we wondered whether asprosin was, in fact, necessary to maintain normal appetite in people.”

To investigate this, the scientists genetically modified mice to have the NPS genetic mutation. As expected, this resulted in low blood levels of asprosin in the mice.

The rodents also showed NPS symptoms such as extreme thinness and low appetite.
How asprosin controls ‘hunger’ neurons

Then, Dr. Chopra and colleagues administered asprosin to the mice, in an attempt to see its impact on the animals’ appetite and study the brain circuits involved.

“[W]e were able to reverse the low appetite simply by administering asprosin to the mice,” explains Dr. Chopra. Significantly, the researchers also found that the hormone stimulates two types of neuron.

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Can diabetics eat bananas?Last reviewed Sun 12 November 2017
November 14, 2017
1

When a person has diabetes, they need to carefully consider the contents of each meal. This can be especially true for carbohydrate-containing food, which not only includes desserts and other sweet treats, but bread, pasta, and fresh fruits.

One fruit that traditionally has been on the “avoid” list for those with diabetes is bananas. However, for the most part, bananas eaten in moderation can be safely enjoyed when a person has diabetes.

Bananas grow on banana plants that can have anywhere from 50 to 150 bananas in each bunch of fruit. The individual bananas are sold in varying sizes, from small to extra-large, the size-grading being determined by their length.Overall, bananas are low in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol. They also have a good mix of nutrients, including vitamin B6, potassium, and manganese.

However, some doctors and dietitians may give bananas greater nutritional scrutiny when considering them for people with diabetes, because bananas are high in sugar relative to their calories.

One medium banana has an estimated glycemic load of 11, according to Harvard Health Publishing on glycemic loads. Glycemic load is a measure of a food’s impact on blood sugar. A glycemic load of fewer than 10 is considered low, while one above 20 is high.Can you eat bananas if you have diabetes?

Examples of lower-sugar fruit options include apples, grapes, and pears. Fruits with higher sugar levels include papayas and pineapples.

However, those with diabetes do not have to eliminate bananas from their diet, or any other fruit for that matter. Their other nutritional values in terms of vitamins and minerals can make them a healthy option for those with diabetes when consumed in moderation.

The American Diabetes Association recommend incorporating fruit into a diabetes diet, such as having a small piece of whole fruit or a half-piece of large fruit with each meal.
Cooking and preparation

Another factor to consider is how the banana is preparation. For example, some food manufacturers will market dried banana chips, as an easy-to-carry snack.

However, these may have sugars added to them to enhance their flavor. So, eating a serving-size of banana chips could raise a person’s blood sugar much more than intended or when compared to eating a smaller-sized fresh banana.

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How to get rid of a nose piercing bump
November 14, 2017
0

After getting a nose ring, a bump might appear around the site of the piercing. Why does it happen and what can be done to get rid of it?

A range of different things can cause a nose piercing bump, including infections and allergic reactions.

There are several easy ways to reduce the swelling and allow a piercing to heal, which should help make the bump disappear.

Contents of this article: What causes a nose piercing bump?
Nose piercing stud in woman’s nose.
If the nose piercing has been done with hygienic equipment and aftercare guidelines have been followed, the piercing should heal properly.

A raised area around the piercing may be caused by:

tissue damage, if the piercing gets knocked or is removed too early
infection, if the piercing is done in unsanitary conditions or is not kept clean
an allergic reaction to the jewelry
trapped fluid creating a lump or bump
a keloid, a type of raised scar
a granuloma, inflamed tissue that usually appears as a raised, reddish spot

Keloids are relatively uncommon and should be diagnosed and treated by a doctor or dermatologist.

A keloid around a piercing will appear as a round, raised bump that is darker than the surrounding skin. It may cause pain, itching, or tenderness and will feel firm to the touch.

A granuloma can form as the body’s immune system tries to fight off something it thinks may harm the body. Usually, this is bacteria or a virus that could cause an infection, but it can also be a reaction to the jewelry itself.
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If a person has their nosed pierced under hygienic conditions and follows proper aftercare recommendations, it should heal without a bump. A nose piercing can take 4 to 6 months to heal and will need to be cleaned regularly during this period.
Five ways to get rid of a nose piercing bump
Tea tree oil in glass bottle, with leaves on a wooden table.
Tea tree oil may be used for treating nose piercing bumps.

The best way to get rid of a nose piercing bump depends on what caused it. Read on to learn about some home remedies that can help.

Use proper aftercare

Proper aftercare should prevent damage to tissue or an infection that could cause a bump. The piercer should advise on how to look after a piercing, which usually involves cleaning it regularly.Tips for caring for a nose piercing include:

cleaning the area with a saline solution twice a day
not removing jewelry before a nose piercing has healed, which can take 4–6 months
avoiding moving jewelry, playing with it, or knocking the piercing while getting dressed
covering the nose piercing with a waterproof dressing when swimming to prevent contact with bacteria in the water
not using lotions, cosmetics, or hair care products near the piercing

Use hypoallergenic jewelry

Some people are allergic to certain metals, usually nickel or an alloy, which is a mixture of a metal and another element. If a red itchy rash appears or the piercing feels sore for a long time, it may be an allergy.

If jewelry is causing an allergic reaction, it should be replaced with hypoallergenic jewelry that will not react with the body.

Reputable piercers should use jewelry made from an appropriate material, such as surgical steel or titanium.

Use a sea salt solution

A sea salt solution is a natural way to keep the piercing clean, help it heal, and reduce any swelling that may be causing an unsightly bump.

A person can dissolve ⅛ to ¼ of a teaspoon of sea salt in 1 cup of warm distilled or bottled water, rinse the piercing with the solution, then gently pat it dry. People should be sure to wash the hands thoroughly beforehand to lower the risk of infection.

Try tea tree oil

Some piercers recommend using tea tree oil to dehydrate and shrink a piercing bump. Although there is limited research available on the effectiveness of tea tree oil, it is safe for most people to use directly on the area.

Apply a warm compress

Trapped fluid under the skin can cause a bump, but heat and pressure will help gradually drain it.

A simple warm water compress can be made by soaking a clean washcloth in hot water, applying it to the piercing, and holding it there with gentle pressure for a few minutes.

A person should not try to force the bump to drain, as this can lead to further irritation and scarring.

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Hyperarousal: Symptoms and treatment/Hyperarousal: Symptoms and treatment Last reviewed Mon 13 November 2017
November 14, 2017
0

Hyperarousal is a group of symptoms that people with post-traumatic stress disorder may experience. What are the key signs of hyperarousal and how can people manage their symptoms?

Some people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience heightened anxiety. This may make them more sensitive and overly responsive to stimuli and events in the world around them. This state of increased sensitivity is called hyperarousal.

In this article, we look at the symptoms and causes of hyperarousal, as well as how a person can manage it. We also look at how people can help loved ones experiencing hyperarousal better cope with their condition.
Symptoms of hyperarousal

Hyperarousal is one symptom of PTSD. A person experiencing hyperarousal may:
senior man suffering from hyperarousal
Symptoms of hyperarousal include feeling jumpy, finding it hard to concentrate, and being impulsive.

find it hard to go to sleep or stay asleep
feel irritable and quickly lose their temper
find it hard to concentrate
constantly feel on-guard (hypervigilance)
be more impulsive than usual
feel like their muscles are more tense than usual
feel pain more easily
feel their heart beating faster than usual
feel jumpy and be startled easily
breathe more quickly or less deeply than usual
have flashbacks about a traumatic event
PTSD is a mental health condition brought on by a traumatic event. The sorts of events that might cause PTSD include:

a robbery
a car crash
a sexual assault
military experiences
childhood abuse
domestic abuse
a fire
a terrorist attack
a natural disaster

There are many other events that can increase the risk of developing PTSD. However, not everyone who has experienced a traumatic event will experience PTSD or hyperarousal.
How to cope with hyperarousal

Experiencing the symptoms of hyperarousal and other PTSD symptoms can be distressing. If a person notices these symptoms in themselves or someone else, it is a good idea for them to speak to a doctor.

Sometimes, a person experiencing hyperarousal might behave in a way that is self-destructive. This can include driving recklessly or drinking excessively. Ensuring their safety and the safety of others means it is important for people affected by hyperarousal to get treatment.

Alongside treatments the doctor may recommend, there are several coping strategies that a person experiencing hyperarousal can try. Strategies to manage different symptoms of hyperarousal are listed below:
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Sleeping difficulties

People with hyperarousal who find it hard to sleep may try:

sticking to regular bedtime and waking times
exercising during the day
avoiding caffeine after midday
not consuming alcohol in the 6 hours before bed
avoiding naps during the day
getting up to do something relaxing when unable to sleep for more than 30 minutes, then returning to bed once drowsy
reducing screen time, such as watching TV or using a laptop, in the bedroom
creating a calm atmosphere in the bedroom
wearing an eye mask and earplugs to block out light and sound
practicing deep breathing before bed
practicing mindfulness, meditation, or yoga

Anger

People with hyperarousal may find it difficult to control their temper. The following coping strategies may help:
Lady with a single tear on her face
Crying as a release may help to cope with anger.

crying as a release instead of shouting
doing vigorous exercise or dancing
punching a pillow or something else soft
talking to an empathetic friend or family member
writing things down
creating expressive artwork
practicing deep breathing
practicing mindfulness, meditation, or yoga

Trouble concentrating

People with hyperarousal who experience difficulties concentrating may find that the following strategies help:

trying to improve sleep quality
practicing mindfulness exercises
removing or turning off distractions, such as their mobile phone
improving concentration by working in short bursts and gradually increasing these periods by 5 minutes at a time
focusing on one task at a time
Impulsive behavior

People with hyperarousal who are acting impulsively can try:

practicing mindfulness exercises
finding a positive task or activity to replace the impulsive or destructive behavior
speaking to a friend or sending them a message
writing about how they are feeling
identifying the negative consequences of impulsive behavior
practicing deep breathing
How to help a loved one with hyperarousal
Support for a loved one with hyperarousal
A person can support a loved one with hyperarousal by listening and not overreacting to their symptoms.

One way to support a loved one who is experiencing hyperarousal is to make them aware of the above coping mechanisms.

Offering to try some of these things, such as mindfulness, deep breathing, or meditation, with them may also help.

It is important not to overreact to any behaviors associated with hyperarousal. Being there to listen in a non-judgmental, empathetic way can also help.

Above all, the most important way to help a loved one experiencing hyperarousal is to ensure they have spoken to a doctor and received a proper diagnosis. This will ensure they get access to the right treatment.
Treatment

There is a range of treatments available for hyperarousal that can help people to manage their symptoms:

Exposure therapy: This type of therapy helps a person with PTSD experience traumatic situations and memories in a safe environment to help reduce fear and anxiety.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): This works alongside exposure therapy and includes eye exercises that alter the way a person reacts to a particular memory.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): This gives a person practical ways to cope with negative thought patterns and behaviors that result from their PTSD.

In addition to these therapies, the doctor may prescribe the following medications to help manage hyperarousal and other PTSD symptoms:

antidepressants
anti-anxiety medication

Outlook

PTSD can be a long-term condition and hyperarousal is a common symptom. However, there are many coping strategies that people can use to reduce the impact hyperarousal may have on their daily activities.

PTSD can be well managed with the right therapies, medications, and ongoing support. If a person is experiencing symptoms of hyperarousal or PTSD, they should speak to a doctor for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

Similarly, if a person is concerned about a colleague, friend, or relative who may be experiencing hyperarousal or PTSD, they should encourage the person to speak with a doctor or even offer to accompany them.

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Article last reviewed by Mon 13 November 2017.

Visit our Anxiety / Stress category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Anxiety / Stress.

All references are available in the References tab.

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What is cervicalgia and how is it treated
November 14, 2017
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Many people will have experienced neck pain. In some cases, it will be diagnosed as cervicalgia. Anyone can be affected by cervicalgia, which refers to pain in the neck that does not spread to other areas, such as down the arms.

Cervicalgia is not usually a serious condition, but it can cause discomfort and should be addressed directly.

This article will discuss what cervicalgia is and how it can be treated and prevented.
What is cervicalgia?
Man in work clothes sitting at desk in front of computer, holding the back of his neck in pain.
Cervicalgia is a type of injury that occurs in the neck, causing pain. A potential cause is poor posture.

The neck, also known as the cervical spine, is tasked with both protecting the spinal cord and supporting the head while allowing for a good range of movement.

It is made up of bones, nerves, muscles, ligaments, and tendons that are structured to allow the neck to be protective while remaining flexible.

This capacity to be flexible also makes the neck structure vulnerable to damage, particularly given that it is constantly under pressure from keeping the head upright.

Some movements put either gradual or a sudden, sharp pressure on the neck, and the resulting strain can cause discomfort. The injury is called cervicalgia when it only occurs in the neck region and not in other areas, such as in the arms or lower back.
Causes

Cervicalgia can have many different causes. Some of the most common include:

Poor posture or lengthy periods with the neck at an awkward angle, such as when sleeping or working at a desk.
Injuries that involve a sudden neck movement, such as whiplash from a car crash or an impact sport.
Long-term stress that causes clenching of neck and shoulder muscles, leading to a strain on the neck.
Bone conditions, such as arthritis or osteoporosis. As these conditions are more common in older people, age is a risk factor for cervicalgia.
Diseases or conditions that affect the spine, such as spinal infections or meningitis.

Certain sports can cause kyphosis, a condition affecting posture in a way that strains the neck. Kyphosis can also lead to cervicalgia.

The shoulders can be pushed forward and become rounded, putting pressure on the neck. This pressure can occur from sports that promote this posture, such as cycling, or certain bodybuilding programs that build up chest muscles more than the back muscles.
Treatment

The management of cervicalgia will vary depending on the cause. In the majority of cases, it can be treated at home.

Cervicalgia will typically go away within a couple of weeks. People should see a doctor if the pain lasts for longer than a few weeks, or immediately if the pain occurred as a direct result of an injury.

It is important to avoid any activities that may be causing a neck strain, such as cycling, and to rest the neck as much as possible. If the injury has occurred from poor posture, it is important to address this immediately and improve the posture.

Different approaches can be taken to treat cervicalgia at home:

Ice packs can be applied to the affected area for up to 20 minutes several times a day. This can be useful in reducing inflammation caused by a neck injury.
Heat can also be applied to help boost healing, such as through a hot shower or warm towel.
Over-the-counter medications, such as anti-inflammatories or pain relievers, can be helpful in managing cervicalgia.
Massaging the area will help to increase blood flow and encourage healing.
Collars around the neck will support the head and restrict movement, removing pressure from the area.
Stretching the neck by moving the head into different positions can be beneficial, but this should only be attempted when it feels comfortable to do so.

In some cases, more serious treatment will be necessary, including a physical therapy program or even surgery to reduce discomfort.

It is also possible for cervicalgia to be a sign of a more concerning condition, such as a spinal infection.

Medical attention must be sought immediately if other symptoms develop, such as feelings of numbness or shooting pains in the arms. These symptoms may signal a bigger problem that needs urgent intervention.

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Chronic fatigue syndrome: Changes in brain chemistry found
November 14, 2017
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New research uncovers molecular changes in the brain that are specific to chronic fatigue syndrome and Gulf War illness — two conditions that were believed to be purely psychological until recently.

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and Gulf War illness (GWI) share many symptoms, among which are muscle pain, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, disrupted sleep, sore throat, headaches, and general malaise after physical exercise.
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CFS has long been mistaken for a mental health disorder. In 2015, a National Academy of Medicine-led comprehensive review of scientific literature and patients’ accounts cautioned, “Many healthcare providers are skeptical about the seriousness of [CFS], mistake it for a mental health condition, or consider it a figment of the patient’s imagination.”

It also urged, “[H]ealthcare providers should acknowledge [CFS] as a serious illness that requires timely diagnosis and appropriate care.” The review also pointed to what were at the time unclear biological causes for CFS.

Though significant progress has been made in the way that CFS is perceived and diagnosed in the medical community, there is still no known cure for the illness, and its causes remain unknown.

New research, however, offers hope for prompter and more accurate diagnoses of the illness, as molecular changes in the brain are discovered. Between 836,000 and 2.5 million people in the United States live with CFS, according to the latest estimates, and the findings may help these people to get effective treatment more quickly.Additionally, the new study — which was led by researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center in Washington, D.C. — identified changes in brain chemistry that occur in GWI, a disease that is thought to have affected approximately 175,000 war veterans returning from the Gulf War.

Dr. James N. Baraniuk, a professor of medicine at Georgetown University School of Medicine, led the new research, and the findings were published in the journal Scientific Reports.

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Deadly brain tumors halted by blocking telomere protein
November 14, 2017
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Glioblastoma brain tumors are notoriously difficult to treat, and the prognosis is poor for people with this type of brain cancer. However, a new study may have discovered a way to halt glioblastoma growth and increase patient survival.

By inhibiting a protein called telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1), researchers were able to stop the growth and division of murine and human glioblastomas.
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Senior study author Maria A. Blasco, head of the Telomeres and Telomerase Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) in Madrid, Spain, and colleagues recently reported their findings in the journal Cancer Cell.

According to the American Brain Tumor Association, glioblastoma accounts for around 15.4 percent of all primary brain tumors in the United States.

Fast-growing and difficult to treat, glioblastoma is one of the deadliest brain tumors. It is estimated that for people with aggressive glioblastoma who are treated with a combination of temozolomide — a chemotherapy drug — and radiation therapy, the median survival is just 14.6 months.
Blocking TRF1 reduced glioblastoma growth

Glioblastomas develop from star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. These tumors also contain a subset of cells called glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), which enable the tumors to regenerate. This is one reason why glioblastoma is so difficult to treat.

The researchers note that stem cells contain high levels of the TRF1 protein. TRF1 is a component of shelterin, which is a protein complex that helps to safeguard telomeres — that is, the protective caps at the end of chromosomes.

Additionally, TRF1 plays a significant role in the tumor-regenerating abilities of GSCs. With this in mind, Blasco and her colleagues sought to determine how blocking TRF1 might influence glioblastoma growth.
The researchers removed TRF1 during the formation of glioblastoma tumors in mouse models. This reduced glioblastoma growth in the rodents and increased their survival by 80 percent.

When the team blocked TRF1 in glioblastomas that had already formed in the mice, the rodents’ survival rose by 30 percent.

On further investigation, the researchers found that blocking the TRF1 protein in glioblastoma tumors caused damage to the DNA of telomeres in GSCs, which prevented these cells from proliferating.

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Fine Art Drawing Methods, Types, History, of Sketching & Graphic Arts
November 14, 2017
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Introduction & Characteristics

Definition
In fine art, the term “drawing” may be defined as the linear realization of visual objects, concepts, emotions, and fantasies, including symbols and even abstract forms. Drawing is a graphic art which is characterized by an emphasis on form or shape, rather than mass and colour as in painting. Drawing is quite different from graphic printmaking processes, because although a drawing may form the basis for replication, it is by its very nature, unique.

The Basis of Other Artforms
Most drawing is dependent on other types of art. Thus, although not every painting, mosaic, tapestry or other artwork has been preceded by a drawing in the form of a preliminary sketch, drawing is in reality the basis of all visual arts. For example, an architectural drawing is the basis for all building construction; markings drawn on a raw stone block are the basis for the sculpture that emerges; initially most paintings grow out of preliminary sketches – only as the works proceed are they consolidated into coloured surfaces. Besides, a growing number of investigations, demonstrate that drawings form the material basis of mural, panel, and book paintings, statues, etchings, engravings, mosaics, stained glass, and many other forms of decorative art. Such preparatory sketches may be limited to broad guidelines or they may regulate the whole work down to the smallest details.
Ink Drawing.

Introduction & Characteristics

Definition
In fine art, the term “drawing” may be defined as the linear realization of visual objects, concepts, emotions, and fantasies, including symbols and even abstract forms. Drawing is a graphic art which is characterized by an emphasis on form or shape, rather than mass and colour as in painting. Drawing is quite different from graphic printmaking processes, because although a drawing may form the basis for replication, it is by its very nature, unique.

The Basis of Other Artforms
Most drawing is dependent on other types of art. Thus, although not every painting, mosaic, tapestry or other artwork has been preceded by a drawing in the form of a preliminary sketch, drawing is in reality the basis of all visual arts. For example, an architectural drawing is the basis for all building construction; markings drawn on a raw stone block are the basis for the sculpture that emerges; initially most paintings grow out of preliminary sketches – only as the works proceed are they consolidated into coloured surfaces. Besides, a growing number of investigations, demonstrate that drawings form the material basis of mural, panel, and book paintings, statues, etchings, engravings, mosaics, stained glass, and many other forms of decorative art. Such preparatory sketches may be limited to broad guidelines or they may regulate the whole work down to the smallest details.

Drawing is Also an Independent Artform
In addition, as an independent stand-alone art form, drawing offers the widest possible scope for creative expression. Bodies, space, depth, three-dimensionality, and even movement can be made visible through drawing. Furthermore, drawing expresses the draughtsman’s personality spontaneously in the flow of the line, making it one of the most personal of all artistic statements.

Drawing Media
Drawings can be produced using a wide variety of drawing instruments, including pen and ink, charcoal, chalks, pastels, metalpoint, silverpoint, graphite point, coloured crayons, as well as graver, burin or etching needle for incised types of drawing. Other alternatives are wax or conte crayons, markers, graphite sticks, and various types of inked pens. The most usual support (the material upon which the image is drawn) is obviously paper, but other options include card, board, papyrus, cardboard, canvas, leather, vellum (calfskin), textiles – even plastic or metal. Mixed-media drawings are those executed using a combination of these materials.

Drawing Versus Painting
The line between drawing and painting has always been slightly blurred. For example, Chinese art, performed with a brush on silk or paper, is as near to drawing as to fine art painting (eg. Calligraphy). Some illuminated manuscripts from the Middle Ages, such as the Utrecht Psalter, have pen-and-ink drawings of such freedom of line that they resemble modern cartoons, and effectively serve the same function as paintings. Even so, drawing as an independent art form did not emerge until the Renaissance art of the quattrocento (15th century). Until then, drawing (disegno) was seen as inferior to painting (colorito). See also: Art Evaluation: How to Appreciate Art.

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Assisted Reproductive Technology /macrozoospermia/Also called: ART, In Vitro Fertilization, IVF
November 14, 2017
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Summary

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used to treat infertility. It includes fertility treatments that handle both a woman’s egg and a man’s sperm. It works by removing eggs from a woman’s body. The eggs are then mixed with sperm to make embryos. The embryos are then put back in the woman’s body. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common and effective type of ART.

ART procedures sometimes use donor eggs, donor sperm, or previously frozen embryos. It may also involve a surrogate or gestational carrier. A surrogate is a woman who becomes pregnant with sperm from the male partner of the couple. A gestational carrier becomes pregnant with an egg from the female partner and the sperm from the male partner.

The most common complication of ART is a multiple pregnancy. It can be prevented or minimized by limiting the number of embryos that are put into the woman’s body.
macrozoospermia
Description

Macrozoospermia is a condition that affects only males. It is characterized by abnormal sperm and leads to an inability to father biological children (infertility).

In affected males, almost all sperm cells have abnormally large and misshapen heads. The head of the sperm cell contains the male’s genetic information that is to be passed on to the next generation. Normally, the head of a sperm cell contains one copy of each chromosome. In men with macrozoospermia, the sperm cell head contains extra chromosomes, usually four copies of each instead of the usual one. This additional genetic material accounts for the larger head size of the sperm cell. Additionally, instead of having one tail (flagellum) per sperm cell, affected sperm have multiple flagella, most often four.

Because of the additional genetic material, if one of these abnormal sperm cells combines with an egg cell, the embryo will not develop or the pregnancy will result in miscarriage.

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Types of Art Categories, Forms and Classification of Visual Arts and Crafts.
November 14, 2017
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A-Z Types of Art

• Animation Art
Derived from the Latin meaning “to breathe life into”, animation is the visual art of creating a motion picture from a series of still drawings. Among the great twentieth century animators are J. Stuart Blackton, George McManus, Max Fleischer, and Walt Disney.
• Architecture
Best understood as the applied art of building design. Historically has exerted significant influence on the development of fine art, through architectural styles like Gothic, Baroque and Neoclassical. For the origins of skyscraper design, see: 19th Century Architecture; for its characteristics and development, see: Skyscraper Architecture (1850-present); for technical details, see: Chicago School of Architecture; for historical context, see: American Architecture (1600-present).
• Art Brut
Painting, drawing, sculpture by artists on the margin of society, or in mental hospitals, or children. (English category is Outsider art.)
• Assemblage Art
A contemporary form of sculpture, comparable to collage, in which a work of art is built up or “assembled” from 3-D materials – typically “found” objects.
• Body Art
One of the oldest (and newest) forms – includes body painting and face painting, as well as tattoos, mime, “living statues” and (most recently) “performances” by artists like Marina Abramovic and Carole Schneemann.
• Calligraphy
This fine art, practised widely in the Far East and among Islamic artists, is regarded by the Chinese as the highest form of art.
• Ceramics
A type of plastic art, ceramics refers to items made from clay and baked in a kiln. See ancient pottery from China and Greece, below. Two of the foremost European ceramicists are the English artist Bernard Howell Leach (1887-1979), and the Frenchman Camille Le Tallec (1908-91).
• Christian Art
This is mostly Biblical Art, or at least works derived from the Bible. It includes Protestant Reformation art and Catholic Counter-Reformation art, as well as Jewish themes. See also: Early Christian sculpture and also: Early Christian Art.
• Collage
Composition consisting of various materials like newspaper cuttings, cardboard, photos, fabrics and the like, pasted to a board or canvas. May be combined with painting or drawings.
• Computer Art
All computer-generated forms of fine or applied art, including computer-controlled types. Also known as Digital, Cybernetic or Internet art.
• Conceptual Art
A contemporary art form that places primacy on the concept or idea behind a work of art, rather than the work itself. Leading conceptual artists include: Allan Kaprow (b.1927), and Joseph Beuys (1921-86) the former Professor of Monumental Sculpture at the Dusseldorf Academy, whose dedication earned him a retrospective at the Samuel R Guggenheim Museum (New York).
• Design (Artistic)
This refers to the plan involved in creating something according to a set of aesthetics. Examples of artistic design movements include: Art Nouveau, Art Deco, De Stijl, Bauhaus, Ulm Design School and Postmodernism.
• Drawing
A drawing can be a complete work, or a type of preparatory sketching for a painting or sculpture. A central issue in fine art concerns the relative importance of drawing (line) versus colour.
– chalk
– charcoal
– conte crayon
– pastel
– pen and ink
– pencil
For a selection of the greatest sketches by some of the finest draftsmen in history, please see: Best Drawings of the Renaissance (1400-1550).
• Folk Art
Mostly crafts and utilitarian applied arts made by rural artisans.
• French Furniture
The greatest furniture was created during the 17th/18th centuries by French Designers at the Royal Court, in the Louis Quatorze, Quinze and Seize styles. For a short guide, see: French Decorative Arts (1640-1792).
• Graffiti Art
Contemporary form of street aerosol spray painting which emerged in East Coast American cities during the late 1960s/early 1970s. Famous graffiti artists include Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960-88), Keith Haring (1958-90) and Banksy.
• Graphic Art
Types of visual expression defined more by line and tone (disegno), rather than colour (colorito). Includes drawing, cartoons, caricature art, comic strips, illustration, animation and calligraphy, as well as all forms of traditional printmaking. Also includes postmodernist styles of word art (text-based graphics).
• Icons (Icon Painting)
Ranks alongside mosaic art as the most popular type of Eastern Orthodox religious art. Closely associated with Byzantine art, and later, Russian icon painters.
• Illuminated Manuscripts
This principally refers to religious texts (Christian, Islamic, Jewish) embellished with figurative illustrations and/or abstract geometric designs, exemplified by Book of Kells.
• Installation
A new category of contemporary art, which employs various 2-D and 3-D materials to create a particular space designed to make an impact on the viewer/visitor. Turner Prize Winner Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin are famous installation artists.
• Illustration
A form of painting, drawing or other graphic art which explains, clarif

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