Available Balance
The Transformations and Newness are Coming
January 10, 2019

Soon there will be the many changes there’s many reasons why the changes should occur. Change is what some aren’t thrilled about. To have to adjust to a transformed environment can cause some to behave oddly. All persons won’t understand why the changes need to occur but change is and has already occurred. The disagreements about why a change occurred could ether be explained or declined to explain. It’s better that individuals attempt to adjust to “transformations.”

Acceptance is so difficult for mankind. Some aren’t able to understand because they’re unwilling to. There are many individuals having difficulties because of what they felt should have occurred. Some disagree because of positioning perhaps they’ve wanted to move in a different direction. “Transformations are welcoming to be apart of newness and to explore the many options available.” (Tanikka Paulk). Just attempting to speak about the difference can cause some to think they’re railroaded.

The many explanations supplied seems to still incur the misinformed notions. Listening to what’s said and understanding will develop the finalizing. Some are unwilling to listen to reasoning. Time continues to move forward there’s progress and determination to reach the “destination” which will offer greater. Allowing the transformations is quite helpful. Progressive measures are and shall continue to be effective. There’s working whether seen or unseen.

Headed in what direction? The right direction is where some have decided to move towards. Yes there’s the downwards and upwards. No matter how many times I’ve explained what I’ve felt needed attention some haven’t understood. Their actions demonstrate they’re unwilling to allow, accept, incur. Progress is made when there’s a decision to allow progress. The actions will produce abundance or decreases. Changing one area to another area.

Inside motions and outside motions. The movements are occurring some of the moves should occur without persons being able to view the moves. Privately producing actions transforming from one set to the next. Gathering of the necessary “information” so that the projects are completed. So many have tried to interrupt but there’s still the advancements. Conquering, reaching, accomplishing despite what has occurred. “Somewhere is where I am now and with the continuous motions there will be the finalization.” By: Tanikka Paulk

Images Credited to Free Advanced Google Images

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There’s More to the Storms
June 29, 2018

Storms can produce more than debris. Storms can generate peace even the thunderous storms. There are some afraid of what the storms can produce but storms are apart of nature. There are plenty of storms here in Miami. The storming seemed to last quite long. Oh did I obtain plenty of rest. So the storms were appreciated. The sounds are so relaxing and soothing so there was rest and the rest was needed. “I’m so grateful when there are relaxing sounds how many truly appreciate solitude?” by: Tanikka Paulk

There’s also plenty of pondering occurring when the storms reign in. Gosh, I really enjoyed the thunderous sounds, and the sounds seemed to be so near. It’s hurricane season and boy the storms have been coming perhaps there will be some more rain. It’s also “peaceful” when there’s just rain when the rain hits the window panes oh my goodness what sounds appear here and perhaps there. I would write poetry when the storms roll in and when the rain comes there is more to think about. Thinking and there is a lot to think about.

There can be movements when the storms occur and even when the power goes out there is still ways to be productive. Plenty of rain comes though here in Miami. Yes there is lots of sun but when the rainy season comes boy does it rain. Sometimes the dogs will start to bark when the sounds of thunder rolls in. It appeared as if they were cooperating with the storms. The was peaceful and quietness and what a wonderful thing.

It seemed as if the stormy weather went on for hours certainly was a time to obtain the much needed rest. I’m so filled with gladness No matter what’s occurring it seems as though rain and the thunderous sounds seem to calm situations down. How many think about what storms can offer? There’s more to storms than damages. There is peace generated when the storms come through. Imagine hearing the storms and listening to musical sounds. Oh wow! There are so many sounds “to listen” to and there are many gracious sounds.

I’m so appreciative that storms arrived here because there was silence and soothing embraces of my bed. “What will tomorrow hold. Will there be more storms will the rain come.” (Tanikka Paulk). I’m a music lover so I certainly appreciate listening to the sounds of weather and to music. Oh what joyfulness occurs when the weather changes. Miami will incur plenty of rain. For the beach goers raining and storms could disappoint the beach goers but eventually the rain and storms will pass over.

It would be great if the rain came back again. If there was more rain hitting the window panes and producing the angelic sounds. Wonderful! I’m sure there will be more storming occurring because the season that we’re in. Yes it’s that time, it’s hurricane season, and there could be brewing of the storms. The pitting patting sounds could be like creating a list of songs. “There was no rain yesterday but today there was plenty and yes the rain was needed and greatly appreciated.” By: Tanikka Paulk

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What Works Best is the Better Option
May 31, 2018

There are options available but how can one find the best options? There must be a closer look into where the options are located. The incur such options can be time consuming but if one expects to find the best then that’s what they’ll need to do. Yes, there will be adversity while trying to discover the where and the how. Thinking clearly is always helpful. There could be situations where there are less “options” available and there could be individuals wanting to lessen the options. Trying to think positively can help with finding the options and help with lowering the stress level.

There should be some “analytical thinking” involved. There are many viewpoints involved when looking for the best and proper options. There’s certainly lots to explore as well as discover. There should be patience involved with the process so that there isn’t any frustration. Frustration could lead to missing out on the very best options available. There’s the ability to focus and there should be focus even when there are mishaps. Using the God given abilities is quite helpful. There’s a lot of decision making involved.

Some will be very cautious when trying to select the best options. There could be some back and fourth meaning that there will be lots of thinking involved. the decision should be left up to the person and shouldn’t involve too many individuals. It’s alright to listen to the opinions but the decision should be left up to the person seeking the options. There appears to be way too many thinking that they should have their say. Oh yes indeed there will be a lot of opinions. There are choices and if the opinions are welcomed then there is no need to accept the opinions.

There will be chatter but does anyone have to listen to the chatter? There are distractions and some are more in tuned with trying to cause many distraction then they are trying to create more stability. Yes there should be rest in between. There should be the ability to remain motivated. “To seek and to find is what so many are unable to do.” (Tanikka Paulk). What is there to discover? There is plenty to discover and when should one set out to discover? There’s the decision as to when to do so. “Remaining confident will be of great assistance.” (T. Paulk)=Tanikka Paulk

How many believe that there are many options? How many have the ability to look for the options? No matter what the opinions are it’s better to think with one’s own mind than to think with another. There is always the better option but most will probably want to find the best option available. What works best is to obtain the option or options and hold on to the options. Some lose their ability to have options because of their line of thinking. Thinking with a transformed mind will help create “abundance.” Abundance is certainly an awesome option.

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The Information Data and the Sources
May 25, 2018

There are so many wanting to know what’s being said, the actions taken, the information stored. There has to be creative ways to keep information private. What some may think could be the opposite there are effective ways to store information and to keep the information safe. There must be safeguards that added protection. There seems to be a desire to know all. Too many want to know what’s occurring every minuet. How to keep the information safe? The best thing to do is to code. “The observations will suggest that there are many reasons why individuals will want the information and desire to remove the source holding loads of information.” (Tanikka Paulk).

There has to be important aspects within the realm of communication. What’s communicated can cause some to become unstable. They’re wanting to know where I’m headed and what’s being said. There are many perceptions are some are lost. The best way to deal with persons trying to obtain the information is to keep certain information hidden and to store “information” where persons are unable to retrieve the information. There could be a lot of ears listening to what’s being said. “There will be some angered by not receiving an invitation to join in on the matters.” By: Tanikka Paulk

Certain information can be kept many years and there are some information never revealed. If there’s any expectation to be active then there will need to be disconnections especially when there are persons trying to sabotage. If the information is meant to be revealed then the information will be revealed. Some are waiting to steal data collected for purposes which shouldn’t be revealed at least not to certain individuals. They’ve tried to cause removals in which their efforts were effortless. What will occur will be extremely effective. There is progress even when it “appears” as if there isn’t.

What is told doesn’t suggest that that’s what is. The communications can be heard and there are some listening to gain. There’s this data which they’ve tried to retrieve. There has to be hands some are hidden in plain sight. There are some resisting and causing disturbances. Warranted! There’s the pursuit of. Pursuit of what? Perhaps there’s no need to say what the pursuit entails. What I’ve discovered so many may want to get hold of. There are needs but there are desires to obtain what shouldn’t be transmitted to the individuals.

The unified group should continue to pursue. The others aren’t welcomed to receive the information because the information isn’t of their purpose. So many watching so therefore there has to be ways to lower the risk of leaking certain information. It appears as if the entire world is watching to see what will occur next. They want, need, and are confused about whom they’re trying to use. There are choices and I’m choosing to be “effective” and I’m in no way going to risk what shall occur because of the dismantles.

What will occur in the next up coming months? Wouldn’t they like to know. It will be stored where it will be stored. Timing is so important and what has been revealed so far could be confusing to most. Perhaps what they’ve perceived isn’t what was really shown. A keen eye (eyes) can focus on areas in which the normal vision can not see. There are corrective and incorrect eyes trying to view what is either in front or behind the scenes. “There’s so much competition and some are willing to risk their livelihoods because they’re overly competitive and are having difficulties watching the shine.” (Tanikka Paulk)

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Title Page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Table of content                                                                                  v



  • Introduction

1.1       Problem of the statement

1.2       Aims and Objectives

1.3       Justification of the project

1.4       Scope of the project

1.5       Limitation of the project

1.6       Methodology



  • Literature Review

2.1       Building types within project category

2.2       Brief description of users and owners of such development

2.3       Motivation for such development

2.4       Case Studies

2.5       Merit

2.6       Demerit

2.7       Spatial requirement and ancillary facility



  • Brief description of the site development

3.1       Physiographical characteristic

3.2       Brief description of site location

3.3       Site selection criteria



  • Design proposal

4.1       Conceptual development

4.2       Design option

4.3       Design analysis



5.0       Conclusion

5.1       Recommendation       












Rent is a periodic payment paid by the tenant to the landlord for the use and enjoyment of land and landed property. For small or large-scale property developers and investors, one way to earn money from the properties they owned is to lease/rent them out to short-term tenants. Rent falls into arrears when subsisting tenants fail to pay as at when due.

If your rent is not paid the money owned is called rent arrears. Rent arrears. Rent arrears are priority debts. In property management, tenant rent arrears are almost inevitable although some precautions may be taken to avoid it. It is a global phenomenon, occurring in all parts of the world. Both developing and developed countries, (COHRE,2004).

A landlord or an estate surveyor & valuer & value who wants to terminate a tenancy an recover possession of the property from a tenant for whatever reason must observe due diligence and lawful procedure to achieve his objective. Self-Help is an extra judicial remedy to enforce or protect a right, where the landlord employs self-help, it must be lawful otherwise he will be criminally liable for his actions. (MBIE,2013; Momah, 2011; Monek, 2009).

In Nigeria and particularly in the study area, most tenants, landlord, estate surveyor and    value as well as property managers have suffered untold hardship, tremendous financial loss, social stigma and various degrees of disgrace from the problems from the problems that culminated in rent arrears. The main thrust of this project is to identify and examine the causes and how to recover, strategies and method adopted for rent arrears and in order to improve upon property management generally and more specifically in Oshogbo Metropolis.



In development countries where properties are more of leasing than owning, tenants or users who early met with conditions of lease/letting often becomes defaulter as soon as they might have taken possession of the property. They consciously or unconsciously default on subsequent payment of rents and other statutory obligations leaving most properly investors with great consequence of financial loss. However, this study will consider the strategies for recovery of rent arrears amongst practicing estate surveyors and valuers in Oshogbo.




From the above problem statement are the under-listed questions that the study intend to answer.

  1. Why do people rent?
  2. What are the causes of default in rent payment?
  • What are the strategy in rent arrears recovery?



The study aim to examine the rent recovery strategies in property management practice with a view to make a policy recommendation that would assist property investors and property managers on ways to reducing financial loss and to harnessing returns from property investment. To achieve this above stated aim, the objectives are to:

  1. Identify and examine why people rent
  2. Examine the causes of default in rent payment
  • Identify and examine the strategies for rent arrears recovery



This is will be immense assistance to both landlord and tenant in maintaining a cordial relationship for peaceful co-existence and also to the estate surveyor and values to observe due diligence and lawful procedures.



Property management is the function of both professional and non-professional property managers i.e. Estate Surveyors and Valuers in Osogbo, Osun State.



  1. Time constraint: Time serve as a constraint to the project because there is no much time to work on the project due to strike.
  2. Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficient of the process of data collection (Internet, Interview etc)


1.8       STUDY AREA

Osogbo is the capital of Osun State, lies on coordinate 70 460 North Latitude and Longitude 40 340 East with an area of 47km sq, Osogbo shares boundary with Ikirun, Ilesa, Ede, Egbedore and Iragbiji and is easily accessible from any part of the state because of it’s central nature. It is about 48km from Ile-Ife, 32km from Ilesha, 46km from Iwo, 48km from Ikire and 46km from Ila- Orangun. The Osogbo [property market can be classified into three viz: Residential, Commercial and Industrial property markets.

The traditional centre of the city (Oja-Oba Area) comprises mainly Old Compond and Tenement house interspersed with block of flats all of high-density category. Low density ares are found in Dada Estate, Government House and also GRA.

Commercial properties consist mainly of shops, open markets and offices. Shops are generally available at all locations and neighborhoods to provide shopping facilities. They however, attract higher values at the city centres and main business district. Office refers to buildings that provide ample room spaces and facilities to support a good working condition for people. They include those occupied by private professional offices of lawyers, chartered accountants, surveyors, consultants, hospitals etc and corporate organizations like banks, insurance companies etc.






This chapter identify the reasons that tenants default on their rent payments and also the concept of property management, the evolution of property and property management and reason why people rent an apartment. Default means failure to make required debt payments on a timely basis or to comply with other obligation or agreement (Investors words.com) rent means all periodic payments to be made to the landlord for occupancy of a dwelling unit, including. Without limitation, all reasonable and actual late fees set forth in the rental agreement (Added to NRS by 1977,1999).



            Property management is the operation, control and oversight of real estate as used in its most broad terms.  Management indicates a need to be cared for, monitored and accountability given for its useful life and condition.

Property management is also the management of personal property, equipment, tooling and physical capital assets that are acquired and used to build, repair and maintain end item deliverables.

Property management involves the process systems and man power required to manage the lifecycle of all acquired property as defined above including acquisition,control accountability, maintenance, utilization and disposition.


Duties of property management generally will include a minimum of these basic primary tasks.

  1. The full and proper screening or testing of an applicant’s credit, criminal history, rental history and ability to pay.
  2. Lease contracting or accepting rent legal documents approved for the area in which the property is located.
  3. Mitigation and remediation regarding any maintenance issues, generally within a budget within prior or conveyed consent via a limited power of Attorney legally agreed to by the property owner.
  4. Maintaining necessary records for tax and legal purposes.

There are many facets to this profession including managing the accounts and finances of the real estate properties and participating in or initiating litigation with tenants contractors and insurance agencies.

Special attention is given to Landlord/tenant law and most commonly evictions. Non-payment, harassment, reduction of pre-arranged services and public nuisance are legal subjects that gain the most amount of attention from managers.



            Definition of Property?

One definition of property is one that we might readily expect: Ownership, right of possession, enjoyment, or disposal of anything, especially of something tangible to have property in land.

This definition, as many dictionary definitions do fail to even touch the below the surface of the defined concept. In other words, it doesn’t help us to understand the footholds upon which the definition depends.

For example, Neil Meyer, a professor at the university of Idaho, might not entirely agree with the compendiary definition offered above. Neil Meyers says that “What is often referred to as property is really the access right to a stream of benefit from a given set of resources.

Another “property thinker” who actually included the Meyer’s quote in an article says that a property right are a function of what are willing to acknowledge. The limits on an owner’s action result from expectations and right of others as formally sanctioned and sustained by law.

Barlowe (1978), describes property as complicated legal concept. He said many people thought of it in terms of objects that can be owned or possessed.

In the legal sense, property does not consist of an object but a man’s right to material object.

In other hand, a property can simply defined as a subject of ownership with an exclusive bundle of right and where the connection of interest is based. From the above definition, one can describes property as the exclusive right as the exclusive right of possession, enjoying and disposing of land or bundle or right. These rights are freehold and leasehold rights.




            The Real Estate Dictionary (2004) and Business Dictionary (2000) as cited by Kuye (2008) help the view that property management is the operation of property as a business which necessitates the performance of the following two main tasks i.e property management and investment management tasks. Property management tasks include: accounting and reporting, leasing, maintenance and repair, paying taxes, provision of utilities and insurance, remodeling rent rate setting and collection Investment Management tasks includes; acquisition and disposition, development and rehabilitation, feasibility, financing and income tax accounting.

Over the years, property management has taken a new dimension which calls for profession care and decisions (Kuye, 2008).

Therefore, it requires professionalism, competency and high degree of meticulousness. This is because the expertise and competency of the property manager are most time challenged and also because of its huge capital involved in its development. Therefore, a property manager really has to prove his competency and worth so as to justify the confidence the principal reposed in him.

Property management is one of the best sphere of real estate practice for customer service, is that the activity is essentially human management.       

            How has the concept of property changes from one culture to another?

            In the old testaments, it is interesting to note the various rules and regulations given by the Lord to the people of Israel. Property or ownership, had a different way of “working itself out” in fact, the property that the people of Israel lived on could “moderately belong” to a family but only until a law of jubilee, laws of Aaronic ownership, country land rules, city land rules and various other “loop holes” stipulated otherwise.  It can also affirmed to the children of Israel, the Lord was the only true owner and this he could deal with property management issues as he saw fit. However, it is also important to recognize that the children of Israel had to agree in their mind (anal perhaps in their hearts) that this could be a true definition of “property management” is the direction, supervision and controlling of an interest or interests in landed properties with the aim of obtaining optimum returns”. Also the bible also back up the definition up in Gen. 2:15 “Then the Lord God took the man and put him into the Garden of Eden to cultivate it and keep it” To cultivate it and keep it means to direct, control and supervise it.



Renting, also known as hiring or letting is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or property owned by another.

A gross lease is when the tenant pays a flat rental amount and the landlord charges regularly incurred by the ownership.

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How to Make a Humane Squirrel Trap
April 24, 2018

They bump, scurry, and make noise all hours of the night. When squirrels move into a person or family’s home and attic they can drive the human residents crazy. Other small animals that can invade homes include mice and rats. Removing these animals humanely is the best option for peace, quiet, and a clear consciences. Humane traps can be costly to buy, but there are a number of traps people can make at home.

This PVC pipe trap can be placed anywhere within the home or outside. If placed outside make sure to keep an eye on the trap, in case other squirrels try to free the trapped one.

Step 1: Collect all the needed items before starting to assemble the trap. This trap will require the following items:

PVC Pipe 2 Pipe Caps Bait Drill String Lard or Grease

The string, 2 pipe caps, and the pipe can be bought at a hardware store. The PVC pipe should be six feet long, and be 5 or 6 inches in diameter. Lard can be found at most grocery stores, and the bait can be peanut butter, cereal. Or corn cobs.

Step 2: Drill around ten small holes along the sides of the pipe. This will provide oxygen to the trapped squirrel. Two holes should be drilled at both ends of the pipe about an inch from the edges. These are used to thread the string through in order to secure the trap.

Step 3: Run the string through the bottom two holes, and place the bait at this end. Secure the cap tightly to this end also.

Step 4:Spread the lard around the inside of the pipe from the uncapped end. Make sure to spread the lard down as far as it can go. The lard will make the pipe too slippery to climb out of.
Place the pipe in the desired location at a slight angle. The uncapped end should be a touch higher than the capped end.

Step 5: Tie the strings to something to secure the trap in place. They can be tied to old furniture, railing, or just about anything that will keep the trap steady.

Step 6: Check back on the trap often. Once a squirrel is trapped simply place the extra cap on, and release the pest far away from the home.


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Ways for a Business to Go Green
April 23, 2018




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Big corporations have a luxury that small businesses don’t. They have more money to invest towards being environmentally friendly. A small business often has to juggle between cost efficient and going green. Thankfully there are a number of things small businesses can do every day to boost their going green plan.

Step #1: Use recycled printing paper. This one isn’t hard. Most printing paper available in stores has already been through the recycling process. Using refillable ink cartridges can also help you go green and save you some money. You can also cut costs and go green by sending e-mails instead of printed memos or newsletters.

Step #2: Use natural and earth friendly cleaning products. Most small businesses have some sort of cleaning crew, even if it is the boss doing the moping, and using natural cleaners can really help add to the green image. Cleaning services could really get a boost in environmentally conscious customers if they used only earth friendly cleaners.

Step #3: Use solar powered lights in landscaping. Many small businesses with a store front like having some type of light along walkways or by their entrance. Security lights are also often placed at back entrances. Using solar powered lights in these spots can both save on the power bull and help protect the environment. You also wouldn’t need a professional electrician or landscaper to install them. Many low priced solar lights can be installed with a simple stake in the ground.

Step #4: Make a donation or volunteer time to local gardening or plant a tree organizations. While this may not sound very productive it is a great way to add to your green image. It is also a great way to help the environment. Plants are vital to the earth’s ecosystems and atmosphere. Also, think about how great a photo of the boss and other employees planting saplings or seedlings would look.

Going green is an idea to help protect and heal our planet, and the advantages of being green will help concrete the futures of our children. While small businesses can’t always invest thousands of dollars into solar power and other green methods they can still profit, both financially and personally, by taking smaller steps towards going green.

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Why NIA, DSS, EFCC will continue to clash – NSA
April 17, 2018
Why NIA, DSS, EFCC will continue to clash – NSA

The National Security Adviser (NSA) Major General Babagana Monguno (rtd) said the country’s intelligence agencies would continue to clash unless the National Security Agencies Decree 1986 is amended.

Monguno was quoted in a report of the Senate ad-hoc committee that probed the clash between officials of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Department of State Service (DSS) and Nigeria Intelligence Agency (NIA) last year.

The agencies clashed last year when EFCC operatives attempted to arrest Mr Ayodele Oke, a former DG of NIA and Mr Ita Ekpeyong, a former DG of the DSS.

The NSA while expressing concern over the lack of unity and cooperation among intelligence agencies in the country said the situation has led to, “The current state of disjointedness and disharmony amongst sister agencies. This resulted due to the National Security Agencies Decree 1986; Cap 278, Cap 278 LFN section 14 01-2 which has stripped the NSA of the power to check the other Security Agencies that have now become independent of his office due to their now ‘easy’ access to the President. Thus, there is a desperate need to streamline the Agencies and make them answerable to the NSA.”

Monguno told senators that the President was aware of the state of things and also presented evidences of instances where his duties were usurped due to lack of discipline exhibited by Security Agencies.

He disclosed that he was not aware of the EFCC chairman’s move to arrest any of the former intelligence chiefs until after the media reports and that the resistance made by the Security Agencies during the arrest cast some aspersions.

The Senate had while considering the report of the panel chaired by Senator Francis Alimikhena (APC, Edo) resolved to initiate the amendment of the act with a view to giving powers of control to the Coordinator on National Security over these agencies on behalf of the President.

TANZANIA: At least 9 dead in floods in commercial capital

TANZANIA: At least 9 dead in floods in commercial capital

At least nine people in Tanzania’s commercial capital died after heavy rains flooded homes and roads, authorities said on Monday. Police chief Lazaro Mambosasa told journalists the people died as a result of heavy rainfall over the past three days.

Television footage showed residents seeking shelter on rooftops. Authorities ordered schools to be closed for two days starting on Tuesday to assess infrastructure damage.

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How Climate Change is Impacting Vermont’s Maple Sugar Industry
April 10, 2018

With production values totaling US$59.7 million in 2016, maple is big business in the state of Vermont. In spite of its population of about 623,000 people, Vermont is the largest producer of syrup in the United States. Its maple sugar output makes up more than 40 percent of the country’s total market share.

The industry has a direct and significant impact on Vermont’s economy. MapleThe maple sugar industry is big business in Vermont. But with warming winters, will liquid gold be sapped? is the state’s fourth-largest value-added agricultural export. The sector pays somewhere between 2,735 and 3,169 full-time employees and many more part-time seasonal jobs, totaling more than US$140 million in wages.

The maple industry “employs many people in the state from backyard sugaring, selling to your neighbors, all the way to the largest maple players,” says Dr. Jane Kolodinsky, chair of Community Development and Applied Economics and the Center for Rural Studies at the University of Vermont.

“For every dollar that is spent in the maple economy, a US$1.60 comes out,” says Dr. Kolodinsky. “So it is a 60 percent benefit that is trickling through the economy and keeping it churning.”

Vermont’s maple sugar trees, for both their foliage and syrup, are a tremendous draw for outsiders. With 1 in 10 jobs in the state relying on dollars from visitors, tourism remains a crucial part of the local economy—from skiing to fall foliage tours.

“If you think about things [indirect economic benefits] that you absolutely can’t measure, it’s the impact of the maple industry and even the sugar bushes and maple trees on tourism,” Dr. Kolondinsky says, “which is what brings people to lovely Vermont.”

Because of its historically frigid winters, Vermont has an ideal sugaring climate. Sugaring occurs when maple trees turn stored starch back into sugar, which mixes with ground water to create sap—this sap is collected to create maple syrup. The process requires cold climates to have cycles of freezing and thawing to produce an increased flow of sap. The best time to tap the trees is when the daytime temperatures are above 40 degrees Fahrenheit and evening temperatures are in the 20s—a typical early Spring climate in Vermont.

However, it has been increasingly difficult to find a stretch of ideal conditions for syrup production in the Northeast. Climate change has shortened the sugaring season. When compared to the beginning of the early 1900s, researchers have noted an overall reduction in maple sugar output in the U.S over the 20th century. They attributed part of this century-long decline to changing climatic conditions.

Environmental factors may also change the quality of the sugar. According to the University of New Hampshire professor Dr. Barry Rock, the sugar content in U.S. sap has halved in the last 50 years, from 4 percent to 2 percent.

In the 1950s, the U.S. produced 80 percent of the global syrup supply, and Canada contributed about 20 percent. Today, it’s the opposite, with Canada supplying 80 percent of the global market. This dominance is in part due to Canada’s increased investment in marketing and government subsidies.

Forty years ago, sugar makers would tap their trees around Town Meeting Day, the first Tuesday in March. During the 2016 and 2017 seasons, Vermonters were tapping as early as January 1. Unseasonably warm winters were partially responsible for this early start as the last two years were some of the hottest on public record for the U.S.

In spite of these trends, the American maple syrup industry is growing.

The last few sugaring seasons have led to record output. In 2017, Vermont had a near-record year in maple syrup quantity, producing 1.98 million gallons worth an estimated US$59.4 million in sales. This production was slightly down from the preceding year.

“New technology and practices introduced into the maple industry, particularly improved vacuum and improved taphole/tubing sanitation practices, have increased yield per tap of syrup over the past 20 years,” says Dr. Timothy Perkins, research professor and director of the University of Vermont’s Proctor Maple Research Center.

In the last several years, Perkins says that bigger maple operations with these new technologies will often tap their trees during the early thaws to capture the mid-winter flows.

Perkins explains that, “at the same time, higher prices for syrup have made the economics of production better, so the industry has grown [and] added taps,with most of these new taps using high-yield practices.”

In 2017, Vermont sugar makers placed 5.41 million taps, a 12 percent increase over 2016. The introduction of new taps has helped sugarers to increase their output.

“Thus we see a strongly growing total maple syrup production over this time period,” explained Perkins. “In short, improved technology and practice have swamped out any small losses due to climate change.”

What will the 2018 maple sugar season bring? It’s too early to predict, but Perkins says that “the popular notion that the maple industry is being badly impacted by climate change is, at this point at least, incorrect.”

Better technologies, practices, and tapping have allowed the state’s maple industry to grow in spite of the warming of the planet. But the longer-termfuture of the sugar maple in Vermont remains uncertain.

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Oil Spills: Environmentalists seek establishment of laboratories in N/Delta Read more at: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/04/oil-spills-environmentalists-seek-establishment-laboratories-n-delta/
April 9, 2018

The Environmental Right Action/Friends of the Earth Nigeria (ERA/FoEN) on Monday solicited the establishment of specialised laboratories for oil spill-related tests to resolve spill-related conflicts in the Niger Delta region. ERA/FoEN made the appeal in its report on the September 2017 spill incident at Agip’s 10” Tebidaba-Clough-creek pipeline in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa.

Mr Marco Rodondi, District General Manager, Nigeria Agip Oil Company, said that the conflict between community and Agip had frustrated the clean-up efforts, which had currently reached the final stage. The report urged the federal and state governments as well as interventionist agencies in the Niger Delta region to set up specialised laboratories to facilitate the speedy resolution of oil spill pollution-related conflicts between oil firms and their host communities. The report, signed by Alagoa Morris, Head of Field Operations at ERA/FoEN, said that the laboratories would conduct confirmatory tests by tracing sources of oil leaks and environmental toxicology tests to confirm clean-up of oil spill sites. The group said that the endless arguments between Agip officials and Apoi community in Bayelsa, which was affected by the oil spill, could have been avoided if functional reference laboratories were in place. “There is need for the Bayelsa Government to collaborate with the Federal Government’s interventionist agencies like Niger Delta Development Commission and Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs on pollution cases. “These stakeholders should establish functional, standard science laboratories. “This is with a view to making it easier for our communities and other individuals affected in connection with water, land and air pollution to get samples analysed. “This is very critical because it will assist all stakeholders, clean-up contractors, impacted communities and oil companies concerned,” ERA/FoEN said. The non-governmental organisation quoted a Joint Investigation Visit (JIV) report on the oil spill incident as stating that out of 180 barrels of crude oil, which leaked into the environment, 124 barrels had been recovered. ERA/FoEN, however, expressed the regret that 56 barrels of spilled crude oil had not been accounted for. “There is need for soil and water samples to be collected from the disputed environment for scientific analysis; in view of the toxic nature of crude oil to the environment and the need for proper clean-up. “All stakeholders, including regulatory agencies, oil firms and the community, should be involved in this exercise,”

Read more at: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/04/oil-spills-environmentalists-seek-establishment-laboratories-n-delta/

Read more at: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/04/oil-spills-environmentalists-seek-establishment-laboratories-n-delta/


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