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December 16, 2019

A lot of networking engineers take certification exams to further expand their knowledge base and gain the required skill set to advance in their careers. While there are numerous certification exams, there are very few as globally recognized and valued as Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching certification 200-125 or CCNA Security 210-260. This specific certification adds value and surely helps push forward an IT professionals’ career. All over the world, a huge number of skilled networkers take this certification exam to meet the increased business demands in the always-changing IT industry. If this interests you then you might want to take a CCNA Course in Pune to get the certification.

Here we have discussed some of the things that you can do to pass the Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching certification exam within a week’s time. That’s correct. At first, it may sound almost impossible to prepare for Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching certification exam(s) in just 7 days, but it is very much achievable with hard work, the right strategy, and complete dedication. A lot of professionals have been able to do so, and you can too.

Read More About Cisco Certifications

How To Pass Cisco CCENT Certification The First Step
If you too are someone who wants to get ahead of the curve by gaining this certification, then first thing you need to do is to study for CCENT Exam and then go for CCNA.

Get Study Materials from Reliable Sources

If you browse online, you will be able to spot a wide variety of study materials for CCNA Routing and Switching certification exams. However, not all those sources are reliable, authentic and up-to-date. And, any kind of wrong information can prove to be extremely harmful. That is why it is highly recommended to study from materials provided only by reliable sources.

In this case, the most reliable source would be Cisco itself. Get the training materials from Cisco CCENT or CCNA Learning Partners. It comprises of approximately 20 chapters detailing the key topics for this certification exam. Alternatively, you can purchase the Cisco Press books that contain all the must-know topics. Further, if you wish to expand your knowledge base and skill set, then you are free to do so, however, it is imperative to do proper research about a website or book before using it for studying.

Be Aware of the Exam Format

Having proper knowledge about the exam format can prove to be advantageous for the candidate. On the official site of ‘The Cisco Learning Site,” you will be able to get the exact and updated format of the CCNA Routing and Switching certification exam. There will be multiple-choice single answers and multiple answers along with simulations questions. The exam will also comprise of fill in the blanks type of questions and testlet. A testlet is more of a scenario in which you may be provided with 4 questions related to a particular scenario. As per the scenario, you will have to select the possible outcomes.

The simulation questions test your practical knowledge to check if you have the required skills to handle different networking problems in the real-world environment. Lastly, you will get simlet exam questions, these are based on practical knowledge and skills. The simulation questions and simlets are often considered to be the hardest. Thoroughly go through the reading materials and check the official sites for updates of any kind in the exam format.

Know About the Key Topics

To be able to successfully pass the CCENT or CCNA certification exams, one should be well aware of the key topics. Since this is an associate-level certification designed for network engineers and other professionals in the domain of networking, the key topics are related to the fundamentals of networking. However, you should be aware of the different topics to be able to prepare accordingly. Recognize the topics that you are good at and ones that are your weak points. Dedicate proper time to all the significant topics, especially to the ones that you are not confident with.

Pick Which Exam to Take for CCENT, CCNA or CCNP
Lastly, you will have to decide which exam you want to take for earning the CCNA routing and switching certification. Either take the examination 200-125 CCNA or take an exam which is divided into two parts namely CCENT 100-105 ICND1 and 200-105 ICND2. It is essential to clear either of these exams for getting this certification.

CCNA Composite Exam 200-125

CCNA Security 210-260 Exam
Some of these topics are subnetting, routing protocols, installation, operation and troubleshooting branch network layers, network types, security and media, TCI/IP models, OSI models, IP traffic, handling point-to-point connections and few more. It is crucial to becoming well-versed in all these topics as in the exam you will be tested for both, your theoretical as well as practical knowledge. There is a myriad of reading materials available on these topics that can help you gain the required knowledge.


The 3 Exams Are Below:
CCNP Routing & Switching Route 300-101 Exam


CCNP Switch 300-115 Exam

CCNP Tshoot 300-135 Exam

Take Practice Tests
It is incredibly crucial to take practice tests to get an idea of the type of questions that get asked in this certification exam. Practice mock tests and simulations online for testing your theoretical and practical knowledge. To be able to get through simulation questions, you need to possess practical knowledge. For this, you should test your skills on equipment.

However, if you are not able to do so, you can check practice labs online that offer access to live equipment for gaining practical experience. Take numerous CCENT, CCNA & CCNP practice tests to be able to identify your weak points and work on them accordingly. Also, by practicing you will be able to gain confidence and will be able to give your best performance on the day of the certification exam.

Manage Your Time

Time management is essential for cracking CCNA Routing and Switching 200-125 or CCNA Security 210-260 or CCNP exams, CCNP Route, CCNP Switch & CCNP Tshoot. In this exam, you are required to answer around 60-70 questions within an hour and a half (90 minutes). And, as this exam is a difficult one to crack, a lot of people tend to miss out on questions due to a shortage of time.

Despite knowing the answers people end up not clearing this certification exam because of time problems. To avoid that from happening, you should manage your time while taking practice tests, so that on the day of the exam you do not end up tensing up or losing a track of time while answering the questions. Time yourself while practicing for the exams for getting the best results on the day of the exam.


Be mindful of the above-stated points to be able to make the most of the 90-minutes time that is provided during this certification exam. Prepare yourself by reading, practicing and managing the time to ensure that you give your best on the final day.

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Get Microsoft MCSA& MCSE Certifications with Valid Microsoft Practice Questions
December 12, 2019

Microsoft is a leader among vendors in IT that provide certifications. Microsoft products are known to millions of people across the globe. In order to work with them, individuals need to have special skills.

The company offers a number of certifications, that qualifies one as a skillful employee. Microsoft offers certifications of different levels and for all tastes: Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA), Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA), Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE) and Microsoft Certified Solutions Developer (MCSD).

To find more information about Microsoft certification exams, visit Microsoft website and check the most updated Microsoft exam questions too.

MCSA certifications

MSCA is the main level candidates start their careers from, as they gain the core skills to get entry-level jobs in IT and build a bright career within the Microsoft certification path. Microsoft offers a great variety of MCSA credentials: Cloud Platform, Linux on Azure, Microsoft Dynamics 365, Windows Server 2016, Web Applications among many.

To get more information about MCSA certification, visit Microsoft website.

MCSA: Office 365 credential

One of the most sought-after certification is MCSA: Office 365 credential. It proves that you are qualified enough to work with cloud-hosted business application using Microsoft Office 365. To get this credential, you need to pass two exams 70-346 and 70-347. This acticle will provide you with the most detailed information about Microsoft 70-347 exam. So, let’s take a closer look at it.

The test is designed to validate your ability to evaluate, plan, deploy, and operate Office 365 services. You should demonstrate that you can manage devices for clients and configure Skype for Business and Exchange Online. 70-347 also validates your skills in configuring and securing the services of Office 365 and and implementing of SharePoint.

How does Microsoft 70-347 exam look like?

  • Prerequisites: familiarity with SharePoint Online, Microsoft Azure Active Directory, Exchange Online, and Skype for Business
  • Number of Questions: 40-60
  • Question types may include multiple-choice with single answer, multiple-choice with multiple answer, case studies, and drag-and-drop
  • Duration: 2 hours
  • Cost: $165
  • Passing score: 700/1000
  • Registration: Microsoft Learning/ Pearson VUE

Why is Microsoft 70-347 exam important and popular?


  • It is administered by Microsoft, a leading IT vendor.


  • It is one of the two exams required to attain MCSA: Office 365 certification. Once you pass 70-346 and 70-347 tests, you will be a certified specialist.
  • Passing the exam proves your skills in handling the technical tasks.

What does Microsoft 70-347 exam mean to your career?


  • You attain unique skills


Exam 70-347 leads to the attaining of unique skills which are highly valuedby the employers. IT certification proves that you have what it takes to accomplish the required technical tasks.


  • Get an advantage in finding employment


MCSA Office 365 has become popular across the world. Employers prefer the individuals who have the right skills that can help them achieve their business needs.


  • Prepare for career roles with a high wage


MCSA certifications, and more specifically MCSA Office 365, are the best way to launch your IT career. According to indeed.com, the roles related to MCSA 365 office attract up to $70/hour in the US. This is a great way to start your career even if you plan to pursue more advanced credentials.


  • Get a possibility to grow


With the impressive skills and performance, chances are high that you can be assigned more complex tasks in your workplace. With challenging roles come remunerations and experience.

What job opportunities are available after passing Microsoft 70-347 exam?

Once you pass your 70-347 exam, you qualify for any of the following job roles:


  • SaaS (Software as a Service) Administrator


  • Solutions Specialist
  • Office 365 Architect
  • Exchange Architect
  • Cloud Applications Administrator
  • Server Administrator



Important things to know before you sit for Microsoft 70-347 exam


  • To pass the exam, register with Microsoft Learning and schedule your test with Pearson VUE


  • Get yourself acquainted with Microsoft exam policies and regulations
  • Understand 70-347 structure and objectives
  • Prepare for your exam thoroughly. You can do this by enrolling for a course, getting relevant study guides, and using practice tests



What is the role of dumps in passing Microsoft 70-347 exam?

Dumps are past exam questions and answers uploaded by professionals who have previously passed their 70-347 test. Exam dumps will show how your exam looks like. You will also see the possible kinds of questions that may appear on the exam. The dumps are useful for preparation, but it’s advisable that you use them along with other revision resources like study guides and training courses. You must also ensure that you use dumps that are up to date because exam structure and objectives are bound to change from time to time.

10 tips to pass your Microsoft 70-347 exam


  • Understand the exam objectives well


Before you start your revision, ensure that you know what the test is all about. Search for relevant guides and materials.


  • Make sure your study space is well organized


Avoid cluttering your study space. Organize your books and other revision materials in a way that you can locate them easily. If you are using your computer or phone, ensure that you can easily access the materials whenever you need them.


  • Enroll in a training course


Find an instructor who is qualified to help you with your study and revision. The Microsoft official website is the best place to find accredited trainers.


  • Use old exams for practice


Practice tests are very useful for your preparation. They help you know the exam structure, manage time, and know how to answer questions.

Find the most reliable websites to get the best materials for your preparation, for example, visit www.passitdump.com.


  • Study to understand and avoid cramming


Make sure you understand what you are studying. If you cram, you can easily forget everything or most of what you have studied. Cramming can actually be very counterproductive. Make sure you start your studies in advance so that there won’t be any need to rush.


  • Have a study group for discussions


Find friends preparing for the same exam as you. The discussions can be face to face interactions or online. Share information with each other and seek clarification on what you don’t understand.


  • Take breaks regularly


Make sure that you rest in between your study sessions. Come up with a study schedule that will work best for you. If you begin your preparation early enough, then you can always afford some small breaks.


  • Eat food that boosts your brain power


Take nutritious foods such as nuts, fish, yogurt, fruits, and seeds. They have been known to boost the brain power. Avoid fast-food and unhealthy snacks that carry no nutritional value. Also, ensure to take water regularly.


  • Take enough rest the night before your exam


Yes. Go to bed early on the eve of your test. This will help you stay alert throughout your exam period the next day. How to overcome excitement and calm down the evening before the exam?


  • Properly plan your exam day


Everything that you would require for your test should be ready in advance. Do not wait for the morning of your exam as that can really mess the things up.

Top web resources for Microsoft exams

  • Courses: for MCSA 70-347 exam preparation it’s Course 20347A: Enabling and Managing Office 365 Microsoft Course
  • Books: Exam Ref 70-347: Enabling Office 365 Study Guide by Orin Thomas
  • Online platforms: PrepAway 70-347 Practice tests (or any other with the updated material).

What i the next step? MCSE certification

After getting MCSA certification, if you are an ambitious person and wish to be an expert in cloud applications administration, you’ll make a new step and get MCSE credential. With MCSA Office 365 certification, you can go for MCSE Productivity, the popular expert-level credential.

Among other in-demand MCSE credentials are Business Applications, Cloud Platform and Infrastructure, Core Infrastructure, Mobility, Productivity, Data Management and Analytics.

To learn more about any MCSE certification exam, browse Microsoft website.


Having Microsoft certification is a great advantage to you and your CV. MCSA, MCSE or any other Microsoft credentials, proves that you are a real professional in the field you are working or intending to work.

If you choose to gain MCSA Office 365 certification, going for Microsoft 70-347 exam is the best way to launch your career in the dynamic IT field. If you wish to get some great career prospects, then this is where to start from. What’s more? Microsoft credentials do not expire. These certifications are going to be useful to you for a lifetime. Be consistent in your actions and have a plan, as well as the valid prep material.

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25 Most Beautiful Places in the World

» Maroon Bells, USA

Maroon Bells, USA

Located only about 10 miles from , Colorado, the are two 14,000-foot peaks in the Elk Mountains that are reflected in crystal-clear Maroon Lake, snuggled in a glacial valley. They are the crown jewels of the Rocky Mountains and by far one of the most photographed scenes in the country.

It is difficult to say when the timeless beauty of these two sentinels mirrored in the lake is more striking: In the summer, when every hiking trail takes you through fields of wild flowers, in the fall, when tall aspen trees dazzle with a rainbow of fall colors, or in the winter, when snow and ice silence the world. The best photo opportunities are from one of the many hiking trails – access by motor vehicles is limited. The lake is popular among fly-fishermen – even if they don’t catch anything, the beauty all around them is enough. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: nature guy/Fotolia

» Grand Canyon, USA

Grand Canyon, USA

The  is a steep, 1-mile-deep, and up to 18-mile-wide gash in the fabric of the world, an immense gorge carved by the Colorado River over the last 5,000 years. Its sheer size is breathtaking and although you can see only a small portion of it even from the best vantage point, its geology and its age fire the imagination. The layers of colorful rock show the passage of time and some of the rocks at the bottom are 1,8 billion years old.

There is a lot of life growing on the canyon’s steep sides – you can see more of it hiking the trails of the northern rim, where it is also less crowded. Most people limit their visit to the breathtaking views from the southern rim. Some of the most popular viewpoints are Yavapai Observation Station, Mary Colter’s Lookout Studio, and Mather Point. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Bon/Fotolia

» Blue Ridge Mountains, USA

Blue Ridge Mountains, USA

Located in the eastern United States and part of the massive Appalachians, the Blue Ridge Mountains stretch from their southernmost end in Georgia all the way northward to Pennsylvania. Between the Blue Ridge and the rest of the Appalachians lies the Great Appalachian Valley. When seen from a distance, the Blue Ridge Mountains appear blue – the trees that release a gas called isoprene are responsible for the bluish color and thus the mountains’ name.

Within the Blue Ridge Mountains are two large national parks: The Shenandoah and the Great Smoky Mountains. The best way to enjoy and get to know Blue Ridge is by taking the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile-long beautiful scenic highway that runs along the ridge together with the renowned Appalachian Trail and which connects the two parks. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Phils Photography/Fotolia

» Beautiful Places: Oia, Santorini, Greece

Beautiful Places: Oia, Santorini, Greece

Located on top of a cliff with a spectacular view of the Palea volcano, Nea Kameni, and the island of Thirassia, Oia is the most popular and arguably the most beautiful of all the picturesque villages of the beautiful Greek island of . Only about 11 km from Fira, on the north of the island, Oia will charm you with its traditional stone houses lining the narrow streets, breathtaking blue-domed churches, and sunbaked verandas.

While the village has its share of taverns, souvenir shops, and cafes, Oia is more quiet and laid-back than busy Fira and most people enjoy its quaint beauty by slowly exploring its narrow streets. Stroll through the village’s small port of Ammoudi by descending 300 steps down the cliff, or enjoy colorful galleries showcasing art from the many artists who fell in love with the village and made it their home. Oia, Santorini is considered by many one of the prettiest places in the world. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Photocreo Bednarek/Fotolia

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» Most beautiful places on Earth: Plitvice Lakes, Croatia

Most beautiful places on Earth: Plitvice Lakes, Croatia

Located about halfway between the Croatian capital Zagreb and Zadar on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, Plitvice Lakes are a magical world of living, moving water surrounded by ancient forests, 16 lakes linked by waterfalls, bridges natural and man-made, and 300 square kilometers of wild beauty full of bears, wolves, boars, and birds.

The difference in altitude between 1,280 meters at the highest point and 280 meters at the lowest creates a seemingly endless number of falls, big and small, that permanently fill the air with spray and fog. Wooden and natural walkways and hiking trails spin around and across the lake and a ferry on Lake Kozjak shuttles people between the upper and lower lakes. The lakes are beautiful all year round, but especially when mirroring magical fall colors or the lacy frozen branches of the surrounding trees. Next read: 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: twin designer/Fotolia

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»Interesting Places to Visit: Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia

Interesting Places to Visit: Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia

Salar de Uyuni, located high up in the Andes in southwest Bolivia at an altitude of 11,995 feet, is the largest salt flat in the world, covering over 4,086 square miles. It was once a prehistoric lake that dried up, leaving behind 11,000 square kilometers of otherworldly desert-like landscape made up of sparkling bright white salt, bizarre rock formations, and strange cacti-covered islands. The best spot to observe this surreal landscape is central Incahuasi Island.

There is not much wildlife in this fairly barren ecosystem, except for about 80 species of birds and the thousands of pink flamingos that come in November. The salt crust, between 7 and 66 feet deep, covers a sea of brine. The salt is very rich in lithium, accounting for up to 70 percent of the world’s reserves of the mineral. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Karol Kozlowski/Fotolia

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»Sossusvlei, Namibia

Sossusvlei, Namibia

Located in the Namibian Namib-Naukluft National Park in the southern part of the vast Namib Desert, Sossusvlei is a salt and clay pan surrounded by immense red dunes. Sossusvlei, loosely translated as “dead-end marsh” and about 60 km from the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, is where the dunes stop the water of the Tsauchab River from flowing any further; if there were any waters that is, something which happens very rarely.

Most of the time the pan, just like the rest of the Namib Desert, is bone dry for years. But in those years when the rains are exceptionally rich and the pan is filled with water, there is reason for celebration and photographers from all over the world come to see this magnificent spectacle: The immense red dunes, among the largest in the world, are reflected in a lake that lasts for no more than a year. While many plants and animals have adapted to the harsh conditions of Sossusvlei all year round, when the waters come thousands of birds flock to the marshy coast. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: tiagofernandez/Fotolia


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»Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

At the southern tip of the Andes in Chile’s Patagonia lies Torres del Paine National Park, a place with more than its fair share of nature’s majesty: It has soaring mountains, cold blue icebergs cleaving from ancient glaciers, bottomless lakes, spectacular geological formations, narrow fjords, deep rivers, ancient forests, and endless golden pampas covered with wild flowers and providing home to such rare wildlife as pumas and the llama-like guanacos.

The best way to see Torres del Paine is on foot following one of many famous tracks, but if you have to limit yourself to just a few iconic sites, visit the three majestic granite towers, or torres del paine, Los Cuernos, Grey Glacier, and French Valley. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: brizardh/Fotolia

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»Exciting Places to Visit: Victoria Falls, Zambia/Zimbabwe

Exciting Places to Visit: Victoria Falls, Zambia/Zimbabwe

Victoria Falls, aptly named Mosi-oa-Tunya – the Smoke that Thunders – by locals is a breathtaking spectacle of incomparable beauty and majesty. The largest water curtain in the world, this enormous waterfall on the Zambezi River on the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe can be heard from 40 kilometers away, as the waters of the normally placid Zambezi river plummet over the edge of the wide basalt cliff into the magnificent gorge 100 meters below.

The spray of the water can be seen from 50 km away as it rises 400 meters in the air, creating permanent clouds and endless rainbows. Across the falls is a basalt wall of the same height covered with dense jungle, offering magnificent views of the main falls and the number of continuous falls as the water zigzags through the series of gorges. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: ziggy/Fotolia


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» Most Beautiful Places in the World: Moraine Lake, Canada

Most Beautiful Places in the World: Moraine Lake, Canada

Located in the remote Valley of the Ten Peaks in the Canadian Rockies, Moraine Lake is an emerald beauty, a small, cold glacier-fed jewel surrounded by towering mountains, immense waterfalls, and ancient rock piles, so beautiful it takes breath away. As the glaciers melt, the water in the lake rises and changes its color.

It might take away some of its magic to know that the color is affected by the sediment brought by the glacial waters. The whole area is crossed by scenic hiking trails that offer different perspectives of the lake depending on your elevation or location. You can also enjoy its beauty from a kayak or canoe, or just by sitting on a rock at its bank. Take it all in, no photograph will ever give it justice. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Dan Breckwoldt/Fotolia

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» Awesome Places to Visit: Lake Bled, Slovenia

Awesome Places to Visit: Lake Bled, Slovenia

If you glimpse Lake Bled in Slovenia from one of the distant mountaintops, you will be convinced that you are seeing some magical, lost fantasy world of dragons and knights: A vivid emerald green lake with a tiny island in the middle with a church perched on its cliff and an ancient medieval castle clinging to its slopes, hugged on all sides by enormous mountains, snow-topped and covered with dark, green, ancient forests.

Lake Bled is just as beautiful as you get closer and is a popular Slovenian tourist destination that attracts those seeking romance on Bled Island, visitors enjoying a leisurely hike around the lake or rowing its placid waters, and young adventurers exploring the steep hiking trails of the surrounding Julian Alps and the Karavanke Mountains. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Kavita/Fotolia

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»Beautiful Places: Mauna Kea Beach, Hawaii, USA

Beautiful Places: Mauna Kea Beach, Hawaii, USA

Mauna Kea Beach is stunningly beautiful golden sand beach, one of the most beautiful of all the great beaches on the Big Island of Hawaii. Long and wide, the beach is fabulous for long walks but is even better for swimming as the sand slowly slopes out into the water, so entering it is easy even for children or beginners.

You can keep wading for quite a while until you reach waist-deep water. Snorkeling is also popular, but only at the two extreme beach ends where the beach is guarded by natural rock promontories. Because the beach is connected to the Mauna Kea Beach Hotel, it is never crowded, although parking is limited. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: yuru photo/Fotolia

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» Best places to visit in the world: Niagara Falls

Best places to visit in the world: Niagara Falls

are three massive waterfalls that form the border between Canada and the United States. The falls are located on the Niagara River between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The falls were formed at the end of the last ice age when the water from the Great Lakes broke through the Niagara Escarpment on the way to the Atlantic Ocean.

The falls are a hugely popular tourist destination and have attracted honeymooners, families, and daredevils of all kinds, from those who went down the falls in a barrel to those who stretched a wire over the falls and walked across it. The falls have inspired hundreds of artists to create wonderful art and are still inspiring the millions of people who come to admire the majesty of nature as well as its power and its magnificent beauty. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: CPQ/Fotolia


» Famous Places to Visit: Yellowstone National Park, USA

Famous Places to Visit: Yellowstone National Park, USA

Yellowstone National Park is the oldest national park in the world, consisting of 3,500 square miles of wild, untamed beauty left aside for the enjoyment of humankind, but also for its own protection. It is a recreation area that is spread across several states, from Wyoming to Idaho and Montana, featuring spectacular and diverse natural features – fast alpine rivers, a simmering volcano displaying its power in gushing geysers and hot springs, deep canyons, dense ancient forests, snow-covered mountaintops, breathtaking vistas, and magnificent trails.

And among all that beauty there is a whole world that calls it home – bears, elk, wolves, bison, and antelopes. The park is much more than a place to come and have fun, it is a precious national treasure. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Brad Pict/Fotolia

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»Most Beautiful Places in the World: Arches National Park, USA

Most Beautiful Places in the World: Arches National Park, USA

At an altitude of over 5,000 feet in the high desert of eastern Utah is a magical place of red rocks and blue skies. It is what we imagine the surface of Mars to look like, with more than 2,000 rocks in vivid reds and muted buffs precariously piled up on top of each other to form delicate bridges, pinnacles, and arches. The park stretches over 76,679 acres across the Colorado Plateau, with the Colorado River bordering it to the southeast.

The strange landscape is mostly the result of the salt composition of the underlying soil, the effects of pressure from the sediments, and the relentless work of wind and water. The best way to see the park is by following one of the many trails, which range from really difficult hikes to easy ones suitable for families. There is a ranger program that offers guided tours, imparting riches of information about the geology, history, and flora and fauna of this magnificent world.

25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Zack Frank/Fotolia

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» Famous Places to Visit: Amalfi Coast, Italy

Famous Places to Visit: Amalfi Coast, Italy

The Amalfi Coast is an extravagantly beautiful stretch of rugged coast in Campania, Italy, at the edge of the Sorrentine Peninsula. For about 50 kilometers, the coast looks like something a romantic artist might have conjured – sheer cliffs plunging into the azure sea, tiny golden beaches hidden in secluded coves, pastel sun-washed villages hugging the steep slopes of Mount Ravello, and fragrant orange groves competing for attention with ancient vineyards.

You can take a typical Mediterranean coastal road between the port of Salerno, famous Positano and Amalfi, and lovely Sorrento perched on the clifftop to enjoy the landscape in all its majesty, or you can take one of the many hiking trails that will take you past old villages, offer spectacular views, and introduce you to some fantastic quaint local restaurants and tavernas. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: dudlajzov/Fotolia

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»Places to Visit with Kids: Apenzell, Switzerland

Places to Visit with Kids: Apenzell, Switzerland

Apenzell is the most traditional of all the Swiss regions, a rural world where time has stopped, where culture and tradition are celebrated, and where the charming landscape of rolling green hills full of plump cows is guarded by the 8,200-foot Mount Säntis.

The village of Apenzell is the Switzerland of our imagination and in the fairytales of our childhood, with its lavishly carved chalets, carriages drawn by horses in full feathered headdresses, a busy village square where all the village business is conducted, richly painted emblems and panels on all of Appenzell’s buildings, and gnomes competing for space with flower boxes dripping with vivid red geraniums. There is always a festival going on, or a concert, wedding, or celebration in which everyone participates, and there are seemingly endless hiking trails that turn into magical cross-country trails when the winter throws its white blanket over everything. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: buehli9/Fotolia

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»Best places to visit in the world: Blue Lagoon, Iceland

Best places to visit in the world: Blue Lagoon, Iceland

The Blue Lagoon is a rare geothermal spa in Iceland located between Reykjavik and Keflavik International Airport in the heart of a lava field on the Reykjanes Peninsula. Even for Iceland, which is famous for its strange and curious landscapes, the Blue Lagoon, with its milky-white quiet waters, is a bizarre sight. The lagoon is man-made and fed by water from the Svartsengi, a nearby geothermal power plant.

Actually, the water that comes to the spa has a few jobs to do before being used for beauty and relaxation: superheated water is channeled from underground near a lava flow and is then used to run turbines and generate electricity. After passing through the turbines, the hot water and steam pass through a heat exchanger and provide hot water for a city water heating system. Only then is the water fed into the lagoon for medicinal and recreational purposes. The warm waters in the lagoon are rich in silica, sulfur, and other minerals and bathing in the Blue Lagoon is considered beneficial for certain skin conditions. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: planet johnson/Fotolia

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» Bora Bora, French Polynesia

Bora Bora, French Polynesia

Far, far away in the vast South Pacific lies a dreamlike island with a dormant volcano at its heart, covered by thick jungle, surrounded by an emerald necklace of tiny sand-fringed islands that form a turquoise lagoon hiding rich coral reefs and thousands of colorful fish. As you spot this magical place while landing in a small plane from nearby Tahiti, you become aware that you are reaching one of the most beautiful islands in the world, where luxury resorts compete with lavish nature to fulfill your every wish.

Many people come to  on their honeymoon to snuggle in one of the many thatch-roofed romantic villas perched over water, where room service is delivered by canoe. There is no place more romantic and more extravagantly beautiful than Bora Bora. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Martin Valigursky/Fotolia

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»Fiordland National Park, New Zealand

Fiordland National Park, New Zealand

According to Maori legends, the 14 fjords that form Fiordland National Park were created by a giant stonemason named Tu Te Rakiwhanoa, who cut out the deep valleys with his enormous adzes, which is as good an explanation as any for one of the most spectacular corners of the world, occupying over 1.2 million hectares at the southwestern end of the South Island of New Zealand.

The fjords could also be the product of relentless carving by glaciers over some 100,000 years, which the sea then filled as far as it could reach. On all sides, these canyon-like fjords are covered by waterfalls that tumble endlessly and thunderously, taking huge quantities of rainwater towards the sea. Huge granite mountains are dotted with emerald lakes, dense rainforests, and animals that do not exist anywhere else. Walking through Fiordland, it is easy to imagine the world as it looked thousands of years ago. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Rawpixel.com/Fotolia

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»Most Beautiful Places in the World: Geiranger Fjord, Norway

Most Beautiful Places in the World: Geiranger Fjord, Norway

In the land of hundreds of magnificent fjords, Geiranger is considered Norway’s most beautiful: A spectacular creation by glaciers, this fjord is about 15 km long and 1.5 km wide at its widest part. With almost vertical mountain sides and no habitable coast, the occasional abandoned mountain farms bear witness to the relentless efforts of humankind to conquer nature and gain a foothold. The most popular way of seeing the fjord is by ferry, but kayaking is as much fun.

You will pass by spectacular waterfalls that thunder down the steep mountain cliffs, creating a permanent veil of fog and endless rainbows. Another way of seeing the fjord is by taking the famous Trollstigen road, built in 1936 in an amazing feat of engineering, which snakes up steep mountain sides; narrow, occasionally protected by stone railings, and passing by massive waterfalls, it is nerve-wracking yet absolutely fascinating. The whole area is a dreamland for daredevils and adrenaline junkies, who find the steep cliffs a supreme challenge for climbing, rappelling, and ziplining. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Andrey Armyagov/Fotolia

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» Best places to visit in the world: Garden of the Gods, Colorado, USA

Best places to visit in the world: Garden of the Gods, Colorado, USA

A short drive from is a public city park that does not need any attractions – nature took care of that. Hundreds of immense red sandstone spires, bridges, and other precariously balanced rock formations are intersected by 15 miles of well-managed trails. As expected in a park with so many interesting rocks, rock climbing is very popular.

The park formations were formed out of bedded sandstone, limestone, and conglomerates by the forces that built nearby Pikes Peak massif, tilting it into a vertical position. It is easy to spot the remnants of marine fossils and even the fossils of dinosaurs. The largest rock formation is the 320-feet-tall Gateway Rock. Many animals have made the park their home – it is easy to see bighorn sheep, mule deer, and foxes as well as more than 130 species of birds. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: indy greek/Fotolia

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»Famous Places to Visit: Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Famous Places to Visit: Great Barrier Reef, Australia

The only living thing on Earth that can be seen from space, the Great Barrier Reef is immense. Located in northeastern Australia off the coast of Queensland, this 2,300-km-long complex ecosystem comprises more than 3,000 individual reef systems, coral cays, and hundreds of islands, big and small, with sparkling white sandy beaches.

While immensely beautiful on the surface, the true beauty of the reef is underwater, where there is a living world composed of more than 600 types of soft and hard coral, creating a colorful and mesmerizing home to endless numbers of species of tropical fish, sea stars, mollusks, turtles, sharks, and dolphins. This divers’ paradise can also be enjoyed snorkeling, in a glass-bottomed boat, sailing, from semi-submersibles, and just by plain swimming. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: Anh Ngo/Fotolia

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» Beautiful Places: Joshua Tree National Park, USA

Beautiful Places: Joshua Tree National Park, USA

Where the two distinct desert ecosystems of , the high and low deserts of the Mojave and the Colorado, come together, they create a world totally its own. Protected as  this unique world features plants and animals whose lives are shaped by frequent drought, strong winds, and rare torrential rains.

Combined with fascinating geological features and a rich history, Joshua Tree National Park is a very special place that attracts wanderers and explorers. The Colorado Desert, part of the Sonoran Desert, is mostly covered by the abundant creosote bush and small stands of cholla cactus and spidery ocotillo. The higher, wetter, and cooler Mojave Desert is home to weirdly twisted and misshapen Joshua trees. The unique plant life is interspersed with equally unique geological formations. Mountains of exposed granite monoliths and twisted rocks, arroyos, alluvial fans, playas, bajadas, pediments, granites, aplite, and gneiss all weave a giant mosaic of rare beauty. 25 Most Beautiful Places in the World – Photo: patsetubal/Fotolia

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»Best places to visit in the world: Krabi, Thailand

Best places to visit in the world: Krabi, Thailand

Krabi is a lively resort town on the Andaman coast in southern Thailand. This very old settlement, now overtaken by tourism, has been shaped by limestone karsts jutting out of the dense mangrove forest and surrounded by vast sandy beaches. One of the city’s most popular destinations is Tiger Cave Temple, a Buddhist temple perched on a hilltop that can be reached by climbing a lot of stairs, but the views are worth the effort.

Rising out the water are Khao Kanab Nam, two slanting hills that form a popular local landmark. Busy and noisy, Krabi is best known as the gateway to the magnificent Andaman Sea islands and national parks that can be reached by ferries and boats

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The evolution of mobile telephony in Nigeria

The emergence of mobile telephony is obviously one of the major revolutions of communication in Nigeria. This is because no other technology has been so beneficial to all and sundry like the ubiquitous mobile phone. Its simplicity has facilitated its use by both literate and illiterate people, and it has remained one of the technologies to be so ready embraced by the poor.

Within the last few years of its introduction to Nigeria, the technology became commercially available almost immediately. Many young people were infected with the bug of GSM handsets to the extent that some spent all their savings just to acquire one. Now, mobile phones are no longer merely electronic gadgets possessed only by the rich, but now available for whoever cares to own.

In the early days of mobile system of communication in Nigeria, only the rich could actually afford the services. This period is termed the first generation of mobile telephony. The analog cellular was used, which basically allowed for voice communication only. This generation of mobile phones appeared not to exist in Nigeria since very few people really knew about cellular phones and was only available to a few percentage of the population. The use of land phone was still pertinent in the country oriented services. Analog cellular was, therefore, regarded as a precious object to possess and those who had it were highly regarded.

During this generation of mobile telecommunication, Nigerian phone users were confined to the use of fixed-phone communication system. It was therefore common sight to see long queue at phone boots, with everyone waiting for his or her turn, this is because only few could afford to own land line due to high cost to get connected, therefore callers opted for unit cards for public phone booths which were a bit affordable. Meanwhile, the rest of the developed world and many others in Africa had entered into another generation of mobile communication.

The emergence of digital personal communication system marked the beginning of another generation of the mobile phone termed the second generation. This generation offered users the convenience of the use of voice and SMS communications. While many African countries quickly embraced this generation, Nigeria had been so slow to indulge in it due to mainly bad leadership. As a result the technology was not introduced to the country until some six years back.

It was as if the introduction was all Nigerians had been waiting for, the technology was quickly embraced and though very expensive at the beginning it later became common article to possess. With time, the prices of cell phones and SIM Cards dropped considerably to such effect that SIM Packs were sold for almost free as more services providers were issued with license. The second generation opened the Nigerian economy to many opportunities; many benefited and are still enjoying the benefits that came with its introduction.

The first set of mobile phones sold in the Nigerian market at the inception of this generation had limited features. Most of the handsets could only be used for voice calls and SMS only, also the ringing tones were mostly monophonic. Gradually, as the mobile phone manufacturing industries improve on features of the phones being produced, so was Nigeria benefiting from this, and now her market is being flooded with many mobile handsets with improved features that include coloured screen, polyphonic ring tones, internet browsing etc.

This previous generation is obviously to be the stepping stone to the next generation termed the third generation (3G). Nigeria is now one of the most sought-after countries in Africa by multinational communication industries due to its ready market and therefore the country is on the threshold to the third generation of mobile phones. This generation offers the ability to transfer simultaneously voice, data and non-voice data such as down loading information, exchanging e-mail, and instant messaging. And again, another round of economic benefits is around and will put smiles to the faces of many Nigerians.

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Typical server-based communications systems do not include end-to-end encryption. reference
^ Computer network definition, archived from the original on 2012-01-21, retrieved 2011-11-12
^ “История о том, как пионер кибернетики оказался не нужен СССР” [The story of how a cybernetics pioneer became unnecessary to the USSR]. ria.ru (in Russian). МИА «Россия сегодня». 2010-08-09. Retrieved 2015-03-04. Главным делом жизни Китова, увы, не доведенным до практического воплощения, можно считать разработку плана создания компьютерной сети (Единой государственной сети вычислительных центров – ЕГСВЦ) для управления народным хозяйством и одновременно для решения военных задач. Этот план Анатолий Иванович предложил сразу в высшую инстанцию, направив в январе 1959 года письмо генсеку КПСС Никите Хрущеву. Не получив ответа (хотя начинание на словах было поддержано в различных кругах), осенью того же года он заново направляет на самый верх письмо, приложив к нему 200-страничный детальный проект, получивший название ‘Красной книги’. [One can regard the magnum opus of Kitov’s career as his elaboration of the plan – unfortunately never brought into practical form – for the establishment of a computer network (the Unified State Network of Computer Centres – EGSVTs) for the control of the national economy and simultaneously for the resolution of military tasks. Anatolii Ivanovich presented this plan directly to the highest levels, sending a letter in January 1959 to the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev. Not receiving a reply (although supported in various circles), in the autumn of the same year he again sent a letter to the very top, appending a 200-page detailed project plan, called the ‘Red Book’]
^ Isaacson, Walter (2014). The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution. Simon and Schuster. pp. 237–246.
^ “Inductee Details – Paul Baran”. National Inventors Hall of Fame. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
^ “Inductee Details – Donald Watts Davies”. National Inventors Hall of Fame. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
^ Roberts, Larry; Marrill, Tom (October 1966). Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers. Fall AFIPS Conference.
^ Chris Sutton. “Internet Began 35 Years Ago at UCLA with First Message Ever Sent Between Two Computers”. UCLA. Archived from the original on March 8, 2008.
^ Gillies, James; Cailliau, Robert (2000). How the Web was Born: The Story of the World Wide Web. Oxford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 0192862073.
^ C. Hempstead; W. Worthington (2005). Encyclopedia of 20th-Century Technology. Routledge.
^ Bennett, Richard (September 2009). “Designed for Change: End-to-End Arguments, Internet Innovation, and the Net Neutrality Debate” (PDF). Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. p. 11. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
^ Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks Archived 2007-08-07 at the Wayback Machine., Robert M. Metcalfe and David R. Boggs, Communications of the ACM (pp 395–404, Vol. 19, No. 5), July 1976.
^ a b Spurgeon, Charles E. (2000). Ethernet The Definitive Guide. O’Reilly & Associates. ISBN 1-56592-660-9.
^ [1], The Disadvantages of Wired Technology, Laura Acevedo, Demand Media.
^ “Bergen Linux User Group’s CPIP Implementation”. Blug.linux.no. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
^ A. Hooke (September 2000), Interplanetary Internet (PDF), Third Annual International Symposium on Advanced Radio Technologies, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-13, retrieved 2011-11-12
^ “Define switch”. WWW.Wikipedia.com. Retrieved April 8, 2008.
^ “What bridge devices and bridging do for computer networks”.
^ a b D. Andersen; H. Balakrishnan; M. Kaashoek; R. Morris (October 2001), Resilient Overlay Networks, Association for Computing Machinery, retrieved 2011-11-12
^ “End System Multicast”. project web site. Carnegie Mellon University. Archived from the original on February 21, 2005. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
^ For an interesting write-up of the technologies involved, including the deep stacking of communica
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Typical server-based communications systems do not include end-to-end encryption.
Typical server-based communications systems do not include end-to-end encryption. These systems can only guarantee protection of communications between clients and servers, not between the communicating parties themselves. Examples of non-E2EE systems are Google Talk, Yahoo Messenger, Facebook, and Dropbox. Some such systems, for example LavaBit and SecretInk, have even described themselves as offering “end-to-end” encryption when they do not. Some systems that normally offer end-to-end encryption have turned out to contain a back door that subverts negotiation of the encryption key between the communicating parties, for example Skype or Hushmail.

The end-to-end encryption paradigm does not directly address risks at the communications endpoints themselves, such as the technical exploitation of clients, poor quality random number generators, or key escrow. E2EE also does not address traffic analysis, which relates to things such as the identities of the end points and the times and quantities of messages that are sent.

Views of networks Edit

Users and network administrators typically have different views of their networks. Users can share printers and some servers from a workgroup, which usually means they are in the same geographic location and are on the same LAN, whereas a Network Administrator is responsible to keep that network up and running. A community of interest has less of a connection of being in a local area, and should be thought of as a set of arbitrarily located users who share a set of servers, and possibly also communicate via peer-to-peer technologies.

Network administrators can see networks from both physical and logical perspectives. The physical perspective involves geographic locations, physical cabling, and the network elements (e.g., routers, bridges and application layer gateways) that interconnect via the transmission media. Logical networks, called, in the TCP/IP architecture, subnets, map onto one or more transmission media. For example, a common practice in a campus of buildings is to make a set of LAN cables in each building appear to be a common subnet, using virtual LAN (VLAN) technology.

Both users and administrators are aware, to varying extents, of the trust and scope characteristics of a network. Again using TCP/IP architectural terminology, an intranet is a community of interest under private administration usually by an enterprise, and is only accessible by authorized users (e.g. employees).[41] Intranets do not have to be connected to the Internet, but generally have a limited connection. An extranet is an extension of an intranet that allows secure communications to users outside of the intranet (e.g. business partners, customers).[41]

Unofficially, the Internet is the set of users, enterprises, and content providers that are interconnected by Internet Service Providers (ISP). From an engineering viewpoint, the Internet is the set of subnets, and aggregates of subnets, which share the registered IP address space and exchange information about the reachability of those IP addresses using the Border Gateway Protocol. Typically, the human-readable names of servers are translated to IP addresses, transparently to users, via the directory function of the Domain Name System (DNS).

Over the Internet, there can be business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C) and consumer-to-consumer (C2C) communications. When money or sensitive information is exchanged, the communications are apt to be protected by some form of communications security mechanism. Intranets and extranets can be securely superimposed onto the Internet, without any access by general Internet users and administrators, using secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology.

See also Edit

Comparison of network diagram software
History of the Internet
Network simulation
Network planning and design
Network traffic control
Minimum-Pairs Protocol

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Main article: Computer security Network security Network security

Network Security

Main article: Computer security
Network security
Network security consists of provisions and policies adopted by the network administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, modification, or denial of the computer network and its network-accessible resources.[36] Network security is the authorization of access to data in a network, which is controlled by the network administrator. Users are assigned an ID and password that allows them access to information and programs within their authority. Network security is used on a variety of computer networks, both public and private, to secure daily transactions and communications among businesses, government agencies and individuals.

Network surveillance Edit
Network surveillance is the monitoring of data being transferred over computer networks such as the Internet. The monitoring is often done surreptitiously and may be done by or at the behest of governments, by corporations, criminal organizations, or individuals. It may or may not be legal and may or may not require authorization from a court or other independent agency.

Computer and network surveillance programs are widespread today, and almost all Internet traffic is or could potentially be monitored for clues to illegal activity.

Surveillance is very useful to governments and law enforcement to maintain social control, recognize and monitor threats, and prevent/investigate criminal activity. With the advent of programs such as the Total Information Awareness program, technologies such as high speed surveillance computers and biometrics software, and laws such as the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act, governments now possess an unprecedented ability to monitor the activities of citizens.[37]

However, many civil rights and privacy groups—such as Reporters Without Borders, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the American Civil Liberties Union—have expressed concern that increasing surveillance of citizens may lead to a mass surveillance society, with limited political and personal freedoms. Fears such as this have led to numerous lawsuits such as Hepting v. AT&T.[37][38] The hacktivist group Anonymous has hacked into government websites in protest of what it considers “draconian surveillance”.[39][40]

End to end encryption Edit
End-to-end encryption (E2EE) is a digital communications paradigm of uninterrupted protection of data traveling between two communicating parties. It involves the originating party encrypting data so only the intended recipient can decrypt it, with no dependency on third parties. End-to-end encryption prevents intermediaries, such as Internet providers or application service providers, from discovering or tampering with communications. End-to-end encryption generally protects both confidentiality and integrity.

Examples of end-to-end encryption include HTTPS for web traffic, PGP for email, OTR for instant messaging, ZRTP for telephony, and TETRA for radio.

Typical server-based communications systems do not include end-to-end encryption. These systems can only guarantee protection of communications between clients and servers, not between the communicating parties themselves. Examples of non-E2EE systems are Google Talk, Yahoo Messenger, Facebook, and Dropbox. Some such systems, for example LavaBit and SecretInk, have even described themselves as offering “end-to-end” encryption when they do not. Some systems that normally offer end-to-end encryption have turned out to contain a back door that subverts negotiation of the encryption key between the communicating parties, for example Skype or Hushmail.

The end-to-end encryption paradigm does not directly address risks at the communications endpoints themselves, such as the technical exploitation of clients, poor quality random number generators, or key escrow. E2EE also does not address traffic analysis, which relates to things such as the identities of the end points and the times and quantiti

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Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take.


Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take. For example, from node 1 to node 6 the best routes are likely to be 1-8-7-6 or 1-8-10-6, as this has the thickest routes.
Routing is the process of selecting network paths to carry network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including circuit switching networks and packet switched networks.

In packet switched networks, routing directs packet forwarding (the transit of logically addressed network packets from their source toward their ultimate destination) through intermediate nodes. Intermediate nodes are typically network hardware devices such as routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. General-purpose computers can also forward packets and perform routing, though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables, which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. Thus, constructing routing tables, which are held in the router’s memory, is very important for efficient routing.

There are usually multiple routes that can be taken, and to choose between them, different elements can be considered to decide which routes get installed into the routing table, such as (sorted by priority):

Prefix-Length: where longer subnet masks are preferred (independent if it is within a routing protocol or over different routing protocol)
Metric: where a lower metric/cost is preferred (only valid within one and the same routing protocol)
Administrative distance: where a lower distance is preferred (only valid between different routing protocols)
Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time. Multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths.

Routing, in a more narrow sense of the term, is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network. Structured addresses allow a single routing table entry to represent the route to a group of devices. In large networks, structured addressing (routing, in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured addressing (bridging). Routing has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet. Bridging is still widely used within localized environments.

Network service Edit

Network services are applications hosted by servers on a computer network, to provide some functionality for members or users of the network, or to help the network itself to operate.

The World Wide Web, E-mail,[29] printing and network file sharing are examples of well-known network services. Network services such as DNS (Domain Name System) give names for IP and MAC addresses (people remember names like “nm.lan” better than numbers like “”),[30] and DHCP to ensure that the equipment on the network has a valid IP address.[31]

Services are usually based on a service protocol that defines the format and sequencing of messages between clients and servers of that network service.

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SONET/SDH Synchronous optical networking computer institute
Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers. They were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications from a variety of different sources, primarily to support real-time, uncompressed, circuit-switched voice encoded in PCM (Pulse-Code Modulation) format. However, due to its protocol neutrality and transport-oriented features, SONET/SDH also was the obvious choice for transporting Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) frames.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode Edit
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a switching technique for telecommunication networks. It uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing and encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells. This differs from other protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite or Ethernet that use variable sized packets or frames. ATM has similarity with both circuit and packet switched networking. This makes it a good choice for a network that must handle both traditional high-throughput data traffic, and real-time, low-latency content such as voice and video. ATM uses a connection-oriented model in which a virtual circuit must be established between two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins.

While the role of ATM is diminishing in favor of next-generation networks, it still plays a role in the last mile, which is the connection between an Internet service provider and the home user.[20]

Cellular standards Edit
There are a number of different digital cellular standards, including: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), cdmaOne, CDMA2000, Evolution-Data Optimized (EV-DO), Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), Digital AMPS (IS-136/TDMA), and Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN).

A network can be characterized by its physical capacity or its organizational purpose. Use of the network, including user authorization and access rights, differ accordingly.

Nanoscale network
A nanoscale communication network has key components implemented at the nanoscale including message carriers and leverages physical principles that differ from macroscale communication mechanisms. Nanoscale communication extends communication to very small sensors and actuators such as those found in biological systems and also tends to operate in environments that would be too harsh for classical communication.[22]

Personal area network
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers, printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs, scanners, and even video game consoles. A PAN may include wired and wireless devices. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters.[23] A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and FireWire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically form a wireless PAN.

Local area network
A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a home, school, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings. Each computer or device on the network is a node. Wired LANs are most likely based on Ethernet technology. Newer standards such as ITU-T G.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing wiring, such as coaxial cables, telephone lines, and power lines.[24]

The defining characteristics of a LAN, in contrast to a wide area network (WAN), include higher data transfer rates, limited geographic range, and lack of reliance on leased lines to provide connectivity. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at data transfer rates up to 100 Gbit/s, standardized by IEEE in 2010.[25] Currently, 400 Gbit/s Ethernet is being developed.

A LAN can be connected to a WAN using a router.

Home area network
A home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of personal computers and accessories, such as printers and mobile computing devices. An important function is the sharing of Internet access, often a broadband service through a cable TV or digital subscriber line (DSL) provider.

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A communication protocol is a set of rules for exchanging

A communication protocol is a set of rules for exchanging information over a network. In a protocol stack (also see the OSI model), each protocol leverages the services of the protocol layer below it, until the lowest layer controls the hardware which sends information across the media. The use of protocol layering is today ubiquitous across the field of computer networking. An important example of a protocol stack is HTTP (the World Wide Web protocol) running over TCP over IP (the Internet protocols) over IEEE 802.11 (the Wi-Fi protocol). This stack is used between the wireless router and the home user’s personal computer when the user is surfing the web.

Communication protocols have various characteristics. They may be connection-oriented or connectionless, they may use circuit mode or packet switching, and they may use hierarchical addressing or flat addressing.

There are many communication protocols, a few of which are described below.

IEEE 802 Edit
IEEE 802 is a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks. The complete IEEE 802 protocol suite provides a diverse set of networking capabilities. The protocols have a flat addressing scheme. They operate mostly at levels 1 and 2 of the OSI model.

For example, MAC bridging (IEEE 802.1D) deals with the routing of Ethernet packets using a Spanning Tree Protocol. IEEE 802.1Q describes VLANs, and IEEE 802.1X defines a port-based Network Access Control protocol, which forms the basis for the authentication mechanisms used in VLANs (but it is also found in WLANs) – it is what the home user sees when the user has to enter a “wireless access key”.

Ethernet Edit
Ethernet, sometimes simply called LAN, is a family of protocols used in wired LANs, described by a set of standards together called IEEE 802.3 published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Wireless LAN Edit
Wireless LAN, also widely known as WLAN or WiFi, is probably the most well-known member of the IEEE 802 protocol family for home users today. It is standardized by IEEE 802.11 and shares many properties with wired Ethernet.

Internet Protocol Suite Edit
The Internet Protocol Suite, also called TCP/IP, is the foundation of all modern networking. It offers connection-less as well as connection-oriented services over an inherently unreliable network traversed by data-gram transmission at the Internet protocol (IP) level. At its core, the protocol suite defines the addressing, identification, and routing specifications for Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and for IPv6, the next generation of the protocol with a much enlarged addressing capability.

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