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Mobile Multimedia: A New Peak For The Alpine Car Stereo

We all know that brand names matter when purchasing car audio hardware. There are brands that are surely more reputable than others. When you are at the store and they offer choice after choice after choice, suddenly you feel overwhelmed on what really to buy. But you can be assured of one thing, if they offer you an Alpine car stereo you can’t go wrong with it.

Alpine car stereo and electronics, founded in 1978, is a world leader in the industry of high performance mobile electronics. They specialize in mobile multimedia, an integrated system approach incorporating digital entertainment, security and navigation products for the mobile entertainment.

Alpine car stereos are a new breed of units which feature the convergence of high performance audio, video, navigation and telematics in the form of Mobile Multimedia. Navigation systems act as the resource center of the Alpine car stereo Mobile Multimedia lineup. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), DVD players, Dolby Digital systems, satellite digital audio radio, mobile data linking and communication through telematics devices will be fused with navigation systems to create a platform of products. Mobile Multimedia integrates Alpine’s innovative audio, video, security and navigation products, as well as its new GUI for Drivers, human interface and information communications technology.

To grasp what the Alpine car stereo Mobile Multimedia is, take a look at the IVA-D901 Alpine car stereo Mobile Multimedia Station/CD/DVD Receiver/Ai-NET Controller.

The IVA-D901 has 400% more pixels than a conventional in-vehicle display, meaning that it has 1.15 million pixel elements. It has 50W x 4 built-in power and 3 PreOuts (4 volt), SAT Radio ready, a Hard Disc Drive (HDD), and Alpine car stereo Navigation. Key features include:


– 7″ Fully Motorized Wide Screen Monitor
– 18W x 4 MOSFET Amplifier
– Built-in Dolby Digital/DTS Decoder
– Bass Engine® Plus
– Subwoofer Level Control
– Bass Center Frequency Control
– Bass Band Width Adjustment
– Treble Center Frequency Control
– Subwoofer Phase Selector
– Bass Type Control
– 4-Ch Digital Time Correction
– 3 Position 12 dB/Oct Crossover
– MediaXpander™
– SAT Radio Ready
– MP3 Text Information Display
– Quick Search Function
– CD/CD-R Playback
– CD Text, Text Display, Text Scroll
– MaxTune SQ Tuner
– 3 Auxilliary A/V Inputs with Remote Control Input
– Dedicated Navigation Input
– Dedicated Camera Input
– 2 Auxilliary Monitor A/V Outputs
– Navigation Audio Mix
– 3 PreOuts (4 volt)
– MM Driver (Hard Disc Drive) Ready
– MobileHub Ready
– Ai-NET Control Center DVD/CD/MP3 Changer Controller
– “Digital Art” Spectrum Analyzer Display
– RUE-4190 Universal Wireless Remote Control Included

If these all seems too much for you, Alpine car stereos also have more conventional head units to offer. The CDA-9835 Alpine car stereo In-Dash CD Player/Ai-Changer Controller lets you fully customize both illumination and sound, with a range of 512 colors and super-versatile Bass Engine functions like digital time correction and parametric EQ. You can download audio parameter settings and connect and control as many as eight amps. The BioLite display, Menu key and rotary knob make operation extremely easy.

Like most Alpine car stereo units, it is also SAT Radio Ready, giving you a much greater choice of listening options than ordinary local AM/FM radio. You can select from among a wide range of music genres, news, sports, and talk programs with digital quality anywhere.

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It’s A Sony Car Stereo It’s a Sony

It’s a Sony.

We all know their slogan and yes, they need not say anymore. Sony is a dominating and well respected name in world consumer electronics. From the Aibo to the PlayStation to the Vaio, Sony has created, innovated and excelled in the production of almost anything electronic under the sun.

The Sony Corporation, based in Tokyo is a leading manufacturer of audio, video, communications, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. Their music, motion picture, television, computer entertainment, and online businesses also make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world.

So it is not surprising to learn that Sony car stereos are also well renowned in the automotive audio market. In 2005, Sony car stereos launched their latest carrier car audio product, the Sony car stereo Xplod series which has an amazing lineup of head units, speakers, amplifiers, subwoofers, changers and accessories. It is impressive both in performance and aesthetic value.

A good head unit from the Sony car stereo Xplod Series is the CDX – M9900 CD Receiver/Changer Controller/MP3 Player which boasts these features:

– 32,000-color TFT display
– Video Input for External Source Playback
– CD/CD-R/CD-RW/MP3 playback
– 4-Volt F/R/Sub Preouts w/HPF & LPF
– 52W x 4 High Power
– CEA-2006 Power Compliant
– CD/MD Control, CD Text
– XM Ready
– Auxiliary Input
– 1-bit D/A Converter
– Drive-S with 120dB S/N Ratio
– SSIR-EXA tuner, 18FM & 12AM presets
– Red key illumination
– Supplied wireless card remote (RM-X145A)
– Optional wireless rotary remote (RM-X6S)
– Optional wired rotary remote (RM-X4S)

This Sony car stereo goes best installed with matching items from the Xplod series such as:

Sony car stereo XS – V6941H 6 x 9” 4 – Way Speakers:

– 6 x 9″ HOP Woofer Cone
– Stroke Stabilizer Surround
– 2-5/8″ Cone Mid
– 1″ Balanced Dome PEI Tweeter, Super Tweeter
– 400W Peak Power (100W RMS)
– Flexible Mounting Options

Sony car stereo XM-2100GTX 2/1 Channel Amplifier:

– 600W Max Power
– 100W x 2 RMS into 4 ohms, 20Hz-20kHz @ 0.04% THD
– 250W x 1 RMS into 4 ohms, 20Hz-20kHz @ 0.1% THD
– CEA-2006 Power Compliant
– Variable 50 – 300 Hz low pass filter
– 40 Hz EQ boost
– MOSFET power supply
– RCA & speaker level inputs

Sony car stereo XS-L102P5 10” Subwoofer:

– 10″ Polypropylene Cone
– 1200W Peak Power (330W RMS)
– Unique cone design offers superior rigidity
– Gold-plated Binding Posts
– Small sealed/bandpass enclosure optimized
– 4-Ohm Voice Coil
– 2005 Subwoofer Parameters

Like other modern car audio manufacturers, the Sony car stereo also offers video capable units for playing VCDs, DVDs. A good item from the Sony car stereo Dream System Series is the MV – 900SDS Mobile DVD Dream System.

– 9″ wide screen TFT display with swivel function
– DVD/CD-R/RW/VCD/MP3 Playback
– Built-in wired FM modulator
– Reversible display image
– Slot-load DVD Mechanism
– Memory Stick® media for playback of JPEG, MPEG, MP3
– Built-in Stereo Speakers
– A/V Input
– A/V Output
– Optical Digital Output (Dolby Digital®, dts®)
– IR transmitter for wireless headphones
– 2 sets of wireless headphones included
– Wireless card remote included

This unit is encased in a grey metallic finish and is ideally attached on the ceiling of the vehicle.

It is also an amazing fact that a lot of enthusiasts also incorporate the PlayStation into their Sony car stereos, which is probably one of the reasons why the Sony car stereo system has earned quite a following.

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A Pioneer In Their Own Right: The Pioneer Car Stereo

Look at any good car stereo system and you’ll probably see a Pioneer car stereo unit plugged into the console. Alongside with quality speakers and a strong lineup of accessories like LCD panels and navigational devices, Pioneer products/Pioneer car stereos have earned a huge following the world over.

The Pioneer Company is a Tokyo-based corporation, and is one of the world leaders in digital entertainment products. The Pioneer Company was first founded in 1938 in Tokyo as a small radio and speaker repair shop business but today, they are recognized as a leader in technology advancements in the consumer electronics industry.

The company is truly deserving of their name. They are respected for many innovations such as interactive cable TV, the Laser Disc player, developing the first Compact Disc player for the car and the first detachable face car stereo, DVD and DVD recording, plasma display, and organic electroluminescent display. Their strength in optical disc and display technology is complemented by its state-of-the-art software products and manufacturing capabilities.

Nowadays, Pioneer car stereo units are not just simple head units. A car stereo can easily be comprised of several items built into the console of the car. Hardware like navigational devices, DVD players with LCD panels, coupled with the standard array of compact disc, mp3 and cassette players now usually go together. One would be hard-pressed not to acquire all of these, as it is such a delight to see these units work harmoniously. But traditionally, a Pioneer car stereo unit is a head unit with a radio, cassette and cd player. No matter how bare-bones this might sound, anyone will surely be impressed with the sound quality and features a Pioneer car stereo can boot.

Something like the DEH-P90HDD Pioneer car stereo single CD player head unit. The DEH-P90HDD allows you to record CD Audio (from the unit itself or from a changer) onto a 10GB hard disc drive, which holds about 200 audio CD’s (using ATRAC3 digital compression). Your CD’s are recognized by the pre-installed Gracenote CDDB database, which includes auto-playlists that make finding a specific CD easy. This Pioneer car stereo unit can also play your MP3 CD’s plus CD Audio, CD-RW, and CD-R discs. Also, the MagicGate Memory Stick player lets you play recorded Memory Stick tracks. The Organic EL display is easy to read and accepts image downloads, so you can customize its look. Built-in DSP offers a 13-band graphic EQ and a huge variety of tools. The DEH-P90HDD is XM Ready and provides a steering wheel remote.
If cassettes are your thing, the KEH-P4020 Pioneer car stereo cassette player head unit is a good product to choose. It is a full logic cassette system with multi-color display, 45Wx4 High Power, EEQ™ equalizer system, Tuner, IP-Bus System Control, flap face and has a detachable face security.

If you’re planning to buy a Pioneer car stereo unit, why not match it with a set of Pioneer speakers too? Pioneer car stereo has made another innovation in their REV Series speakers, which incorporates technological breakthroughs in their IASCA award-winning Premier Reference Series (PRS) speakers. Rev Series speakers boast Pioneer’s Kevlar Fiber Composite Cones, Soft-dome tweeters and Wave guides. Each speaker features a bright yellow cone and distinctive wave guides, plus a six-spoke grill with a titanium finish that simulates chrome wheels.

With all these impressive products, is it still a wonder why they call Pioneer car stereos “Pioneer”?

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Kenwood Car Stereo Lets You Listen To The Future Of Car Audio
car-1114664_960_720Image source https://pixabay.com/en/car-chevy-chevrolet-automobile-1114664/

This brand is a household name for every car audio enthusiast. Mention the name Kenwood car stereo and they will know what you’re talking about.

Kenwood car stereos have produced high quality consumer electronics, test equipment and communication equipment since 1946. Kenwood car stereos primarily specialize in the design, engineering and manufacture of wireless communication infrastructure but are also renowned in the production consumer mobile and home entertainment systems. Kenwood car stereos are also committed to creating the finest quality components with state of the art technologies that has earned them a huge following in the audio products scene.

At present, Kenwood car stereos have a very impressive product lineup that would make anyone drool over, whether he is an audio enthusiast or not. For the regular Joe who isn’t really into technical stuff, and is just looking for something nice to put into his ride, Kenwood car stereos offer sleek designs that will surely satisfy anyone’s craving for aesthetic. Tech-freaks and geeks will also be impressed with the specs a Kenwood car stereo has.


A lot of Kenwood car stereo units nowadays include popup LCD panels for watching VCD/DVD movies. The Kenwood KVT-717DVD 7.0” Wide, Fully Motorized In-dash Monitor DVD/WMA/MP3 Receiver is a good candidate for any situation.

• 7.0 inch Wide Color TFT Active Matrix Display
• Full-automatic Open/Close with slide and angle adjustments
• Interactive Touchscreen Control with OSD
• Audio Easy Control Mode while Playing Visual Source
• Selectable Wall Paper (6 Patterns)
• Installer/Backup Memory of Audio/Video Setup
• Maximum Output Power : 50W x 4 (MOSFET Power IC)
• 3 Preouts with 5V Pre-out Level
• 2 RCA AV Inputs / 1 RCA AV Output
• Video Input for Rear View Camera
• RGB Input for Navigation System
• System Q/ System E’s+
• DVD Menu Direct Touch screen Control
• MPEG 1/2 Video files (.mpg) and JPEG files (.jpg) Playback
• Dual Zone Source & Volume Control
• DVD±R/RW Compatible
• External Media Control — iPod Ready
• Optional TV Tuner

For those who might not get what the hell all of these means, just imagine this: a really thin monitor panel that smoothly retracts and extends at the push of a remote, crystal clear movie and picture playback, all encased in a beautiful black matte finish polymer casing done with a space age design.

If all you want is a just a regular car stereo for playing CDs’, listening to mp3s or the radio, Kenwood car stereo have a lot to choose from. A good head unit would be the KDC-MP928 AAC/WMA/MP3/ CD Receiver with External Media Control.

• Auto-Slide Detachable Faceplate
• Rotary Encoder & Jog Control Knob for Easy Operation
• 4096 Color OEL Display
• Display Customize Function
• Maximum Output Power : 50W x 4 (MOSFET Power IC)
• ACDrive (Advanced Codec Drive)
• AAC/WMA/MP3 Playback
• G-Analyzer (Graphic Motion Analyzer)
• Built-in DSP : DTA/System Q(4band P-EQ)/Digital E’s/SRS
WOW Digital Effect
• O.D.D. (Offset Dual Differential) D/A System for Sound Quality
• Installer/User/Backup Memory of Audio Setup
• SIRIUS Satellite Radio Ready
• HD Radio Ready
• External Media Control — iPod Ready
• Dual Zone Source & Volume Control
• AUX Input
• Gold Plated 3 Preouts with 5V Pre-output Level

The Kenwood car stereo auto slide detachable faceplate allows you to take the faceplate (one which has all the buttons) in order to prevent theft by taking away the functionality of the unit left in the car.

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Shoe Sale For The Big Boys: The Car Stereo Sale.


Announce a shoe sale, and the women come a’running. Announce a car stereo sale and the men, or more appropriately, the Big Boys come thundering with their checkbooks and wallets waving in the air.

The car stereo sale. This is every car audio, or even the regular audio enthusiasts’ Mecca. Only intense prayer is replaced by intense spending.

Car stereo sales happen at audio stores regularly. When a car audio manufacturer launches a new product, the prices of prior models drop drastically which may prompt the store or the brand name to initiate a car stereo sale. Most especially when a new technology comes out, a good example would be like the introduction of the Compact Disc technology, suddenly all cassette player car stereos became dirt cheap, no matter how cool that LED display might be.

Another avenue of car stereo sales are at expos and conventions. Most of the time, the good stuff come out at expos’, whether it be a car expo, audio system expo, but usually the largest car stereo sale happens at a gathering of car audio manufacturers. Well, at these kinds of expos’ and conventions, it’s not usually a sale because the manufacturers usually try to get buyers for their newest product. If you have the money and you’re out there to buy some serious hardware, then by all means, SPLURGE AWAY!

But first you have to know what it is you want to buy. Don’t go running off to a car stereo sale without knowing what it is your system needs. There are a lot of items in a car stereo sale, shiny, glittery and LOUD items that might get your attention but don’t let it tempt you to whip out your wallet just yet. Although most car audio enthusiasts need not be reminded of this (because they know their stuff well, it’s probably all they think about all day) any car stereo sale newbie might get the itch to impulse buy, especially when the item displays high wattage. Or even if it just looks spacy and high-tech.

When planning to go to a car stereo sale, you have to prepare, prepare, PREPARE. Take a good look at your audio system. What does it need? Do you need a complete overhaul of your stereo system? If it doesn’t really need anything but you just want to take it up a notch and upgrade it, make sure what you’re planning to buy is compatible with your existing system. Don’t but a high watt bazooka speaker if your amplifier can’t handle it. Although audio parts like these have very high resale value, save yourself some trouble and buy the right parts. You don’t want to end up buying a very expensive paperweight.

Also, do what other enthusiasts’ are doing. READ MAGAZINES! These car audio magazines contain reviews and price listings of the items you may be looking for. You’ll also get acquainted with products you might have never heard before, it will surely open up your choices and options.

Going to a car stereo sales is also a good way to meet other car audio enthusiasts’ like yourself. Who knows, you might meet someone who might be willing to just trade items. It will save you the money and gain you some new friends.


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Step-By-Step Guide on How to Advertise on YouTube

YouTube is the second most popular website in the world.

That’s right: the world.

If you’re a business owner interested in video marketing and haven’t touched YouTube yet, it’s time to change that.

Whether you have a high-budget video for your ad or you’re just snapping something with your phone camera, you need to know the ropes.

If you’re wondering how to advertise on YouTube, use this step-by-step guide to get started:


How to Advertise on YouTube Like a Pro

Digital marketing is both cost-effective and wider-reaching compared to traditional marketing. While each has its own time and place, online marketing continues to grow.

One crucial part of it is video advertising. With YouTube being the most visited video streaming site, it makes sense to go there first.

We’ll take a look at some simple steps that will teach you how to place ads on YouTube here.


1. Create a Video

Before you begin, make sure you have a video to advertise with. At the very least, you need to have an idea or a plan for what you want it to be or who you want it to target.

We could really get into the nitty-gritty of creating a video, but just know that there aren’t too many set-in-stone rules for how to make a video for YouTube advertising.

You could hire a renowned video production company to shoot it with all the thrills and chills, or you could just get a tripod and shoot it on your own phone.

No matter what you do, it’s a good idea to have a script or a storyboard. You don’t want to be shooting blindly.

Once the video is created, upload it to your YouTube account.


2. Create a Google AdWords Account

Assuming you already have a YouTube account, the next step is to create a Google AdWords account.


3. Set Your Campaign and Configure Your Settings

Now that your advertisement video is created and uploaded to YouTube and you have a Google AdWords account, it’s time to set up your ad campaign.

From Google AdWords, you can create your ad campaign, set the campaign type, and name it. You can have multiple campaigns running simultaneously as well.

There is a lot of customizability you have with YouTube video advertising. Some settings that you can adjust include:

  • Budget
  • Location
  • Times
  • Demographic
  • Topic
  • Device targeting

We’re going to take a look at all of these a little closer.


Set Your Budget

You are only going to pay when a user views your ad for at least 30 seconds or all the way through. Considering that, you can set budget limits for how much you’re willing to spend on the campaign over a period of time.

A good recommendation is to start off small here until you’re more used to the system.

Set the Location

You can set your ad to appear anywhere in the world, or even as narrow as a specific zip code.

You’ll want to consider what your video is aimed at.

General brand awareness? Go bigger.

Very targeted advertising? Go smaller or more specific.


Set the Times

You can set when exactly you want your ad to appear.

For example, your ad may only appear during business hours (9 a.m. to 5 p.m.), and you can base it on specific time zones as well.

Some people have done ample research into figuring out what are the busiest and slowest times over on YouTube. You could simply have your ads run during busy times and set them off during slow times.

On the other hand, you may want to do some local research on your area or demographic if you’re releasing a more targeted ad.

For example, is your audience more likely to be watching videos late at night or earlier in the morning? Then you might want to reflect that when you set times.


Set the Demographic

Basically, you can target a specific gender or age group.

Again, this may pertain to you more if you’re targeting a more specific audience.


Set a Topic

The topics you set for your YouTube video advertising will relate to the videos they appear in.

It isn’t necessarily the specific topic of your video, but you want to be accurate here.

If you’re making a video advertisement for your beauty and skincare company, you don’t necessarily want or need it playing during a fast-food restaurant review video.


Set Device Targeting

Finally, you also have the ability to determine if your ad will be more likely to play when viewed through a mobile device.

If your audience is on the go and more likely to be on the YouTube app, then you may want to target smartphones and tablets.


4. Select Your Campaign Type

Once you’ve made all of the above settings, insert the link for the video that you have already shot, created, and uploaded to YouTube.

Then, you can choose the ad campaign type. There are two major types:

  • In-stream ad
  • In-display ad

In-stream ads are probably the most common ways to advertise on YouTube.

These are videos that play before or during other videos on YouTube.

In-display ads are videos that appear as advertisements on YouTube’s homepage. They may also appear within YouTube searches, or on the right-hand bar as “suggested videos” when another video is being played.


5. Link Your Google AdWords Account

With your campaign created and customized to your specifications, it’s time to link your Google AdWords account to your YouTube account.

Initiate a link request from Google AdWords and then confirm it on the YouTube account where the advertisement video was uploaded.


Advertising on YouTube Gets Easier and Easier

YouTube shows no signs of slowing down. Therefore, if you’re a business owner who’s interested in how to advertise on YouTube, it’s never been easier.

We hope you enjoyed our step-by-step guide to YouTube video advertising. If you have any more questions or concerns, feel free to contact us at Falcon Digital Marketing!


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Check out the longest bridges in the world.
April 21, 2018

Majority of the world’s longest bridges are found in China thanks to their population boom.
Bridges have been used since the beginning of the human race to cross waterways, valleys and shorten distances.
Majority of the world’s longest bridges are found in China » thanks to their population boom.
Below are some of the longest bridges in the world:
1. Danyang-Kunshan Grand Train Bridge, China (164,800 Meters)
The Danyang-Kunshan Grand Train Bridge is the longest bridge in the world as it covers a distance of 164,800 meters, which is around 102.4 miles.
It took 10,000 contractors four years to complete the construction of the Danyang-Kunshan, which was finished in 2010. The railway then began operation in 2011 and was inducted into the Guinness Book of World Records.
2. Changhua-Kaohsiung Viaduct, Taiwan (157,317 Meters)
The Changhua-Kaohsiung Viaduct is the second largest bridge in the world. The bridge comprises Taiwan’s high-speed railway system which runs along the west coast of the island. It opened for service in January 2007.
3. Tianjin Grand Bridge, China (113,700 Meters)
The Tianjin Grand Bridge is a 70.6-mile long expanse located in China used as part of the country’s railway system and crosses a viaduct.
It formerly held the Guinness record for the world’s second longest bridge.
4. Cangde Grand Bridge, China (115,900 Meters)
The Cangde Grand Bridge is also a part of the high-speed railway between Beijing and Shanghai. The bridge runs for a total of 115,900 meters, or 105 km. It was built with great strength in an effort to withstand earthquake pressure.
5. Weinan Weihe Grand Bridge, China (79,732 Meters)
The Weinan Weihe Grand is part of the Zhengzhou–Xi’an High-Speed Railway. It is the world’s fifth longest bridge and was completed in 2008. It held the title of the world’s largest bridge for a while. However, as newer and longer bridges came into existence, the Weinan Weihe Grand Bridge slipped to hold the position of the world’s fifth longest bridge.

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Michelin Reminds Us Of Some Basic Road Safety Facts Through Michelin Cares Campaign

Michelin Reminds Us Of Some Basic Road Safety Facts Through Michelin Cares Campaign

How much do you actually know about tyre care?

Michelin is a French tyre manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France. It is the second largest tyre manufacturer in the world after Bridgestone and larger than both Goodyear and Continental.In addition to the Michelin brand, it also owns the BFGoodrich, Kleber, Tigar, Riken, Kormoran and Uniroyal (in North America) tyre brands. Michelin is also notable for its Red and Green travel guides, its roadmaps, the Michelin stars that the Red Guide awards to restaurants for their cooking, and for its company mascot Bibendum, colloquially known as the Michelin Man.
Michelin’s numerous inventions include the removable tyre, the pneurail (a tyre for trains made to run on rails) and the radial tyre.

Michelin manufactures tyres for space shuttles, aircraft, automobiles, heavy equipment, motorcycles, and bicycles. In 2012, the Group produced 166 million tyres at 69 facilities located in 18 countries.

In 1889 two brothers, Édouard Michelin and André Michelin, ran a rubber factory in Clermont-Ferrand, France. One day, a cyclist whose pneumatic tyre needed repair turned up at the factory. The tyre was glued to the rim, and it took over three hours to remove and repair the tyre, which then needed to be left overnight to dry. The next day, Édouard Michelin took the repaired bicycle into the factory yard to test. After only a few hundred metres, the tyre failed. Despite the setback, Édouard was enthusiastic about the pneumatic tyre, and he and his brother worked on creating their own version, one that did not need to be glued to the rim. Michelin was incorporated on 28 May 1889. In 1891 Michelin took out its first patent for a removable pneumatic tyre which was used by Charles Terront to win the world’s first long distance cycle race, the 1891 Paris–Brest–Paris.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Michelin operated large rubber plantations in Vietnam. Conditions at these plantations led to the famous labour movement Phu Rieng Do.

Michelin’s domination of the supply of rubber in French Indochina led to the Phu Rieng Do strike in 1930. This resulted in France investigating Michelin’s treatment of workers on its rubber plantations.
In 1934, Michelin introduced a tyre which, if punctured, would run on a special foam lining; a design now known as a run-flat tyre (self-supporting type).
Michelin developed and patented a key innovation in tyre history, the 1946 radial tyre, and successfully exploited this technological innovation to become one of the worlds leading tyre manufacturers. The radial was initially marketed as the “X” tyre. It was developed with the front-wheel-drive Citroën Traction Avant and Citroën 2CV in mind. Michelin had bought the then-bankrupt Citroën in the 1930s. Because of its superiority in handling and fuel economy, use of this tyre quickly spread throughout Europe and Asia. In the U.S., the outdated bias-ply tyre persisted, with market share of 87% in 1967.
In 1968, Michelin opened its first North American sales office, and was able to grow that market for its products rapidly; by 1989 the company had 10% market share for OEM tyres purchased by American automobile makers.
Also in 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of the radial construction, setting off a rapid decline in Michelin’s competitor technology. In the U.S., the radial tyre now has a market share of 100%.
In addition to the private label and replacement tyre market, Michelin scored an early OEM tyre win in North America, when it received the contract for the 1970 Lincoln Continental Mark III, the first American car with radial tyres fitted as standard.
In 1989, Michelin acquired the recently merged tyre and rubber manufacturing divisions of the American firms B.F. Goodrich Company (founded in 1870) and Uniroyal, Inc. (founded in 1892 as the United States Rubber Company). Uniroyal Australia had already been bought by Bridgestone in 1980. This purchase included the Norwood, North Carolina manufacturing plant which supplied tyres to the U.S. Space Shuttle Program.
Michelin also controls 90% of Taurus Tyre in Hungary, as well as Kormoran, a Polish brand.
As of 1 September 2008, Michelin is again the world’s largest tyre manufacturer after spending two years as number two behind Bridgestone. Michelin produces tyres in France, Poland, Spain, Germany, the USA, the UK, Canada, Brazil, Thailand, Japan, Italy and several other countries. On 15 January 2010, Michelin announced the closing of its Ota, Japan plant, which employs 380 workers and makes the Michelin X-Ice tyre. Production of the X-Ice will be moved to Europe, North America, and elsewhere in Asia.

Link : http://ijul2000.sharethisstory.net/my-1259336-11610

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major causes of fatal accident on the road

Road accident is a global tragedy with the ever-
rising trend. Almost every day, we hear the news
of the accident on the television, radio and internet.
Most people continue to negligent and ignore the
danger involved in their driving and so, these
accidents happen. This essay will discuss all the
possible causes and solution of the road accidents.
To begin with, carelessness is one of the major
cause of the road accident in our planet. Under
carelessness, we have various examples, which
include, using the mobile phone while the vehicle
in moving, break the traffic rules and entering from
the side road into the path of the vehicle.
Furthermore, when inexperience and untrained
drivers and those with blur eyesight that drive at
night is one of the major cause of escalating
accident rate in our world. In addition, most of the
people drive after drinking alcohol, which may lead
to dangerous road accident.
Issue that need to be considered in order to curb
accidents are policies made by government to
make sure that road are well constructed and
maintained. In addition, enforcement of appropriate
legislation to make sure that all commercial and
private drivers should be well trained before they
attain driving licence to drive on the street.
Furthermore, passenger should also be vigilant
enough to check drivers when they are over
speeding and driving under the influence of
alcohol. Police can play the pivotal role to
decrease the ratio of the accidents.
To sum up, there are many causes of the road
accidents in our world, with good strategies and
with the participation of the both government and
individual; we can easily overcome with this
potential problem.causes of road accident are as following:

1. Over speeding: Some road users have
formed the habit of over speeding each
time they are on the road. Some believe
in their ability to maneuver any difficult
situation on the road, while others
believe in their vehicles ability to riggle
out of any danger. But these perceptions
are not always correct. According to the
FRSC, 50% of road crashes in Nigeria are
due to over speeding. Motorists should
therefore know that over speeding kills.
2. Bad roads: The failure of successive
governments in Nigeria to fix the death
traps called roads in Nigeria has no
doubt caused so much pain to temporal
and frequent road users. The bad roads
across the nation are nothing to write
home about. Government at all levels
must be alive to their responsibilities to
make sure all roads in Nigeria are safe
and motorable. While road users should
also exercise caution when driving in
danger spots like potholes ridden
portions, dangerous bends, roads
threatened by erosion, roads enveloped
with darkness at nights e.t.c
3. Over loading: This offence is mostly
committed by commercial vehicles and
some haulage companies. Although some
private road users are also known to
over load their vehicles too such that it
endangers their lives because it makes
the driver of the vehicle uncomfortable,
puts the vehicle in distress and also
affects other road users.
4. Bad weather: Many road accidents were
due to unfavourable weather conditions
either ignored by the driver or unknown
to him/her. It is important for road users
to check the weather conditions of their
routes through the Nigerian
Meteorological Agency to be sure that
their intended routes and destination are
weather friendly. Driving in unfriendly
weather conditions can hamper smooth
driving and can cause damage.
5. Poor vehicle maintenance: Road users
must ensure that their vehicles are in
good condition before they hit the road.
This way, road crashes caused by badly
managed vehicles are avoided to the
barest minimum. All parts of the vehicle
must be checked and re-checked to
ensure the vehicle is in perfect condition
before embarking on any journey,
however short.
6. Bad driving habits: It is important for
road users to respect other road users be
ensuring their driving is not only for
their own safety, but for others. Adhering
to all traffic rules and regulations is also
very important for safe driving.
Indeed, road users’ behaviour has to
change dramatically. Ignorance, lack of
information and neglect on road safety in
Nigeria has now made many preventable
road carnages appear normal.
7. Fatigue: This is mostly common among
commercial drivers and drivers of Very
Important Personalities (VIPs) and
government officials. These drivers are
usually over worked and hardly observe
rest. It is important for principals of such
drivers to ensure that they observe
maximum rest always, so that they can
be refreshed and geared up for the next

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Some features we got on transportation

Relocation of travelers and cargo are the most common uses of transport. However, other uses exist, such as the strategic and tactical relocation of armed forces during warfare, or the civilian mobility construction or emergency equipment.
Passenger transport, or travel, is divided into public and private transport. Public transport is scheduled services on fixed routes, while private is vehicles that provide ad hoc services at the riders desire. The latter offers better flexibility, but has lower capacity, and a higher environmental impact. Travel may be as part of daily commuting, for business, leisure or migration.

Short-haul transport is dominated by the automobile and mass transit. The latter consists of buses in rural and small cities, supplemented with commuter rail, trams and rapid transit in larger cities. Long-haul transport involves the use of the automobile, trains, coaches and aircraft, the last of which have become predominantly used for the longest, including intercontinental, travel. Intermodal passenger transport is where a journey is performed through the use of several modes of transport; since all human transport normally starts and ends with walking, all passenger transport can be considered intermodal. Public transport may also involve the intermediate change of vehicle, within or across modes, at a transport hub, such as a bus or railway station.

Taxis and buses can be found on both ends of the public transport spectrum. Buses are the cheaper mode of transport but are not necessarily flexible, and taxis are very flexible but more expensive. In the middle is demand-responsive transport, offering flexibility whilst remaining affordable.

International travel may be restricted for some individuals due to legislation and visa requirements.

Freight Edit
Main article: Shipping
Freight transport, or shipping, is a key in the value chain in manufacturing.[17] With increased specialization and globalization, production is being located further away from consumption, rapidly increasing the demand for transport.[18] Transportation creates place utility by moving the goods from the place of production to the place of consumption. While all modes of transport are used for cargo transport, there is high differentiation between the nature of the cargo transport, in which mode is chosen.[19] Logistics refers to the entire process of transferring products from producer to consumer, including storage, transport, transshipment, warehousing, material-handling and packaging, with associated exchange of information.[20] Incoterm deals with the handling of payment and responsibility of risk during transport.[21]
Containerization, with the standardization of ISO containers on all vehicles and at all ports, has revolutionized international and domestic trade, offering huge reduction in transshipment costs. Traditionally, all cargo had to be manually loaded and unloaded into the haul of any ship or car; containerization allows for automated handling and transfer between modes, and the standardized sizes allow for gains in economy of scale in vehicle operation. This has been one of the key driving factors in international trade and globalization since the 1950s.[22]

Bulk transport is common with cargo that can be handled roughly without deterioration; typical examples are ore, coal, cereals and petroleum. Because of the uniformity of the product, mechanical handling can allow enormous quantities to be handled quickly and efficiently. The low value of the cargo combined with high volume also means that economies of scale become essential in transport, and gigantic ships and whole trains are commonly used to transport bulk. Liquid products with sufficient volume may also be transported by pipeline.

Air freight has become more common for products of high value; while less than one percent of world transport by volume is by airline, it amounts to forty percent of the value. Time has become especially important in regards to principles such as postponement and just-in-time within the value chain, resulting in a high willingness to pay for quick delivery of key components or items of high value-to-weight ratio.[23] In addition to mail, common items sent by air include electronics and fashion clothing.
Humans’ first means of transport involved walking, running and swimming. The domestication of animals introduced a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing the hauling of heavier loads, or humans riding animals for greater speed and duration. Inventions such as the wheel and the sled helped make animal transport more efficient through the introduction of vehicles. Water transport, including rowed and sailed vessels, dates back to time immemorial, and was the only efficient way to transport large quantities or over large distances prior to the Industrial Revolution.

The first forms of road transport involved animals, such as horses (domesticated in the 4th or 3rd millennium BCE), oxen (from about 8000 BCE)[24] or humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that often followed game trails. Many early civilizations, including Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilization, constructed paved roads. In classical antiquity, the Persian and Roman empires built stone-paved roads to allow armies to travel quickly. Deep roadbeds of crushed stone underneath kept such roads dry. The medieval Caliphate later built tar-paved roads. The first watercraft were canoes cut out from tree trunks. Early water transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, or a combination of the two. The importance of water has led to most cities that grew up as sites for trading being located on rivers or on the sea-shore, often at the intersection of two bodies of water. Until the Industrial Revolution, transport remained slow and costly, and production and consumption gravitated as close to each other as feasible.
The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century saw a number of inventions fundamentally change transport. With telegraphy, communication became instant and independent of the transport of physical objects. The invention of the steam engine, closely followed by its application in rail transport, made land transport independent of human or animal muscles. Both speed and capacity increased rapidly, allowing specialization through manufacturing being located independently of natural resources. The 19th century also saw the development of the steam ship, which sped up global transport.

With the development of the combustion engine and the automobile around 1900, road transport became more competitive again, and mechanical private transport originated. The first “modern” highways were constructed during the 19th century[citation needed] with macadam. Later, tarmac and concrete became the dominant paving materials. In 1903 the Wright brothers demonstrated the first successful controllable airplane, and after World War I (1914-1918)aircraft became a fast way to transport people and express goods over long distances.[25]

After World War II (1939-1945) the automobile and airlines took higher shares of transport, reducing rail and water to freight and short-haul passenger services.[26] Scientific spaceflight began in the 1950s, with rapid growth until the 1970s, when interest dwindled. In the 1950s the introduction of containerization gave massive efficiency gains in freight transport, fostering globalization.[22] International air travel became much more accessible in the 1960s with the commercialization of the jet engine. Along with the growth in automobiles and motorways, rail and water transport declined in relative importance. After the introduction of the Shinkansen in Japan in 1964, high-speed rail in Asia and Europe started attracting passengers on long-haul routes away from airlines.[26]

Early in U.S. history,[when?] private joint-stock corporations owned most aqueducts, bridges, canals, railroads, roads, and tunnels. Most such transportation infrastructure came under government control in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in the nationalization of inter-city passenger rail-service with the establishment of Amtrak. Recently,[when?] however, a movement to privatize roads and other infrastructure has gained some[quantify] ground and adherents.
Transport is a key necessity for specialization—allowing production and consumption of products to occur at different locations. Transport has throughout history been a spur to expansion; better transport allows more trade and a greater spread of people. Economic growth has always been dependent on increasing the capacity and rationality of transport.[28] But the infrastructure and operation of transport has a great impact on the land and is the largest drainer of energy, making transport sustainability a major issue.

Due to the way modern cities and communities are planned and operated, a physical distinction between home and work is usually created, forcing people to transport themselves to places of work, study, or leisure, as well as to temporarily relocate for other daily activities. Passenger transport is also the essence of tourism, a major part of recreational transport. Commerce requires the transport of people to conduct business, either to allow face-to-face communication for important decisions or to move specialists from their regular place of work to sites where they are needed.

Planning Edit
Main article: Transport planning
Transport planning allows for high utilization and less impact regarding new infrastructure. Using models of transport forecasting, planners are able to predict future transport patterns. On the operative level, logistics allows owners of cargo to plan transport as part of the supply chain. Transport as a field is also studied through transport economics, a component for the creation of regulation policy by authorities. Transport engineering, a sub-discipline of civil engineering, must take into account trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice and route assignment, while the operative level is handled through traffic engineering.
Because of the negative impacts incurred, transport often becomes the subject of controversy related to choice of mode, as well as increased capacity. Automotive transport can be seen as a tragedy of the commons, where the flexibility and comfort for the individual deteriorate the natural and urban environment for all. Density of development depends on mode of transport, with public transport allowing for better spatial utilization. Good land use keeps common activities close to people’s homes and places higher-density development closer to transport lines and hubs, to minimize the need for transport. There are economies of agglomeration. Beyond transportation some land uses are more efficient when clustered. Transportation facilities consume land, and in cities, pavement (devoted to streets and parking) can easily exceed 20 percent of the total land use. An efficient transport system can reduce land waste.

Too much infrastructure and too much smoothing for maximum vehicle throughput means that in many cities there is too much traffic and many—if not all—of the negative impacts that come with it. It is only in recent years that traditional practices have started to be questioned in many places, and as a result of new types of analysis which bring in a much broader range of skills than those traditionally relied on—spanning such areas as environmental impact analysis, public health, sociologists as well as economists—the viability of the old mobility solutions is increasingly being questioned.
Transport is a major use of energy and burns most of the world’s petroleum. This creates air pollution, including nitrous oxides and particulates, and is a significant contributor to global warming through emission of carbon dioxide,[29] for which transport is the fastest-growing emission sector.[30] By subsector, road transport is the largest contributor to global warming.[31] Environmental regulations in developed countries have reduced individual vehicles’ emissions; however, this has been offset by increases in the numbers of vehicles and in the use of each vehicle.[29] Some pathways to reduce the carbon emissions of road vehicles considerably have been studied.[32][33] Energy use and emissions vary largely between modes, causing environmentalists to call for a transition from air and road to rail and human-powered transport, as well as increased transport electrification and energy efficiency.

Other environmental impacts of transport systems include traffic congestion and automobile-oriented urban sprawl, which can consume natural habitat and agricultural lands. By reducing transportation emissions globally, it is predicted that there will be significant positive effects on Earth’s air quality, acid rain, smog and climate change.

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