Available Balance
the idea of gender inequality
May 20, 2017
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directs here. For
demographics, see Sex-selective abortion.
Gender inequality is the idea that women and
men are not equal. Gender inequality refers to
unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals
wholly or partly due to their gender . It arises
from differences in socially constructed gender
roles. [1] Gender systems are often dichotomous
and hierarchical; gender binary systems may
reflect the inequalities that manifest in
numerous dimensions of daily life. Gender
inequality stems from distinctions, whether
empirically grounded or socially constructed.
(On differences between the sexes, see Sex and
psychology .)
Natural sex differences
Main article: Sex differences in humans
Natural differences exist between the sexes
based on biological and anatomic factors, most
notably differing reproductive roles. Biological
differences include chromosomes and hormonal
differences. [1] There is a natural difference also
in the relative physical strengths (on average) of
the sexes, both in the lower body and more
pronouncedly in the upper-body, though this
does not mean that any given man is stronger
than any given woman. [2][3] Men, on average,
are taller, which provides both advantages and
disadvantages. [4] Women live significantly
longer than men, [5] though it is not clear to
what extent this is a biological difference – see
Life expectancy . Men have larger lung volumes
and more circulating blood cells and clotting
factors, while females have more circulating
white blood cells and produce antibodies
faster. [6] Differences such as these are
hypothesized to be an adaption allowing for
sexual specialization. [7]
Psychology
Prenatal hormone exposure influences to what
extent one exhibits traditional masculine or
feminine behavior. [8][9] No differences between
males and females exist in general
intelligence. [10] Men are significantly more
likely to take risks than women. [11] Men are
also more likely to be aggressive, a trait
influenced by prenatal and possibly current
androgen exposure. [12][13] It has been
theorized that these differences combined with
physical differences are an adaption
representing sexual division of labor . [7] A
second theory proposes sex differences in
intergroup aggression represent adaptions in
male aggression to allow for territory, resource
and mate acquisition. [6] Females are more
empathetic than males. [14] Men and females
have better visuospatial and verbal memory,
respectively. These changes are influenced by
the male sex hormone testosterone , which
increases visuospatial memory in both genders
when administered. [15]
From birth males and females are raised
differently and experience different environments
throughout their lives. In the eyes of society,
gender has a huge role to play in many major
milestones or characteristics in life; like
personality. [16] Males and females are lead on
different paths before they are able to choose
their own. The color blue is most commonly
associated with boys and they get toys like
monster trucks or more sport related things to
play with from the time that they are babies.
Girls are more commonly introduced to the
color pink, dolls, dresses, and playing house
where they are taking care of the dolls as if
they were children. The norm of blue is for
boys and pink is for girls is cultural and has
not always historically been around. These
paths set by parents or other adult figures in
the child’s life set them on certain paths. [17]
This leads to a difference in personality, career
paths, or relationships. Throughout life males
and females are seen as two very different
species who have very different personalities
and should stay on separate paths. [18]
In the workplace
Deaths
93% of workplace deaths (fatal occupational
injuries) in the US between 1980 and 1997 were
men (97,053 deaths). The male fatality rate (8.6
per 100,000 workers) was 11 times greater than
the female death rate of the 1980-97 time range
(0.8). This accounts for the other 7% of work
place deat





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