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Human Anatomy and Physiology: The Blood Vessels and the Heart
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In general there are three types of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries. Given an artery and a vein with similar inner diameters, the artery will have a thicker wall than the vein. Capillary walls have only one layer-the intima.

The nutrient blood supply provides blood through the usual exchange of materials between body cells and the blood. A collateral circulation is a special organization of blood vessels around a major joint or other area of the body. There are areas of the body where a single artery is the sole supply of blood, such an artery is called an end artery.

End arteries are most common in the brain and the heart. A portal vein is a venous blood vessel that begins with capillaries in one area and ends in capillaries or another area. The most important portal vein in the human body is the Hepatic Portal Vein.

For protection, arteries tend to be located deep within the structures of the body. Veins can be located at both deep and cutaneous levels. The capillaries are located throughout all tissues of the body. The networks of capillaries in the tissues are often called capillary beds.

The capillary beds make up the greatest cross-sectional area of the cardiovascular system. The wall of the capillary consists of a single layer of flat cells. The capillary beds are provided with pre-capillary sphincters that can reduce or completely stop the flow of blood into the capillaries.

The heart consists of four separate chambers. The two chambers at the top of the heart are called atria (singular: atrium). Down the middle of the heart, an interatrial septum separates the two atria. The two chambers at the bottom of the heart are called ventricles. Between the ventricles is a wall of tissue separating the left and right ventricles, this is called the interventricular septum. The walls of the chambers of the heart consist of three layers: the myocardium, the endocardium, and the epicardium, also known as the visceral pericadium. The chambers themselves are linked with a simple epithelium known as the endocardium.

By far the  most important of the three layers in the heart walls is the myocardium, the middle layer. The myocardium is thicker in the walls of the ventricles than the atria. The stroke volume is the amount of blood forced out of each ventricle in one contraction. The cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped out of the ventricles (right into the lungs, left into the systemic circulation) in one minute (expressed in liters per minute). Valves are structures that ensure that fluids will pass through them in one direction only. There are two sets of cardiac valves-the atrioventricular (AV) valves and the semilunar valves. The AV valves are found between the atria and the ventricles.

Chordae tendineae are a special anatomical arrangement which help prevent the backward flow of blood into the atria. When the ventricles contract (ventricular systole) and the AV valves have closed, the blood moves out into the great arteries through the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves. When the ventricles relax (ventricular diastole), the back pressure of the blood in the great arteries forces the cusps of the semilunar valves to the center and seals off each opening. The NAVL of the heart are the nerves, arteries, veins and lymphatics which influence the actions of the heart.

Control of heart functions can be divided into the following areas: Extrinsic controls (control from outside the heart), Intrinsic controls (control from inside the heart), and Humoral control, where some substances transported by the blood can accelerate or slow the action of the heart. The sinoatrial (SA) node is a collection of impulse conducting fibers in the interatrial septum. The atrioventricuar (AV) node is a group of impulse conducting fibers just above the interventricular septum. Fibers descend from the AV node to form the Bundle of His, which branches into the right and left septal bundles. The septal bundles connect with the Purkinje fibers located throughout the ventricular walls. Impulses begin in the SA node, pass to the AV node, and then descend through the septal bundles and on the Purkinje fibers to stimulate the myocardium of the ventricular walls to contract.

The blood which supplies the heart tissue itself is called nutrient blood. The openings leading into the coronary arteries are located in the base of the ascending aorta, just above the semilunar valve ( Aortic valve). Many of the branches of the coronary arteries are of the end artery type. The blood from the tissues of the heart is collected by the cardiac veins. The Thesbian veins are many minute sinuses found in the myocardium of the ventricles.

There is a fibrous connective tissue structure within the substance of the heart. Each atrioventricular valve of the heart is surrounded by a dense fibrous ring. Each of the semilunar valves of the heart is located within a short fibrous cylinder. The fibrous pericardium is a very dense fibrous envelope. the parietal pericardium is the outer serous membrane. the visceral pericardium intimately covers the surface of the heart.

Blood is driven through the arteries by a combination of forces. When the left ventricle contracts-systole, it forces the blood into the aortic arch. When the ventricle relaxes-diastole, the wall of the aortic arch recoils and presses against the blood. Vasoconstriction is the actual contraction of the arterial walls. In the head and neck, gravity helps to move the blood down through the veins.

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Human Anatomy and Physiology: Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system is the primary circulatory system of the human body. It’s main function is transport. It also provides protection against foreign substances. The arteries of this system generally carry blood from the chambers of the heart to the tissues of the body, while the veins carry blood from the tissues of the body to the chambers of the heart. The blood circulation is a two cycle system which involves both the pulmonary cycle and the systemic cycle. In the former, the pulmonary cycle, blood circulates from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.


In simple organisms such as unicellular and one or two layer organisms, materials can be transferred among cells by simple processes of diffusion. However, in large organisms, a system is needed for the distribution and collection of materials. The circulatory system is used by the human body to carry substances. Some substances are collected from the body cells for elimination. The body also produces hormones which are the products of the endocrine glands.


Some of the liquids of the body are blood, lymph or cerebrospinal fluid. Some of the vessels of the body include the blood vessels and lymph vessels. Blood is composed of the following: plasma and formed elements. Plasma makes up about 55 percent of the total blood volume. Water is also a part of our body composition. It has an ample heat-carrying capacity. Along with dissolved salts, plasma proteins help to maintain the tonicity of the plasma. Fibrinogen is important to blood clotting. The percentage by volume of red blood cells in the blood is called haematocrit. Haemoglobin, a special protein, is found within red blood cell cytoplasm. The normal, mature red blood cell is a biconcave disc. White blood cells are another of the formed elements of the blood, they are also known as leucocytes. There are several types of white blood cells including neutrophils, monocytes, phagocytes and lymphocytes. Platelets are also another type of formed element in the blood.


The blood is the vehicle for the cardiovascular system; it is used to transport substances around the body. Oxygen in the air fills the alveolus of the lung and carbon dioxide is produced during metabolic oxidation within the individual cell.


The blood carries glucose and oxygen around the body. When the hormone epinephrine is secreted by the Adrenal Gland, it is delivered to all parts of the body by the cardiovascular system. In periods when much energy is required, the body can use its stores of fat as a source of energy.

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I follow my heart- What about you?
April 24, 2017

When we can’t speak our heart out or we have to accept our mind many of us fall into a deep pit of confusion. One may not feel much difference between both, but look close into your life or recheck what you need in life if your heart and mind feel the same.

People often choose to neglect their hearts prefer to stay with their. And rightly so as heart is one of our body parts but the fact we should know that it develops during our childhood and for this particular reason is it possible to say that our heart knows better!

Have you ever given it a thought that when you were still a young child then there was no need to control your emotions but when your brain began to develop your thoughts became different?

I am surprised to see that when you set out to do something good then you face a lot of hurdles, bad comments and whatnot but when you do something bad it’s really so easy. So stop blaming your heart for being so emotional because it’s not your heart but your own feelings. Heart has nothing to do in what direction your brain works.

It’s easy to blame your heart which is nothing but another of your multiple body organs. If you feel more than a simple pump, the heart is scientifically considered a highly complex system having its own thinking power and it’s proven fact that when we can’t keep it in control, our heart tends to prove that it has its own healing power.

Actually your biggest enemy is your on weakness and no one from outside world. It all depends your own self ho you defend your own interest, family, relatives and friends from negative feelings. And sooner you do that the better. I am part of this society and know what is good or bad for myself and the society.

Image source https://pixabay.com/en/rose-floribunda-blossom-bloom-2042257/

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We can not forget our first love
March 24, 2017

There is no love like the first, they say. Falling in love is truly great thing that lot of the people have experienced for once in their life.

And It is your first love that is very difficult to forget, and it is a feeling that can still make you giggle every time you remember experience. Indeed, the first love will never die.
Get the hold of anyone in an honest moment, and they will tell you that the their first love was unforgettable. No matter at what the stage of life you are in, that the familiar song playing on television, and the smell of that old perfume or the memories from that perfect evening, and the many moons ago, when you were the just 21 can still catch you just unaware.

Why is it so special? And Why does it make such an impression on heart? First of all, it only happens once. After the much thoughts and the soul searching, people to realize that, first love is special because it is a first. Like most firsts, it will hold place in your personal history. It marks beginning of your articulation of romantic feelings.

And Secondly it changes you forever. With marriage and the kids under the belt, people have greater respect for the firsts. Reason is for the most of us, our first love is a person we leave behind for hundred different reasons, yet they shape how we can view love for rest of our life.

In my view holding on to those memories of our first love can be the beneficial. doing so the helps us remember how surprised. open and receptive’ we were the capable of feeling and it is really the encouraging for us to the bring that state into our current relationships.
However, the concept of first love with a pinch of salt. I think those people, who pine after the their first love are probably the doing so because they are unhappy about the something in their current relationship but are to be afraid to confront it.

And That means when we are lonely or unsatisfied in relationship, we tend to look back at our first love and the indulge in enjoyable recollection of past events instead of the dealing with whatever our current issue is.’
But whatever it is the, first love is something, and you get only once. It is the first chapter of your story that reminds you of who you were at time when you were young and the innocent. You were loved. And You mattered to someone, and that is the reason enough to celebrate. Actually the first stab of love is like blaze of colours.

Oranges, pearly pinks and the vibrant purples they are.

And the perhaps you can not love anyone that way more than once in lifetime. It is too hard and it hurts too much when it ends.

And The first boy or the girl is always the hardest to get over. It is just the way the world works.We can not forget our first love

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The Easiest Way To Make Your Nervous System Stronger
February 28, 2017

The Easiest Way To Make Your Nervous System Stronger

When there is problem of our body system, it means that there is something that it triggers the body to function that way. It is so obvious of the kind of pain and feeling one feels should there be a sudden problem of the system especially the nervous system, the carrier of all the body parts and functions of them. Why I came to this idea sharing you what I had shared in my life too, that was so many years ago experience at age 19. This age has lots or erratic, frivolous and unpredictable actions. Despite many things felt in the previous years and not only me, almost all of us as long as passed the teen age, lots of things cannot be forgotten and lots of experiences cannot just be simply erased and ignored as years go by. I repeat the reason why I came to the sharing of this, when I learned from someone that she always feels nervous. It was not elaborated on that topic if the cause of her nervous is something that scares her mind or something that terrifies her in a sudden instance.

Finally, I got the answer to my doubts why my friend just felt that way. If you feel nervous of something else, that is already a very big issue for the mind may not be able to resolve it for you for you constantly see images that scare you. It is also unwise for a person to tolerate it because many will be affected, though it rarely happens that mental hospital is the final landing place, but if it is getting serious, it might happen. My friend declares that she has a heart problem and because of this, her blood pressure is affected, so every time she goes to her medic and sees the doctor’s name, her blood just rises up and she seems like to collapse from fear. By the way, she was my virtual friend I met in one of the writing sites two years ago. She is already in her 40’s and remember this age, 40 which many said and promoted that life begins at 40. She is so afraid that in her 40th year old she will suffer different sicknesses.

I shared my friend and to you too, my dear readers how to make our nervous system strong. If our nervous system is weak the heart follows and the mind seems like to ignite a negative reaction towards the emotion, the heart. My friends, one day ago in my teen age years, I always felt nervous. I just felt afraid of all sorts. I hated that kind of emotion. I fought it through reading humorous passages from books. I also kept myself busy reading different books and magazines old and new. I did not like the feeling for even a sound of a car I felt afraid. When my siblings called me, I felt afraid. I did feel my heart beat so fast, yet abnormally. I jogged and jogged so that my mind became sharper and heart too stronger.

Then, I read a portion of a page of a magazine and that magazine was so famous before in Philippines. What I saw on that page was, should you like heart and mind stronger, eat liver of fish and chicken only and mongo beans. Wow, I told myself I finally found answer to my long awaited discovery how to have nervous system stronger. If our nervous system is weak, the tendency for us to be in distress of feeling afraid despite do not know why feeling that way.

After the knowledge of it, I bought big fishes, extract their livers and fry them. I also bought chicken livers and cooked those deep fry. I also bought and stocked mongoes. Just cook mongoes with plain water, no salt and sugar. After eating them for a week, I forgot what I felt. All I knew that time was my heart became stronger until this time. I cannot just easily cry. My mind becomes so sharp and smart, so if you feel the way I felt before during my teens, just follow what I discovered, and you will surely be happy and thank me. By the way, the writer of that Health and Home Magazine where I got the info how to build a strong nervous system was an American surgeon specializing nervous system, Neurologist. I am so thankful of that very nice and generous doctor. I also hoped that my friend followed my suggestion. I will send you updates in the comment box. Take care all, health is wealth.

Image credit to Pixabay Free Images

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You Must Know These Top Healthy Foods Good For Your Heart
January 17, 2017

Our heart is very vital for life. If it is sick, life will be at risks. Our heart could be considered a traitor to us for it never tells you tat it would like to attack anytime if overdosed it or overuse its functions. It beats accordingly. If happy the beating differs from being sad and lonely. The more the beating is at its extreme mood if angry or insulted. Now, what if your heart is weak? It is not advisable for you to act like an insane when angry, LOL. That is right, when you are angry; you are on your insanity for anger is a temporary insanity. Try it, LOL.


In reality, there are really people who have weak hearts and super strong hearts. The only reason is the manner or way the body owner manages his health. Yes, you can manage your health. You know well the contents of what you are cooking if healthy foods or not. You also know well that if you are always upset, angry, moody, overweight and too thin, make your heart sick. There are many reasons that lead your heart to a disaster zone and here comes you the owner of the body, just feel how important your heart is when its aches due to abuses of food you eat.

It does no guarantee that, since you are rich you have good health. Wrong, those rich like you always deviate from the standard foods. You never like foods that lack sense of responsibility to your heart. You will be in the red alert mood if feel some aches you never felt in the past, for in the past, you  prefer foods that give justice to your hunger , and only to believe what doctors say and what your friends and family say so often to you as correct.

It s also not advisable to feel in dept some problems that could be solved through magic, meaning it could be solved through diplomacy. Do cry to help ease your aching heart, but never make it a habit crying despite nonsense cause. You have to love your body and listen to your instinct to make life happy and healthy.


Now, with the knowledge of the most possibly stronger heart through foods, try yourself to get acquainted with them, so you will have the chance to live too long and heart will be your best friend. The foods presented here vary.

These are the following: oranges, kale, garlic, red wine, dark chocolate, sardines, lintels, almonds, pomegranates. You all know well about these foods.


References: Dr. Al Sears , Health and Home

Images credit by: Facebook and Pixabay









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