Available Balance
Binary Search Tree – Searching, Deletion

Searching a BST is even simpler than insertion. The pseudocode is self-explanatory but we will look brie°y at the premise of the algorithm nonetheless.
We have talked previously about insertion, we go either left or right with the right subtree containing values that are ¸ x where x is the value of the node
we are inserting. When searching the rules are made a little more atomic and at any one time we have four cases to consider:

1. the root = ; in which case value is not in the BST; or
2. root.Value = value in which case value is in the BST; or
3. value < root.Value, we must inspect the left subtree of root for value; or
4. value > root.Value, we must inspect the right subtree of root for value.
1) algorithm Contains(root, value)
2) Pre: root is the root node of the tree, value is what we would like to locate
3) Post: value is either located or not
4) if root = ; 5) return false
6) end if
7) if root.Value = value
8) return true
9) else if value < root.Value
10) return Contains(root.Left, value)
11) else
12) return Contains(root.Right, value)
13) end if
14) end Contains


Removing a node from a BST is fairly straightforward, with four cases to consider:

1. the value to remove is a leaf node; or
2. the value to remove has a right subtree, but no left subtree; or
3. the value to remove has a left subtree, but no right subtree; or
4. the value to remove has both a left and right subtree in which case we

promote the largest value in the left subtree.
There is also an implicit ¯fth case whereby the node to be removed is the only node in the tree. This case is already covered by the ¯rst, but should be
noted as a possibility nonetheless. Of course in a BST a value may occur more than once. In such case the ¯rst occurrence of that value in the BST will be removed.

The Remove algorithm given below relies on two further helper algorithms named FindP arent, and FindNode which are described in x3.4 and x3.5 re-

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How to Protect Your Data from Computer Virus Attacks

Basically, one of the main protections to keep a computer to work optimally is always protect the computer from harmful viruses. There are so many of malicious virus variants that can disrupt the smooth performance of your computer. Among them, the most popular types of computer viruses are Worm virus, Trojan, Spyware, and so forth. They all can inhibit the smoothness of your computer performance in its operation. Surely, all types of computer viruses will slow down your work in any computer task. So, you need to protect your computer from a sudden virus attack.

Virus attack is one of computer maladies that work to destroy computer data. Computer viruses are able to multiply or reproduce on your computer system. Additionally, a computer virus is also able to copy, infect and even spread other disruptions to all sectors of the program whether in the hard disk, flash disk, and other storage media. The most annoying thing when a computer is being attacked by a virus is when the computer restarts itself. But not everyone knows when a computer virus infects your data. So, you should protect your data from computer virus attracts.

Protect Your Computer from Virus Attacks

  1. First thing first to protect your computer from virus attacks is by knowing the computer virus names, learn how they infect the computer’s system, and how to prevent them.
  2. Do not leave your computer runs without antivirus. Commonly, the computer antivirus is the most powerful security of your computer.
  3. So, install a reliability antivirus. Not all antivirus are paid, but there are also some free computer antiviruses are capable of eradicating every virus that comes to the computer. As a recommendation, you can use AVG antivirus or Avira antivirus.
  4. Make sure the antivirus database on your computer is always up to date, as there would be the emerge of new computer viruses on the network. Update an antivirus could be online or offline.
  5. Scan the entire data on your computer regularly. At least you scan the data on your computer using antivirus once a week. In case there’s a virus attack on your computer, immediately quarantine the virus using your antivirus.
  6. Each time you are surfing the internet, never to open attachment file or email attachment that includes a file with extensions .exe, .scr, .vbs, or double extension files like .txt. But if you think the file is important, should scan the file first using the antivirus.
  7. Be careful when opening email attachments or post attachments from instant messages sent from unknown people, as this may contain malicious files.
  8. Never open Spam / Trash email (product sale, free video offer, free image, and free song).
  9. Always scan your new data files with your antivirus before opening them. The new files could be downloaded from the internet or from an external storage media such as flash disk, hard drive, CD/DVD, etc.
  10. Never install pirated or nulled software. Any pirated or nulled software is not from a legitimate seller/ creator. Usually, pirated software is always infected with a malicious virus used to spy your computer data.
  11. Always read the Term of Services and agreement of any free software you are going to install. If you don’t read it, you may accidentally agree with installing a bundled spyware software program that is hard to uninstall.

Finally, by applying those tips above, your computer or laptop will always out of from a malicious virus infection.

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Conversion of FLV To MP3 Is Made Easy- Know Why?
May 6, 2017

Convert flv to mp3
By erlymags ( @ cely/ @lovern )

In this today’s generation, no one can stop interested and capable persons obtain what they want and what they want to do with a thing they have like for example computers, cellular phones, iPhones and other gadgets that are introduced by our technology. Obtaining any of them is not enough by an individual person. He continues to desire more and apply what is the latest and trend of time like the flv to mp3. For those who are not familiar with this technology, it does not matter to them. Who usually aspires conversion of their unit to mp3? Though this application is very simple, but of course it requires interest and know how of an individual. It is not only easy to apply; likewise, free of charge. This conversion refers to a fast and light YouTube to mp3 converter software that will download YouTube videos and convert to mp3 format. You can also play them on mp3 devices, including iPods. This software is very simple to use. It is also 100% safe, no viruses or spyware.

Those who like conversion of their programs or affairs to YouTube require application that is guaranteed and proven safe. Who usually does this are young individuals and people on business. There are many concerns and interested about converting flv to mp3. Perhaps, there is an excitement on the part of the interested and concern owner of a unit. In converting stored items to a YouTube, the action to be done is to enter a link from a website and click the next button. Each one can make a choice. Bump3 conversion is only applicable for Mac, Linux PC or even an iPhone .Others cannot apply. Though this is a simple and easy thing to do but the requirement of a unit to suit for mp3 conversion may sometimes the failure of an individual to prosper his dream.

Because converting a stored item or event by an interested person requires Mac, Linux PC or even an iPhone gadget or unit, conversion to a YouTube may take place by others .For those who passed the requirement therefore, flv to mp3 converter may be acted upon by the owner of a computer. YouTube flash (FLV) video to mp3 has the capabilities to download and convert YouTube flv video formats to audio MP3 format search and download videos link, multi-reading and batch processing. Flv to amp3 conversion is not affiliated with YouTube and goggle. The only thing to do is follow the instructions and seek or buy only a gadget or unit capable for converting items to YouTube through flv to mp3 converter. YouTube is very famous and popular. Each one longs to have an easy access of a YouTube. Many want to see a very important event through YouTube. No one can be left behind what has been missed to watch through YouTube. And also for those who wanted to create blogs and enjoy the facilities through the advancement of technology, all they have to do is follow the instructions to whatever they wanted to convert specifically conversion of flv to mp3.

The famous event of time is watching games, boxing, contests and many more through YouTube. And for those who missed to watch a particular event or show, it is no longer a problem this time for they can easily click in their computer a YouTube bearing such missed event or show. But most importantly, what people wanted this time is conversion of flv to mp3 for they can have access to a show or event they like in a YouTube ; likewise , knowledge on how to operate this action so that they can also feel the excitement and experience what the technology of our time introduces. It is no longer impossible in today’s time how to convert flv to mp3 in such a way that they can produce their own YouTube for personal or business use. Conversion of flv to mp3 is just an easy and simple thing to do. One has to follow the instructions how to convert. But foremost, it must be made sure that the unit acquired is Mac, Linux PC or even an iPhone.

In converting what has been stored in a computer, iPhone and others, what is required is know how of a computer use, unit brand requirement and following of the instructions how to convert flv to mp3. This is an easy and simple thing to do. What to do is locate the website how to convert flv to mp3 then click the button that relates many instructions how to convert. Enter a link from that streaming website and click the next button to persistently finish converting. Why many like to know and apply this , simply because flv converter is good in transferring or downloading.

As long as the unit or gadget owned is applicable for flv to mp3 conversion, then there is no reason to waste a time for a dream or desire to come true. Nowadays ,it is not enough to own a computer for just a simple use like encoding, chatting, browsing, surfing, and others but to go beyond according to the trend of time. A thing or an act may not come or appear in our computer, iPhone or even to a simple cellular phone without the trending event of time. In this moment of time where many are introduced to our technology, it is an inescapable attempt to follow the hot issues, inventions, applications and conversions accessible to our computer. The hot issues involved computer and iPhone brands; inventions follow on this. Applications relate about instructions to make any invention be applied and done to a gadget or unit by the user and conversion to any thing or event that the user wants like mp3 conversion. This is an on the go converting items or events to transfer or download with the use of flv.com converter to an internet connected computer unit.

Why convert flv to mp3

There are many good and wonderful things our technology introduces to the world. There are also many human beings who keep on hearing and watching from a television about the latest trend of time. Other source of this knowledge is from the internet. The world can no longer go back to the hands of time are contented on a simple thing they had or acquired. In today’s generation, computers, iPhones together with them brands and prices but brands and their corresponding prices do not matter. What matters is the know how and knowledge. One thing many want in today’s time is flv to mp3 conversion. Why this becomes a trend of time, simply because of the knowledge and idea that this is so easy and so simple to apply. It is also good to transfer or download data from a YouTube to mp3.What is required to obtain this is to follow the instructions stipulated under flv.com converter.

Conversion of flv to mp3 is easy and simple. All you have to do is to find or click the website about flv.com conversion. There is a click button that relates about instructions how to convert mp3 to YouTube video. It requires the popular format MP3 .It converts data from YouTube; likewise, provide many things a user enjoys. Conversion to mp3 is free of charge and guaranteed viruses and spywares free. FLv to MP3 converter is a fast and light YouTube to mp3 converter software that downloads YouTube videos and converts to mp3 format. You can play them on .MP3 devices include iPods. This software is very simple. Though simple, it also requires care and sensibility during conversion. This is what many want to do this time to download YouTube videos and convert to mp 3 formats. It might be for personal or business use.

It is good to transfer YouTube videos. There is a simple and easy way to convert flv to mp3.There are instructions to follow after browsing a website how to convert flv to mp3 , then click the button and follow the procedures. It is free of charge. Having converted YouTube videos to mp3 iPods, one can have the joy watching YouTube videos. It also has its own format and good to transfer or downloads. The only thing to do is the unit obtained which must be an iPhone, Mac, and Linux PC. It takes 1-2 minutes converting videos to mp3. It also depends on the size of the video activity. This is a legal service conversion and this activity is not affiliated with YouTube and goggle but could be an access to converting YouTube videos to mp3 according to a website or websites linked to this service. Our technology is so helpful in many ways. It is not only knowing the events of the world, music, important people but also taking away boredom through its videos and gaining freedom to access some wonders through internet.

Image by Pixabay

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It is easy to convert YouTube to Mp3

It is easy to convert YouTube to Mp3
By erlymags (@cely/ @lovern )

Converting YouTube to Mp3 is a multi-conversion technology that may give other Internet software download envy. It is also easy to download conversion of YouTube videos to mp3.First of all; the unit applicable for conversion is iPod. In converting videos to mp3 from a YouTube, one must seek a URL link to get the instructions, permissions and approved agreement of use and policy by the software owner. This new multi-conversion could break download through spread records. How it works faster? There are several YouTube downloader like YouTube free downloader.com which opens (TEN) separate download conversions / workers .Each conversion is assigned to a different part of the video to download. So, each ten workers download a different part of the video at the same time. It is so amazing. It is so fast and with multi functions. Everyone wants to personalize a video by just watching it singly without interruption by others in an mp3 unit. Through technology, there are many impossible things that could be made possible. If done by abused, it is not a mere fault of the technology specifically to particular software that created a useful thing like YouTube.

A YouTube is very famous throughout the world. One can see what they want to see according to the trend of time. There might be some programs and contests that are universally linked but missed to watch but by a request through a YouTube, one may never fail to watch them. This is how our technology is in pace, so fast that human beings also seem too fast in his desire ,like his desire to convert YouTube to mp3. Though not all are privileged to own an mp3, but in today’s generation only few do not have this. Mostly, young individuals own an mp3 .Those who have an iPod as capable of a YouTube conversion may wanted to without a doubt conversion of YouTube videos to his mp3. Conversion of YouTube videos to mp3 is so easy. What is needed is the knowledge to operate the downloading. Conversion of videos from a YouTube to mp3 will not take place in the absence of understanding of a computer manipulation and other blocks that may hamper transfer of videos to mp3.

YouTube downloader is a totally free downloader and it is also a totally free video rippling application to common video formats and Mp3.With this information, anyone would be likened to convert YouTube to mp3.With YouTube free downloader, all that users do is to paste a video link, choose the equality, and process ” Download.” The freeware allows running several downloads simultaneously and at a highest speed. This is so due to its multithreading technology. This is one real evidence how our technology works through computers. And of course, they will not work effectively in the absence of qualification, interest and know-how of a cellular computer owner. There is a link between a computer and cellular phones like iPhones, iPods. Even if there is a problem of a cellular phone, it is the computer that works for its repair and normal restoration.

Image by Pixabay

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Productivity working on the computer.

If you used to work for long on computer, don’t forget about your posture. Improper posture while sitting at a desk not only poses a threat to health, but also prevents you from concentrating. This can be annoying back pain or headache, and also cause low productivity. Sitting in distorted posture or putting leg on the leg, the body gets tired, back, neck, shoulders get tense, legs soluble. The body feels the stress, so it affects your mood and ability to concentrate.

When your body gets tired, mind also refuses to work. Try to adjust the height of the chairs and table, ensure a comfortable footrest and back. The main thing is immediately stretch up! Correct posture even inspire a better mood, self-confidence.

Please note that the irregular posture may be due to lack of physical activity. Working a job in which much time you are sitting, it is very important to take time for to exercise and body strengthening exercises – so you will feel more energetic and healthier. Use your smartphone – track how many steps you take in a day or jogging track your progress. Find what’s best for you and make the sport enjoyable game having a positive impact on your professional life.

It is important to learn how to monitor your performance and inspiration and to use the time when the work you manage to perform smoothly. Assign these moments for most important, urgent work. Understand that working hours are for a work to be done and do not try to get out of yourself more than you can. Otherwise there is a risk that you get overtired – your daily productivity will fall, and you will feel increasingly worse.

So get to know yourself and act with the greatest demands on the body if you can. Remember, no matter how important, but the work is just a work.


Picture by Pixabay.com

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If your workplace is computer…

If you constantly looking for new ways to be productive, it worth to look at your already existing habits that actually hinder the work done more efficiently. Sometimes it is enough to change a few small things to make things work much smoother.

Usually our working tool is a computer, so try to maintain order among the documents and folders. This will ensure that you will quickly find at right time what you are looking for and not procrastinate the work saying that now you have not time to look for. Often rushing we name documents in patchwork of words or even worse of letters, which, let’s face it, is not always informative. Of course, perhaps we are in a hurry at that time and we think that later we will rename it. But in most cases fail to do so, and even if we rename, this is double work, which could have been avoided.

Do not think that the madness on your desktop is neat chaos that you know very well. You might not realize, but it has a much greater impact on your work habits. This tendency to leave a small deed for a later time, it becomes contagious and may eventually be reflected in all your tasks – just as irrelevant folders on the desktop, you can begin to accumulate and eventually forget the small jobs. You do not want such (non) quality? So first of all simply delete what is not needed on the desktop, and then orderly rename and group all what you need. It may take some time, but remember these efforts the next time saving new document, and so encourage yourself to put it immediately to the right place. There is the bright side of such a procedure – you will feel better and inspire yourself on a daily basis to brace up, in addition, the neat computer will be running smoothly.


Picture by Pixabay.com

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How to Save Money on Apple Products

Screen Shot 2017-04-29 at 9.56.51 PM

If you asked me over a decade ago if I would pay money for an Apple product? I will clearly say no! In fact, I would think you are crazy for buying an overpriced Apple product. But now, once I switched over to Apple about 7 years ago – I will never go back with any brands. Why? I have never had any problem with any of my Apple products from my laptop, computer, phone, tablet and if I do, it is something that could be fixable by Apple and complimentary! I used to go through computers and laptop like nothing because they would overheat on me, or there is never enough storage – it would get frustrating!

The downside about Apple is that it is expensive and hardly goes on sale. And like all technology – new ones keep coming out one after another! Right when you get used to your device, a new one is on the market! Apple hardly goes on sale but if you ever want Apple products for a discount, you can save usually $100 bucks if you qualify for the Apple College Discount on select devices – where you have to present your college ID. You will get an instant money back on selected devices/items. If you do not have any college ID or a friend who can show their college ID, then another method to save money is to purchase Apple products on Black Friday, the day after Thanksgiving! Or lastly, when the model is over and a new model is coming out – chances are there is some sort of sale, promotion. You could also buy from authorized retailers!

At my last employer, they had a subsidy where if you purchase any qualifying products, devices – you get an amount back to your check so you could check if that is an option from your employer!

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Computer Glitch, Losing Your Long Post!

I was trying to make a 1,000-worded post some minutes ago, but I lost it when my laptop notified that it need to be restarted!

Thinking that what I had written, almost 800 words post, will still be there when the process finished, I did not transfer it to my MWord on a separate file. It was about “decluttering” project at home. Now I got so tired thinking about words I had written a few minutes ago! Maybe next time when my mind was refreshed, I will write it again and be sure to submit first before choosing to run such “restart” program on this computer!

It was my mistake! How I should had saved it first before running the program! I did it thinking it won’t be lost, and I needed to run it because last night, my computer screen turned black saying it has low memory. Thinking that it needed more available space, I deleted some files, some photos etc. to ease the memory. Then I removed the battery for some minutes, and it worked!

I thought it might be so hot, so I put an electric fan focused on it to make it cool, added to the cooling pad that I had been using for so long.

Do you have such an experience? Do you immediately rewrite what you remembered you wrote on that blog? For me, I felt so tired to think over again. I do not have the habit of writing first on a separate folder or on a word document before copy-pasting it here on Literacybase. I directly write here, thinking that there will be no problems!

As they say, experience is the best teacher! So that experience would tell me to save first on Word document if ever I wanted to write longer posts; just to be sure it will not be erased. It is hard to think again what you had written because sometimes there are factors that affect the way you had put words in there. It can be so beautiful, and because you were so sorry for what had happened, you tend to forget what words/sentences you had written.

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My Life Online and Everything that’s Boring

I don’t particularly expect anyone to read this or even comment on this blog entry. I just want to simply rant or vent or let out a few fumes about my so-called-life. To start with, I used to be this outgoing, fun, always on the move kind of person. No day goes by without me trekking an unthreaded place. I like going out with my sister, my friends, or even by myself. And it doesn’t matter how far, how long or how uncomfortable the journey is as long as I get somewhere safe and sound. Like most adults, I enjoy the company

Like most adults, I enjoy the company of people who I know and those whom I just met. And like most adults, I am often prepared to know and face unexpected encounters. I enjoyed those times when I am away from home, somewhere discovering new places to dine or simply to hang out. I’ve been to a lot of places in the Philippines and I’d give anything to be in one of those places right now. To me, those places I once visited are now a distant memory, sacred only to my thoughts.

I miss those times when I don’t care if the only money I have is the fare I will have to pay to get back home. And I solely rely on the goodness of my friends who live in those places (kapal mukha).

I am not that person anymore.

Today, I think and I believe I am addicted to the unrealistic promise of the world wide web. I am confined, like a prisoner, within the 4 corners of my room, preparing myself to be a mom and doing what I can to make ends meet. The internet is my only window and when I turn it on every morning I feel a surge of hope for the new day and at the same time a sense of helplessness.

I don’t go out as much. I rarely meet my friends even when they ask me to come with them. I haven’t seen the outside world for months at a time. My skin is pale and my eyes sunken and I feel bad every day because of this routine.

I turn to sites like mylot, facebook and LB to make myself feel better about each day. I post things, start discussions, pretending I want to meet new people or make new friends, sign up to sites that will consume my time until my husband gets home.

I feel utterly useless at times but I can’t blame anyone but myself. Besides, I chose this life, right? My family is always encouraging me to go out, stroll the streets once more, feel the sun, engage in meaningful conversations, eat out and see friends. But all I see are distractions to my online routine.

And the real reason why I am writing this is because I want to encourage myself to get the h**l out of this room. Find something to do outside, feel the breeze once more and interact with real people (those I can see face to face). I wanted to break free from this paralyzing comfort zone and routine of getting up each morning, eating, logging in online, eating, and sleeping until another day arrives. All is new but me.

No, I don’t want your pity because I don’t deserve it.

I feel and I know that I should, for one thing, need to be doing something in my life. Sure I can blame a whole lot of factors and circumstances which led me to this life but what’s the point? I am here. Now. And I can’t seem to make it work or stop. I feel engulfed by a meaningless existence that I’m scared I might be just this way, forever. I hope not.

Oh well, they say it is just a phase. A moment in life when you don’t know what to do. I mean, how many adults out there know what to do with their lives, anyway? But one thing is for sure, they’re not as clueless as I am right now.

I don’t know what else to say actually.

Looking at my clock, it reads 7:04 PM. I have an interview coming up at 8 PM and I haven’t even washed the oil from my face. I think that’s about it for now.


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Computer Language And It Distinct Vocabulary – Part One


Credit image share to clipartfest.com

Over a period of time computers have evolved and so has the language and its vocabulary full of esoteric and colorful terms and phrases. Here are some of the distinct vocabulary being revisited starting with the alphabet A, some of which many of us are familiar but do not know the full meaning. Here is the first in the series. Read and enjoy names and its meaning.


Absolute Address – The actual location in storage of a particular unit of data; an address that control unit can interpret directly. Also a number of label used to identify a specific storage location in the computers memory.

Access Time – Time required for data to be sent to or obtained from a storage unit.

Address – A number of label that represents a particular location in the computer memory. Every piece of data processed in a computer must be identified by its address so that the computer can access the data. Also to transmit data to or from the computer memory.

ADP – Automatic data processing referring to the manipulation of information by a system of electronic or electrical machines so interconnected and interacting as to reduce to a minimum the need for human assistance or intervention.

Algol – Acronym for Algorithmic Oriented Language, a scientifically oriented computer language that was designed to make the programming and representation of  computational problems direct and efficient.

Analog computer – Performs functions upon numbers in other than digital form, that is, on data presented in a continuous form. In mechanical analog computers, numbers are often represented by the physical quantities of the computers, numbers may be represented by voltages.

Application study – A study conducted to determine a computer programs, equipment and costs necessary to solve a problem or handle a procedure using computing machinery.

Assemble – To prepare machine language program for execution on the computer from a assembly language program.

Assembler – Program which translates instructions written in assembly language into machine language.

Assembly language – A machine oriented programming language that allows the programmer to express machine instructions and data in symbolic form.

Asynchronous – A type of computer operation in which a new instruction is initiated when the former instruction is completed.


Computers and internet have become very important and many of us will feel as if we are fish out of water if we do not have computers in our day to day life. I will continue with more terms in the second article in part two of the series.




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