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did u know that Ethiopia is Africal
May 19, 2017

This article covers the prehistory and history of
Ethiopia , from emergence as an empire under
the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal
Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, as well as the
history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia
such as the Afar Triangle . The Ethiopian Empire
(Abyssinia) was first founded by Habesha
people in the Ethiopian Highlands . Due to
migration and imperial expansion, it grew to
include many other primarily Afro-Asiatic –
speaking communities, including Oromos ,
Amhara, Somalis, Tigray , Afars , Sidama, Gurage,
Agaw and Harari , among others.
One of the earliest kingdoms to rise to power in
the territory was the kingdom of D’mt in the
10th century BCE, which established its capital
at Yeha. In the first century CE the Aksumite
Kingdom rose to power in the Tigray Region
with its capital at Aksum and grew into a major
power on the Red Sea, subjugating Yemen and
Meroe and converting to Christianity in the early
fourth century. The Aksumite empire fell into
decline with the rise of Islam , forcing the
Ethiopians to move south into the highlands for
refuge. The Aksumites gave way to the Zagwe
Dynasty who established a new capital at
Lalibela , before giving way to the Solomonic
Dynasty in the 13th century. During the early
Solomonic period Ethiopia went through military
reforms and imperial expansion that made it
dominate the Horn of Africa. Portuguese
missionaries arrived at this time.
In 1529, a conquest of Abyssinia ( Futuh al-
Habash ) by the Somali Muslim Adal Sultanate
allied with the Ottoman Empire devastated the
highlands, and was only deterred by a
Portuguese intervention. With both Ethiopia and
Adal greatly weakened by the war, the Oromo
people were able to invade into the highlands,
conquering the remains of the Adal Sultanate
and pushing deep into Ethiopia. The Portuguese
presence also increased, while the Ottomans
began to push into what is now Eritrea , creating
the Habesh Eyalet. The Portuguese brought
modern weapons and baroque architecture to
Ethiopia, and in 1622 converted the emperor
Susenyos I to Catholicism, sparking a civil war
which ended in his abdication and an expulsion
of all Catholics from Ethiopia. A new capital was
established at Gondar in 1632, and a period of
peace and prosperity ensued until the country
was split apart by warlords in the 18th century
during the Zemene Mesafint .
Ethiopia was reunified in 1855 under Tewodros
II , beginning Ethiopia’s modern history. Ethiopia
began to go through a slow modernisation
process under a leadership of Yohannes IV , and
defended itself from an Egyptian invasion in
1874. Emperor Yohannes fought and won wars
against Egyptians, Italians and Mehadists to
keep his people free from foreign invaders. He
was killed in action in 1889. Under Menelik II
Ethiopia defeated an Italian invasion in 1896
and came to be recognised as a legitimate state
by European powers. A more rapid
modernisation took place under Menelik II and
Haile Selassie, however this was not enough to
deter another Italian invasion in 1935. The
Italian army managed to occupy parts of the
country from October 1935-May 1940 under a
military occupation. A joint force of British and
Ethiopian rebels managed to drive the Italians
out of the country in 1941, and Haile Selassie
was returned to the throne. Ethiopia and Eritrea
united in a federation, but when Haile Selassie
ended the federation in 1961 and made Eritrea a
province of Ethiopia, a war for Eritrean
independence occurred, lasting until 1991.
Haile Selassie was overthrown in 1974 and the
militaristic Derg Regime came to power. In
1977 Somalia invaded to try and annex the
Ogaden region , but were pushed back by
Ethiopian, Soviet, and Cuban forces. In 1977
and 1978 the government tortured or killed
hundreds of thousands of suspected enemies in
the Red Terror . After a famine in 1984 killing 1
million people, the Derg fell in 1991 and the
Federal Democratic Republic was established.
Ethiopia remains impoverished, but

    1. Dear User,

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    2. I was a nice read, although a plagiarized one. Still there ain’t it?

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