Available Balance
Sore Eyes Are Here Again
May 21, 2017
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red eyes

Time to bring in the cool shades and eyeglasses, it’s the season of red eyes and pink eyes.

“Don’t look at me, your eyes is burning!”

photo credits to pixabay.com

photo credits to pixabay.com

Something like that is happening because of sore eyes or the medically termed conjunctivitis. It’s the season the adenovirus is penetrating again the eyes of its host. You feel that irritating feeling: very itchy eyes, feel painful as if thousands of sands are thrown into your eyes, continuously crying with tears. You cannot sleep well and you cannot see well.

It’s highly contagious. People are keeping away from you because they are afraid the virus will also infect them. The virus is easily transferred to another person so they keep away from you as if you have a dreaded disease. You cannot blame them because it’s hard when you have sore eyes.

There might be no medicine yet to this virus but there are many ways the patients can do to avoid the complications. It’s hard to endure the 12 to 15 days before the virus went away. So keeping some measures can help to make the healing faster.

Washing the hands with soap and running water helps a lot.

Take a bath regularly, maybe more than you used to in a day.

Use your own bath towel, hand towel, eyeglasses, handkerchief and avoid borrowing them or letting others to use them.

Eat lots of vegetables, fruits and other healthy foods.

Physical exercises and other workout can improve your immunity against viruses and bacteria.

Avoid eye to eye contact or hand to eye contact.

Use shades and eyeglasses so that your eyes will not be stress.

Disinfecting the things that usually we hold inside and outside the house is also important.

Of course, consulting the medical doctor for proper medication is the most important. A family could infect all the family members when not given the accordance of treating the illness. It may not kill us but surely it sends us into suffering.###

laundry detergent that does not make you itch
May 21, 2017
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Time to change laundry detergent
why do I need to change it. here why I need to change it. I been buying the cheap stuff at the dollar store why ? because it only cost $1.00us that why.
but here the reason I need to change the laundry detergent. this stuff is making me itch which it never did before so I might be force to go with a name brand which I rally do not like doing why? because they are all ways over price that why. so now I am going to have spend money to find a lundrey detergent that will not make me itch on the other hand I know two mlm companies that have good laundry detergent it kind cost a lot but at the same time if you look at cost per use it like a penny for each wash and I never had a problem with the two compines laundry detergent. Who the two mlm compines that sell this kind of laundry detergent?. One both compines are the oldest in the MLM business or know as networking marketing yes the first one is shaklee and the other is Amway both compines laundery detergent are all natural and I did use both before . When did I use it. one when I was a amway IBO. I am kind of now a shaklee IBO.but not rally doing it at this time been to busy working on food cart . now back to laundery detergent I got to think and see what my budget tell me then I get the laundry detergent I need. if I do not do the mlm stuff then it will be one of the name brands I try and hope it will not make me itch. I just have to find out what kind to buy or should I go to health store to see what they have? OK that it for now

Important tips to look after your teeth
May 21, 2017
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healthy-teeth

Healthy teeth are very important because we chew food with our teeth to make it easily digestible. To make teeth healthy some important practices needs to be performed.

Following are some of the main tips you must concentrate on to make your teeth healthy.

Brushing in the morning and after eating: You should brush your teeth every morning before the breakfast. You also need to brush your teeth after eating to make it clean from the food particles.

USA, New Jersey, Jersey City, Close-up of woman brushing teeth

Taking care of tooth brush: Clean well the tooth brush after brushing. When you wash your brush, keep it in the upward position and close its head to avoid it from dryness. If your brush is not effective then change it and start brushing with a new brush.

Flossing: To remove the food particles which cannot be removed by brushing, flossing is must.  You must floss your teeth once a day regularly.

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Stop the use of tobacco: The use of tobacco causes oral cancer and periodontal complications. To avoid such type of serious problems and to have healthy teeth you must stop the use of those things like cigarite which contains tobacco.

smoking-effects_18

Consume calcium and vitamins: For healthy teeth you need calcium and vitamin D. You should drink milk which is the main source of calcium. You can also eat cheese, yogurt, broccoli and other dairy products. Vitamin B complex is necessary for the protection of gums and teeth from bleeding and cracking.

Calcium

Clean your tongue: A lot number of bacteria will have a chance to live on the top rough surface of the tongue if you do not clean it every day. It causes bad breath which has a negative effect on dental health. You should clean your tongue with the use of a professional tongue cleaner to remove all of the bacteria from it.

how-to-clean-your-tongue-with-a-toothbrush

Visit the dentist: Continues checking of teeth is required by dentist two or three times in a year. Teeth should be examined with taking x-rays to detect and prevent any unwanted teeth disease.

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Have you heard about evolutionary medicine ????
May 20, 2017
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Evolutionary medicine or Darwinian medicine is the application of modern evolutionary theory to understanding health and disease. Modern medical research and practice have focused on the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying health and disease, while evolutionary medicine focuses on the question of why evolution has shaped these mechanisms in ways that may leave us susceptible to disease. The evolutionary approach has driven important advances in our understanding of cancer,[1] autoimmune disease,[2] and anatomy.[3] Medical schools have been slower to integrate evolutionary approaches because of limitations on what can be added to existing medical curricula.[4]
Adaptation works within constraints, makes compromises and trade-offs, and occurs in the context of different forms of competition.[5]

Constraints Edit
Adaptations can only occur if they are evolvable. Some adaptations which would prevent ill health are therefore not possible.

DNA cannot be totally prevented from undergoing somatic replication corruption; this has meant that cancer, which is caused by somatic mutations, has not (so far) been completely eliminated by natural selection.
Humans cannot biosynthesize vitamin C, and so risk scurvy, vitamin C deficiency disease, if dietary intake of the vitamin is insufficient.
Retinal neurons and their axon output have evolved to be inside the layer of retinal pigment cells. This creates a constraint on the evolution of the visual system such that the optic nerve is forced to exit the retina through a point called the optic disc. This, in turn, creates a blind spot. More importantly, it makes vision vulnerable to increased pressure within the eye (glaucoma) since this cups and damages the optic nerve at this point, resulting in impaired vision.
Other constraints occur as the byproduct of adaptive innovations.

Trade-offs and conflicts Edit
One constraint upon selection is that different adaptations can conflict, which requires a compromise between them to ensure an optimal cost-benefit tradeoff.

Running efficiency in women, and birth canal size[6]
Encephalization, and gut size[7]
Skin pigmentation protection from UV, and the skin synthesis of vitamin D
Speech and its use of a descended larynx, and increased risk of choking[8]
Competition effects Edit
Different forms of competition exist and these can shape the processes of genetic change.

mate choice and disease susceptibility[9]
genomic conflict between mother and fetus that results in pre-eclampsia[
Humans evolved to live as simple hunter-gatherers in small tribal bands, a very different way of life and environment compared to that faced by contemporary humans.[12][13] This change makes present humans vulnerable to a number of health problems, termed “diseases of civilization” and “diseases of affluence”. Humans evolved to live off of the land, and take advantage of the resources that were readily available to them. They evolved for the stone-age, and the environments of today bring about many disease causing ailments, that may or may not be deadly. “Modern environments may cause many diseases such as deficiency syndromes like scurvy and rickets” (Williams, 1991[14])

Diet Edit
In contrast to the diet of early hunter-gatherers, the modern Western diet often contains high quantities of fat, salt, and simple carbohydrates, which include refined sugars and flours. These create health problems.[15][16][17]

Trans fat health risks
Dental caries
High GI foods
Modern diet based on “common wisdom” regarding diets in the paleolithic era
Life expectancy Edit
Main article: Aging-associated diseases
Examples of aging-associated diseases are atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, cataracts, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and Alzheimer’s disease. The incidence of all of these diseases increases rapidly with aging (increases exponentially with age, in the case of cancer).
Of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds—100,000 per day—die of age-related causes.[18] In industrialized nations, the proportion is much higher, reaching 90%.[18]

Exercise Edit
Many contemporary humans engage in little physical exercise compared to the physically active lifestyles ancestral hunter-gatherers.[19][20][21][22][23] It has been proposed that since prolonged periods of inactivity would have only occurred in early humans following illness or injury that it provides a cue for the body to engage in life-preserving metabolic and stress related responses such as inflammation that are now the cause of many chronic diseases.[24]

Cleanliness Edit
See also: Autoimmune disease, Allergy § Hygiene hypothesis, Hygiene hypothesis, and Helminthic therapy
Contemporary humans – due to medical treatment, frequent washing of clothing and the body, and improved sanitation – are mostly free of parasites, particularly intestinal ones. This causes problems in the proper development of the immune system although hygiene can be very important when it comes to maintaining good health. The hygiene hypothesis says that many modern humans are not exposed to microorganisms that have evolved in establishing the immune system as they should be. “Microorganisms and macroorganisms such as helminths from mud, animals, and feces play a critical role in driving immunoregulation” (Rook, 2012[25]). They play a crucial role in building and training immune functions to fight off and repel some diseases, and protect against excessive inflammation which has been implicated in several diseases (such as recent evidence for Alzheimer’s Disease).[26]
As noted in the table below, adaptationist hypotheses regarding the etiology of psychological disorders are often based on analogies with evolutionary perspectives on medicine and physiological dysfunctions (see in particular, Randy Nesse and George C. Williams’ book Why We Get Sick).[65] Evolutionary psychiatrists and psychologists suggest that some mental disorders likely have multiple causes.[66]
Charles Darwin did not discuss the implications of his work for medicine, though biologists quickly appreciated the germ theory of disease and its implications for understanding the evolution of pathogens, as well as an organism’s need to defend against them.

Medicine, in turn, ignored evolution, and instead focused (as done in the hard sciences) upon proximate mechanical causes.

medicine has modelled itself after a mechanical physics, deriving from Galileo, Newton, and Descartes…. As a result of assuming this model, medicine is mechanistic, materialistic, reductionistic, linear-causal, and deterministic (capable of precise predictions) in its concepts. It seeks explanations for diseases, or their symptoms, signs, and cause in single, materialistic— i.e., anatomical or structural (e.g., in genes and their products)— changes within the body, wrought directly (linearly), for example, by infectious, toxic, or traumatic agents.[77] p. 510

George C. Williams was the first to apply evolutionary theory to health in the context of senescence.[31] Also in the 1950s, John Bowlby approached the problem of disturbed child development from an evolutionary perspective upon attachment.

An important theoretical development was Nikolaas Tinbergen’s distinction made originally in ethology between evolutionary and proximate mechanisms.[78]

Randolph M. Nesse summarizes its relevance to medicine:

all biological traits need two kinds of explanation, both proximate and evolutionary. The proximate explanation for a disease describes what is wrong in the bodily mechanism of individuals affected by it. An evolutionary explanation is completely different. Instead of explaining why people are different, it explains why we are all the same in ways that leave us vulnerable to disease. Why do we all have wisdom teeth, an appendix, and cells that can divide out of control?[79]
The paper of Paul Ewald in 1980, “Evolutionary Biology and the Treatment of Signs and Symptoms of Infectious Disease”,[80] and that of Williams and Nesse in 1991, “The Dawn of Darwinian Medicine”[81] were key developments. The latter paper “draw a favorable reception”,[42]page x and led to a book, Why We Get Sick (published as Evolution and healing in the UK). In 2008, an online journal started: Evolution and Medicine Review.

Current activity in the field Edit
Evolutionary medicine as a field began in the early 1990s, but has grown dramatically in recent years. These developments include the creation of the online publication, The Evolution & Medicine Review, which has served as a clearinghouse for important information in the field, two peer-reviewed journals (Evolution, Medicine and Public Health and Journal of Evolutionary Medicine), the founding of two evolution and cancer centers (The Center for Evolution and Cancer at UCSF and The Darwinian Evolution of Cancer Consortium in Montpellier) and The Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics at Penn State. There is now a national working group on evolutionary medicine education at the NSF sponsored National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, Infusing Medical Education with Evolutionary Thinking. Evolutionary Medicine programs have been established at a growing number of Universities, including UCLA, Arizona State University and Durham University in the UK.

Disease behavior and some things
May 20, 2017
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Sickness behavior is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioral changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection.[1] They usually (but not necessarily)[2] accompany fever and aid survival. Such illness responses include lethargy, depression, anxiety, malaise, loss of appetite,[3][4] sleepiness,[5] hyperalgesia,[6] reduction in grooming[1][7] and failure to concentrate.[8] Sickness behavior is a motivational state that reorganizes the organism’s priorities to cope with infectious pathogens.[8][9] It has been suggested as relevant to understanding depression,[10] and some aspects of the suffering that occurs in cancer.
Sick animals have long been recognized by farmers as having different behavior. Initially it was thought that this was due to physical weakness that resulted from diverting energy to the body processes needed to fight infection. However, in the 1960s, it was shown that animals produced a blood-carried ‘‘factor X’’ that acted upon the brain to cause sickness behavior.[11][12] In 1987, Benjamin L. Hart brought together a variety of research findings that argued for them being survival adaptations that if prevented would disadvantage an animal’s ability to fight infection. In the 1980s, the blood-borne factor was shown to be proinflammatory cytokines produced by activated leukocytes in the immune system in response to lipopolysaccharides (a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria). These cytokines acted by various humoral and nerve routes upon the hypothalamus and other areas of the brain. Further research showed that the brain can also learn to control the various components of sickness behavior independently of immune activation.[citation needed].

In 2015, Shakhar and Shakhar [13] suggested instead that sickness behavior developed primarily because it protected the kin of infected animals from transmissible diseases. According to this theory, termed the Eyam hypothesis, after the English Parish of Eyam, sickness behavior protects the social group of infected individuals by limiting their direct contacts, preventing them from contaminating the environment, and broadcasting their health status. Kin selection would help promote such behaviors through evolution.
General advantage Edit
Sickness behavior in its different aspects causes an animal to limit its movement; the metabolic energy not expended in activity is diverted to the fever responses, which involves raising body temperature.[1] This also limits an animal’s exposure to predators while it is cognitively and physically impaired.[1]

Specific advantages Edit
The individual components of sickness behavior have specific individual advantages. Anorexia limits food ingestion and therefore reduces the availability of iron in the gut (and from gut absorption). Iron may aid bacterial reproduction, so its reduction is useful during sickness.[14] Plasma concentrations of iron are lowered for this anti-bacterial reason in fever.[15] Lowered threshold for pain ensures that an animal is attentive that it does not place pressure on injured and inflamed tissues that might disrupt their healing.[1] Reduced grooming is adaptive since it reduces water loss.[1]

Inclusive fitness advantages Edit
According to the ‘Eyam hypothesis’,[13] sickness behavior, by promoting immobility and social disinterest, limits the direct contacts of individuals with their relatives. By reducing eating and drinking, it limits diarrhea and defecation, reducing environmental contamination. By reducing self-grooming and changing stance, gait and vocalization, it also signals poor health to kin. All in all, sickness behavior reduces the rate of further infection, a trait that is likely propagated by kin selection.
Lipopolysaccharides trigger the immune system to produce proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).[16] These peripherally released cytokines act on the brain via a fast transmission pathway involving primary input through the vagus nerves,[17][18] and a slow transmission pathway involving cytokines originating from the choroid plexus and circumventricular organs and diffusing into the brain parenchyma by volume transmission.[19] Peripheral cytokines may enter the brain directly.[20][21] They may also induce the expression of other cytokines in the brain that cause sickness behavior.[22][23] Acute psychosocial stress enhances the ability of an immune response to trigger both inflammation and behavioral sickness.[24]
The components of sickness behavior can be learned by conditional association. For example, if a saccharin solution is given with a chemical that triggers a particular aspect of sickness behavior, on later occasions the saccharin solution will trigger it by itself.
Depression Edit
It has been proposed that major depressive disorder is near-identical with sickness behavior, so raising the possibility that it is a maladaptive manifestation of sickness behavior due to abnormalities in circulating cytokines.[27][28][29][30] Moreover, chronic, but not acute treatment with antidepressant drugs was found to attenuate sickness behavior symptoms in rodents.[31] The mood effects caused by interleukin-6 following an immune response have been linked to increased activity within the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex,[32] an area involved in the etiology of depression.[33] Inflammation-associated mood change can also produce a reduction in the functional connectivity of this part of the brain to the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and superior temporal sulcus.[32]

Cancer side effect
In cancer, both the disease and the chemotherapy treatment can cause proinflammatory cytokine release which can cause sickness behavior as a side effect.

Health prevention,treatment, epidemiology, society and culture …
May 20, 2017
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Many diseases and disorders can be prevented through a variety of means. These include sanitation, proper nutrition, adequate exercise, vaccinations and other self-care and public health measures.
Medical therapies or treatments are efforts to cure or improve a disease or other health problem. In the medical field, therapy is synonymous with the word treatment. Among psychologists, the term may refer specifically to psychotherapy or “talk therapy”. Common treatments include medications, surgery, medical devices, and self-care. Treatments may be provided by an organized health care system, or informally, by the patient or family members.

Preventive healthcare is a way to avoid an injury, sickness, or disease in the first place. A treatment or cure is applied after a medical problem has already started. A treatment attempts to improve or remove a problem, but treatments may not produce permanent cures, especially in chronic diseases. Cures are a subset of treatments that reverse diseases completely or end medical problems permanently. Many diseases that cannot be completely cured are still treatable. Pain management (also called pain medicine) is that branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach to the relief of pain and improvement in the quality of life of those living with pain.[22]

Treatment for medical emergencies must be provided promptly, often through an emergency department or, in less critical situations, through an urgent care facility.
Epidemiology is the study of the factors that cause or encourage diseases. Some diseases are more common in certain geographic areas, among people with certain genetic or socioeconomic characteristics, or at different times of the year.

Epidemiology is considered a cornerstone methodology of public health research, and is highly regarded in evidence-based medicine for identifying risk factors for disease. In the study of communicable and non-communicable diseases, the work of epidemiologists ranges from outbreak investigation to study design, data collection and analysis including the development of statistical models to test hypotheses and the documentation of results for submission to peer-reviewed journals. Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population, a condition known as a syndemic. Epidemiologists rely on a number of other scientific disciplines such as biology (to better understand disease processes), biostatistics (the current raw information available), Geographic Information Science (to store data and map disease patterns) and social science disciplines (to better understand proximate and distal risk factors). Epidemiology can help identify causes as well as guide prevention efforts.

In studying diseases, epidemiology faces the challenge of defining them. Especially for poorly understood diseases, different groups might use significantly different definitions. Without an agreed-on definition, different researchers may report different numbers of cases and characteristics of the disease.[23]

Some morbidity databases are compiled with data supplied by states and territories health authorities, at national level (National hospital morbidity database (NHMD), for example[24][25]), or at European scale (European Hospital Morbidity Database or HMDB[26]) but not yet at world scale.

Burdens of disease Edit
Disease burden is the impact of a health problem in an area measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.

There are several measures used to quantify the burden imposed by diseases on people. The years of potential life lost (YPLL) is a simple estimate of the number of years that a person’s life was shortened due to a disease. For example, if a person dies at the age of 65 from a disease, and would probably have lived until age 80 without that disease, then that disease has caused a loss of 15 years of potential life. YPLL measurements do not account for how disabled a person is before dying, so the measurement treats a person who dies suddenly and a person who died at the same age after decades of illness as equivalent. In 2004, the World Health Organization calculated that 932 million years of potential life were lost to premature death.[27]

The quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metrics are similar, but take into account whether the person was healthy after diagnosis. In addition to the number of years lost due to premature death, these measurements add part of the years lost to being sick. Unlike YPLL, these measurements show the burden imposed on people who are very sick, but who live a normal lifespan. A disease that has high morbidity, but low mortality, has a high DALY and a low YPLL. In 2004, the World Health Organization calculated that 1.5 billion disability-adjusted life years were lost to disease and injury.[27] In the developed world, heart disease and stroke cause the most loss of life, but neuropsychiatric conditions like major depressive disorder cause the most years lost to being sick.
How a society responds to diseases is the subject of medical sociology.

A condition may be considered a disease in some cultures or eras but not in others. For example, obesity can represent wealth and abundance, and is a status symbol in famine-prone areas and some places hard-hit by HIV/AIDS.[29] Epilepsy is considered a sign of spiritual gifts among the Hmong people.[30]

Sickness confers the social legitimization of certain benefits, such as illness benefits, work avoidance, and being looked after by others. The person who is sick takes on a social role called the sick role. A person who responds to a dreaded disease, such as cancer, in a culturally acceptable fashion may be publicly and privately honored with higher social status.[31] In return for these benefits, the sick person is obligated to seek treatment and work to become well once more. As a comparison, consider pregnancy, which is not interpreted as a disease or sickness, even if the mother and baby may both benefit from medical care.

Most religions grant exceptions from religious duties to people who are sick. For example, one whose life would be endangered by fasting on Yom Kippur or during Ramadan is exempted from the requirement, or even forbidden from participating. People who are sick are also exempted from social duties. For example, ill health is the only socially acceptable reason for an American to refuse an invitation to the White House.[32]

The identification of a condition as a disease, rather than as simply a variation of human structure or function, can have significant social or economic implications. The controversial recognitions as diseases of repetitive stress injury (RSI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (also known as “Soldier’s heart”, “shell shock”, and “combat fatigue”) has had a number of positive and negative effects on the financial and other responsibilities of governments, corporations and institutions towards individuals, as well as on the individuals themselves. The social implication of viewing aging as a disease could be profound, though this classification is not yet widespread.

Lepers were people who were historically shunned because they had an infectious disease, and the term “leper” still evokes social stigma. Fear of disease can still be a widespread social phenomenon, though not all diseases evoke extreme social stigma.

Social standing and economic status affect health. Diseases of poverty are diseases that are associated with poverty and low social status; diseases of affluence are diseases that are associated with high social and economic status. Which diseases are associated with which states varies according to time, place, and technology. Some diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be associated with both poverty (poor food choices) and affluence (long lifespans and sedentary lifestyles), through different mechanisms. The term lifestyle diseases describes diseases associated with longevity and that are more common among older people. For example, cancer is far more common in societies in which most members live until they reach the age of 80 than in societies in which most members die before they reach the age of 50.

Language of disease
An illness narrative is a way of organizing a medical experience into a coherent story that illustrates the sick individual’s personal experience.

People use metaphors to make sense of their experiences with disease. The metaphors move disease from an objective thing that exists to an affective experience. The most popular metaphors draw on military concepts: Disease is an enemy that must be feared, fought, battled, and routed. The patient or the healthcare provider is a warrior, rather than a passive victim or bystander. The agents of communicable diseases are invaders; non-communicable diseases constitute internal insurrection or civil war. Because the threat is urgent, perhaps a matter of life and death, unthinkably radical, even oppressive, measures are society’s and the patient’s moral duty as they courageously mobilize to struggle against destruction. The War on Cancer is an example of this metaphorical use of language.[33] This language is empowering to some patients, but leaves others feeling like they are failures.[34]

Another class of metaphors describes the experience of illness as a journey: The person travels to or from a place of disease, and changes himself, discovers new information, or increases his experience along the way. He may travel “on the road to recovery” or make changes to “get on the right track” or choose “pathways”.[33][34] Some are explicitly immigration-themed: the patient has been exiled from the home territory of health to the land of the ill, changing identity and relationships in the process.[35] This language is more common among British healthcare professionals than the language of physical aggression.[34]

Some metaphors are disease-specific. Slavery is a common metaphor for addictions: The alcoholic is enslaved by drink, and the smoker is captive to nicotine. Some cancer patients treat the loss of their hair from chemotherapy as a metonymy or metaphor for all the losses caused by the disease.[33]

Some diseases are used as metaphors for social ills: “Cancer” is a common description for anything that is endemic and destructive in society, such as poverty, injustice, or racism. AIDS was seen as a divine judgment for moral decadence, and only by purging itself from the “pollution” of the “invader” could society become healthy again.[33] More recently, when AIDS seemed less threatening, this type of emotive language was applied to avian flu and type 2 diabetes mellitus.[36] Authors in the 19th century commonly used tuberculosis as a symbol and a metaphor for transcendence. Victims of the disease were portrayed in literature as having risen above daily life to become ephemeral objects of spiritual or artistic achievement. In the 20th century, after its cause was better understood, the same disease became the emblem of poverty, squalor, and other social problems.[35]

What more do know about Disease ????
May 20, 2017
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giphy(4)

A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism. The study of disease is called pathology which includes the study of cause. Disease is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs.[1] It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions particularly of the immune system such as an immunodeficiency, or a hypersensitivity including allergies and autoimmunity.

When caused by pathogens (i.e. Plasmodium ssp. in malaria), even in the scientific literature, the term disease is often misleadingly used in the place of its causal agent, viz. the pathogen. This language habitat can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged.[2]

In humans, disease is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories. Diseases can affect people not only physically, but also emotionally, as contracting and living with a disease can alter the affected person’s perspective on life.[citation needed]

Death due to disease is called death by natural causes. There are four main types of disease: infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, genetic diseases (both hereditary and non-hereditary), and physiological diseases. Diseases can also be classified as communicable and non-communicable. The deadliest diseases in humans are coronary artery disease (blood flow obstruction), followed by cerebrovascular disease and lower respiratory infections.
A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism. The study of disease is called pathology which includes the study of cause. Disease is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs.[1] It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions particularly of the immune system such as an immunodeficiency, or a hypersensitivity including allergies and autoimmunity.

When caused by pathogens (i.e. Plasmodium ssp. in malaria), even in the scientific literature, the term disease is often misleadingly used in the place of its causal agent, viz. the pathogen. This language habitat can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged.[2]

In humans, disease is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories. Diseases can affect people not only physically, but also emotionally, as contracting and living with a disease can alter the affected person’s perspective on life.[citation needed]

Death due to disease is called death by natural causes. There are four main types of disease: infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, genetic diseases (both hereditary and non-hereditary), and physiological diseases. Diseases can also be classified as communicable and non-communicable. The deadliest diseases in humans are coronary artery disease (blood flow obstruction), followed by cerebrovascular disease and lower respiratory infections.
A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism. The study of disease is called pathology which includes the study of cause. Disease is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs.[1] It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions particularly of the immune system such as an immunodeficiency, or a hypersensitivity including allergies and autoimmunity.

When caused by pathogens (i.e. Plasmodium ssp. in malaria), even in the scientific literature, the term disease is often misleadingly used in the place of its causal agent, viz. the pathogen. This language habitat can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged.[2]

In humans, disease is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories. Diseases can affect people not only physically, but also emotionally, as contracting and living with a disease can alter the affected person’s perspective on life.[citation needed]

Death due to disease is called death by natural causes. There are four main types of disease: infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, genetic diseases (both hereditary and non-hereditary), and physiological diseases. Diseases can also be classified as communicable and non-communicable. The deadliest diseases in humans are coronary artery disease (blood flow obstruction), followed by cerebrovascular disease and lower respiratory infections.
Concepts Edit
In many cases, terms such as disease, disorder, morbidity and illness are used interchangeably.[4] There are situations, however, when specific terms are considered preferable.

Disease
The term disease broadly refers to any condition that impairs the normal functioning of the body. For this reason, diseases are associated with dysfunctioning of the body’s normal homeostatic processes.[5] The term disease has both a count sense (a disease, two diseases, many diseases) and a noncount sense (not much disease, less disease, a lot of disease). Commonly, the term is used to refer specifically to infectious diseases, which are clinically evident diseases that result from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular organisms, and aberrant proteins known as prions. An infection that does not and will not produce clinically evident impairment of normal functioning, such as the presence of the normal bacteria and yeasts in the gut, or of a passenger virus, is not considered a disease. By contrast, an infection that is asymptomatic during its incubation period, but expected to produce symptoms later, is usually considered a disease. Non-infectious diseases are all other diseases, including most forms of cancer[citation needed], heart disease, and genetic disease.
Acquired disease
disease that began at some point during one’s lifetime, as opposed to disease that was already present at birth, which is congenital disease. “Acquired” sounds like it could mean “caught via contagion”, but it simply means acquired sometime after birth. It also sounds like it could imply secondary disease, but acquired disease can be primary disease.
Acute disease
disease of a short-term nature (acute); the term sometimes also connotes a fulminant nature
Chronic disease
disease that is a long-term issue (chronic)
Congenital disease
disease that is present at birth. It is often, genetic and can be inherited. It can also be the result of a vertically transmitted infection from the mother such as HIV/AIDS.
Genetic disease
disease that is caused by genetic mutation. It is often inherited, but some mutations are random and de novo.
Hereditary or inherited disease
a type of genetic disease caused by mutation that is hereditary (and can run in families)
Iatrogenic disease
A disease condition caused by medical intervention.
Idiopathic disease
disease whose cause is unknown. As medical science has advanced, many diseases whose causes were formerly complete mysteries have been somewhat explained (for example, when it was realized that autoimmunity is the cause of some forms of diabetes mellitus type 1, even if we do not yet understand every molecular detail involved) or even extensively explained (for example, when it was realized that gastric ulcers are often associated with Helicobacter pylori infection).
Incurable disease
disease that cannot be cured
Primary disease
disease that came about as a root cause of illness, as opposed to secondary disease, which is a sequela of another disease
Secondary disease
disease that is a sequela or complication of some other disease or underlying cause (root cause). Bacterial infections can be either primary (healthy but then bacteria arrived) or secondary to a viral infection or burn, which predisposed by creating an open wound or weakened immunity (bacteria would not have gotten established otherwise).
Terminal disease
disease with death as an inevitable result.
Illness
Illness is generally used as a synonym for disease.[6] However, this term is occasionally used to refer specifically to the patient’s personal experience of his or her disease.[7][8] In this model, it is possible for a person to have a disease without being ill (to have an objectively definable, but asymptomatic, medical condition, such as a subclinical infection), and to be ill without being diseased (such as when a person perceives a normal experience as a medical condition, or medicalizes a non-disease situation in his or her life – for example, a person who feels unwell as a result of embarrassment, and who interprets those feelings as sickness rather than normal emotions). Symptoms of illness are often not directly the result of infection, but a collection of evolved responses—sickness behavior by the body—that helps clear infection. Such aspects of illness can include lethargy, depression, loss of appetite, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and inability to concentrate.[9][10][11]
Disorder
In medicine, a disorder is a functional abnormality or disturbance. Medical disorders can be categorized into mental disorders, physical disorders, genetic disorders, emotional and behavioral disorders, and functional disorders. The term disorder is often considered more value-neutral and less stigmatizing than the terms disease or illness, and therefore is a preferred terminology in some circumstances.[12] In mental health, the term mental disorder is used as a way of acknowledging the complex interaction of biological, social, and psychological factors in psychiatric conditions. However, the term disorder is also used in many other areas of medicine, primarily to identify physical disorders that are not caused by infectious organisms, such as metabolic disorders.
Medical condition
A medical condition is a broad term that includes all diseases, lesions, disorders, or nonpathologic condition that normally receives medical treatment, such as pregnancy or childbirth. While the term medical condition generally includes mental illnesses, in some contexts the term is used specifically to denote any illness, injury, or disease except for mental illnesses. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the widely used psychiatric manual that defines all mental disorders, uses the term general medical condition to refer to all diseases, illnesses, and injuries except for mental disorders.[13] This usage is also commonly seen in the psychiatric literature. Some health insurance policies also define a medical condition as any illness, injury, or disease except for psychiatric illnesses.[14]
As it is more value-neutral than terms like disease, the term medical condition is sometimes preferred by people with health issues that they do not consider deleterious. On the other hand, by emphasizing the medical nature of the condition, this term is sometimes rejected, such as by proponents of the autism rights movement.
The term medical condition is also a synonym for medical state, in which case it describes an individual patient’s current state from a medical standpoint. This usage appears in statements that describe a patient as being in critical condition, for example.
Morbidity
Morbidity (from Latin morbidus, meaning ‘sick, unhealthy’) is a diseased state, disability, or poor health due to any cause.[15] The term may be used to refer to the existence of any form of disease, or to the degree that the health condition affects the patient. Among severely ill patients, the level of morbidity is often measured by ICU scoring systems. Comorbidity is the simultaneous presence of two or more medical conditions, such as schizophrenia and substance abuse.
In epidemiology and actuarial science, the term “morbidity rate” can refer to either the incidence rate, or the prevalence of a disease or medical condition. This measure of sickness is contrasted with the mortality rate of a condition, which is the proportion of people dying during a given time interval. Morbidity rates are used in actuarial professions, such as health insurance, life insurance and long-term care insurance, to determine the correct premiums to charge to customers. Morbidity rates help insurers predict the likelihood that an insured will contract or develop any number of specified diseases.
Pathosis or pathology
Pathosis (plural pathoses) is synonymous with disease. The word pathology also has this sense, in which it is commonly used by physicians in the medical literature, although some editors prefer to reserve pathology to its other senses. Sometimes a slight connotative shade causes preference for pathology or pathosis implying “some [as yet poorly analyzed] pathophysiologic process” rather than disease implying “a specific disease entity as defined by diagnostic criteria being already met”. This is hard to quantify denotatively, but it explains why cognitive synonymy is not invariable.
Syndrome
A syndrome is the association of several medical signs, symptoms, or other characteristics that often occur together. Some syndromes, such as Down syndrome, have only one cause; for these, the names “syndrome” and “disease” can be synonymous. For example, Charcot–Marie–Tooth syndrome is also called Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease. Others, such as Parkinsonian syndrome, have multiple possible causes. For example, acute coronary syndrome is not a disease but rather the manifestation of any of several diseases, such as myocardial infarction secondary to coronary artery disease. In yet other syndromes, the cause is unknown. A familiar syndrome name often remains in use even after an underlying cause has been found, or when there are a number of different possible primary causes.
Predisease
Predisease is a subclinical or prodromal vanguard of a disease state. Prediabetes and prehypertension are common examples. The nosology or epistemology of predisease is contentious, though, because there is seldom a bright line differentiating a legitimate concern for subclinical/prodromal/premonitory status (on one hand) and conflict of interest–driven disease mongering or medicalization (on the other hand). Identifying legitimate predisease can result in useful preventive measures, such as motivating the person to get a healthy amount of physical exercise,[16] but labeling a healthy person with an unfounded notion of predisease can result in overtreatment, such as taking drugs that only help people with severe disease or paying for drug prescription instances whose benefit–cost ratio is minuscule (placing it in the waste category of CMS’ “waste, fraud, and abuse” classification).
Types by body system Edit
Mental
Mental illness is a broad, generic label for a category of illnesses that may include affective or emotional instability, behavioral dysregulation, cognitive dysfunction or impairment. Specific illnesses known as mental illnesses include major depression, generalized anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, to name a few. Mental illness can be of biological (e.g., anatomical, chemical, or genetic) or psychological (e.g., trauma or conflict) origin. It can impair the affected person’s ability to work or study and can harm interpersonal relationships. The term insanity is used technically as a legal term.
Organic
An organic disease is one caused by a physical or physiological change to some tissue or organ of the body. The term sometimes excludes infections. It is commonly used in contrast with mental disorders. It includes emotional and behavioral disorders if they are due to changes to the physical structures or functioning of the body, such as after a stroke or a traumatic brain injury, but not if they are due to psychosocial issues.
In an infectious disease, the incubation period is the time between infection and the appearance of symptoms. The latency period is the time between infection and the ability of the disease to spread to another person, which may precede, follow, or be simultaneous with the appearance of symptoms. Some viruses also exhibit a dormant phase, called viral latency, in which the virus hides in the body in an inactive state. For example, varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in the acute phase; after recovery from chickenpox, the virus may remain dormant in nerve cells for many years, and later cause herpes zoster (shingles).

Acute disease
An acute disease is a short-lived disease, like the common cold.
Chronic disease
A chronic disease is one that lasts for a long time, usually at least six months. During that time, it may be constantly present, or it may go into remission and periodically relapse. A chronic disease may be stable (does not get any worse) or it may be progressive (gets worse over time). Some chronic diseases can be permanently cured. Most chronic diseases can be beneficially treated, even if they cannot be permanently cured.
Flare-up
A flare-up can refer to either the recurrence of symptoms or an onset of more severe symptoms.
Refractory disease
A refractory disease is a disease that resists treatment, especially an individual case that resists treatment more than is normal for the specific disease in question.
Progressive disease
Progressive disease is a disease whose typical natural course is the worsening of the disease until death, serious debility, or organ failure occurs. Slowly progressive diseases are also chronic diseases; many are also degenerative diseases. The opposite of progressive disease is stable disease or static disease: a medical condition that exists, but does not get better or worse.
Cure
A cure is the end of a medical condition or a treatment that is very likely to end it, while remission refers to the disappearance, possibly temporarily, of symptoms. Complete remission is the best possible outcome for incurable diseases.
Clinical disease
One that has clinical consequences, i.e., the stage of the disease that produces the characteristic signs and symptoms of that disease.[17] AIDS is the clinical disease stage of HIV infection.
Subclinical disease
Also called silent disease, silent stage, or asymptomatic disease. This is a stage in some diseases before the symptoms are first noted.[18]
Terminal phase
If a person will die soon from a disease, regardless of whether that disease typically causes death, then the stage between the earlier disease process and active dying is the terminal phase.
Extent
Localized disease
A localized disease is one that affects only one part of the body, such as athlete’s foot or an eye infection.
Disseminated disease
A disseminated disease has spread to other parts; with cancer, this is usually called metastatic disease.
Systemic disease
A systemic disease is a disease that affects the entire body, such as influenza or high blood pressure.
Diseases may be classified by cause, pathogenesis (mechanism by which the disease is caused), or by symptom(s). Alternatively, diseases may be classified according to the organ system involved, though this is often complicated since many diseases affect more than one organ.

A chief difficulty in nosology is that diseases often cannot be defined and classified clearly, especially when cause or pathogenesis are unknown. Thus diagnostic terms often only reflect a symptom or set of symptoms (syndrome).

Classical classification of human disease derives from observational correlation between pathological analysis and clinical syndromes. Today it is preferred to classify them by their cause if it is known.[19]

The most known and used classification of diseases is the World Health Organization’s ICD. This is periodically updated. Currently the last publication is the ICD-10.
Only some diseases such as influenza are contagious and commonly believed infectious. The micro-organisms that cause these diseases are known as pathogens and include varieties of bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi. Infectious diseases can be transmitted, e.g. by hand-to-mouth contact with infectious material on surfaces, by bites of insects or other carriers of the disease, and from contaminated water or food (often via fecal contamination), etc.[20] In addition, there are sexually transmitted diseases. In some cases, microorganisms that are not readily spread from person to person play a role, while other diseases can be prevented or ameliorated with appropriate nutrition or other lifestyle changes.

Some diseases, such as most (but not all) forms of cancer, heart disease, and mental disorders, are non-infectious diseases. Many non-infectious diseases have a partly or completely genetic basis (see genetic disorder) and may thus be transmitted from one generation to another.

Social determinants of health are the social conditions in which people live that determine their health. Illnesses are generally related to social, economic, political, and environmental circumstances. Social determinants of health have been recognized by several health organizations such as the Public Health Agency of Canada and the World Health Organization to greatly influence collective and personal well-being. The World Health Organization’s Social Determinants Council also recognizes Social determinants of health in poverty.

When the cause of a disease is poorly understood, societies tend to mythologize the disease or use it as a metaphor or symbol of whatever that culture considers evil. For example, until the bacterial cause of tuberculosis was discovered in 1882, experts variously ascribed the disease to heredity, a sedentary lifestyle, depressed mood, and overindulgence in sex, rich food, or alcohol—all the social ills of the time.[21]

Types of causes Edit
Airborne
An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens and transmitted through the air.
Infectious
Infectious diseases, also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases, comprise clinically evident illness (i.e., characteristic medical signs or symptoms of disease) resulting from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism. Included in this category are contagious diseases – an infection, such as influenza or the common cold, that commonly spreads from one person to another – and communicable diseases – an disease that can spread from one person to another, but does not necessarily spread through everyday contact.
Non-communicable
A non-communicable disease is a medical condition or disease that is non-transmissible. Non-communicable diseases cannot be spread directly from one person to another. Heart disease and cancer are examples of non-communicable diseases in humans.
Foodborne
Foodborne illness or food poisoning is any illness resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites.
Lifestyle
A lifestyle disease is any disease that appears to increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer, especially if the risk factors include behavioral choices like a sedentary lifestyle or a diet high in unhealthful foods such as refined carbohydrates, trans fats, or alcoholic beverages.

No More Smoking In Public Places
May 20, 2017
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smoking

The executive order number 26 which was already signed lately by President Rody Duterte have strengthen in its implementation on anti-smoking after it was move to strictly implemented in every local government units in the country.

photo credits to pixabay

photo credits to pixabay

Under the said order the smoking in public places is totally banned and also selling and consumption of minors.

The local government units are now empowered for the implementation of smoking in the country which means the local executive officer or the mayors will formulate the implementing program of the said executive order.

First, the LGU should identify a place in the city or town where the smokers can smoke cigarettes. This provides the place because it’s prohibited anyone to just lit a cigarette in the public place even in the private place. This smoking is designated as the smoking area. Anyone to violate the law will be penalized accordingly and will be reprimanded. The penalty should also be implemented.

This is the latest effort of the government to eliminate the vice of smoking. There has been effort from the government to anti-smoking. The government has been implementing some rules to lessen the number of cigarette chainsmooker.

There is also the implementation of higher six tax to tobacco products that includes cigarettes. The move greatly affects the tobacco farming in the northern Philippines. Tobacco farming is considered to be the number one cash cropped of the tobacco-producing provinces. Through the excise tax of tobacco called Republic Act 7171, billions of pesos were funded in the infrastructure projects that include farm to market roads, bridges, buildings like town hall and barangay, and then the development programs for livelihood and direct assistance to the farmers.

The strong campaign to anti-smoking greatly reduced the numbers of production of tobacco because the smokers are also decreased. Tobacco is said to be the cause of many diseases that include cancers.

Of course, for the cause of greater cause, anti-smoking must be supported. ###

Health Estate for people to live in
May 20, 2017
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TMPDOODLE1495267972279

Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries. Economic inequality sometimes refers to income inequality, wealth inequality, or the wealth gap. Economists generally focus on economic disparity in three metrics: wealth, income, and consumption.[1] The issue of economic inequality is relevant to notions of equity, equality of outcome, and equality of opportunity.[2]

Economic inequality varies between societies, historical periods, economic structures and systems. The term can refer to cross-sectional distribution of income or wealth at any particular period, or to changes of income and wealth over longer periods of time.[3] There are various numerical indices for measuring economic inequality. A widely used index is the Gini coefficient, but there are also many other methods.

Some studies say economic inequality is a social problem,[4] for example too much inequality can be destructive,[5][6] because it might hinder long term growth.[7][8][9] However, too much income equality is also destructive since it decreases the incentive for productivity and the desire to take-on risks and create wealth.[10][11][12][13]

Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with absolute inequality (where one person has all the income, and everyone else has zero income).
Empirical measurements of inequality Edit

The first set of income distribution statistics for the United States covering the period from (1913–48) was published in 1952 by Simon Kuznets, Shares of Upper Income Groups in Income and Savings. It relied on US federal income tax returns and Kuznets’s own estimates of US national income, National Income: A Summary of Findings (1946).[14] Others who contributed to development of accurate income distribution statistics during the early 20th century were John Whitefield Kendrick in the United States, Arthur Bowley and Colin Clark in the UK, and L. Dugé de Bernonville in France.[15]

Economists generally consider three metrics of economic dispersion: wealth, income, and consumption.[1] A skilled professional may have low wealth and low income as student, low wealth and high earnings in the beginning of the career, and high wealth and low earnings after the career. People’s preferences determine whether they consume earnings immediately or defer consumption to the future. The distinction is also important at the level of economy:

There are economies with high income inequality and relatively low wealth inequality (such as Japan and Italy).[1]
There are economies with relatively low income inequality and high wealth inequality (such as Switzerland and Denmark).[1]
There are different ways to measure income inequality and wealth inequality. Different choices lead to different results. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) provides data on the following eight types of income inequality:
Dispersion of hourly wages among full-time (or full-time equivalent) workers
Wage dispersion among workers – E.g. annual wages, including wages from part-time work or work during only part of the year.
Individual earnings inequality among all workers – Includes the self-employed.
Individual earnings inequality among the entire working-age population – Includes those who are inactive, e.g. students, unemployed, early pensioners, etc.
Household earnings inequality – Includes the earnings of all household members.
Household market income inequality – Includes incomes from capital, savings and private transfers.
Household disposable income inequality – Includes public cash transfers received and direct taxes paid.
Household adjusted disposable income inequality – Includes publicly provided services.
There are many challenges in comparing data between economies, or in a single economy in different years. Examples of challenges include:

Data can be based on joint taxation of couples (e.g. France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Portugal and Switzerland) or individual taxation (e.g. Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, the UK).[16]
The tax authorities generally only collect information on income that is potentially taxable.[16]
The precise definition of gross income varies from country to country. There are differences when it comes to inclusion of pension entitlements and other savings, and benefits such as employer provided health insurance.[16]
Differences when it comes under-declaration of income and/or wealth in tax filings.[16]
A special event like an exit from business may lead to a very high income in one year, but much lower income in other years of the person’s lifetime.[16]
Much income and wealth in non-western countries is obtained or held extra-legally through black market and underground activities such as unregistered businesses, informal property ownership arrangements, etc.[
A 2011 study “Divided we Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising” by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) investigated economic inequality in OECD countries, including the following factors:[18]

Changes in the structure of households can play an important role. Single-headed households in OECD countries have risen from an average of 15% in the late 1980s to 20% in the mid-2000s, resulting in higher inequality.
Assortative mating refers to the phenomenon of people marrying people with similar background, for example doctors marrying doctors rather than nurses. OECD found out that 40% of couples where both partners work belonged to the same or neighbouring earnings deciles compared with 33% some 20 years before.[16]
In the bottom percentiles number of hours worked has decreased.[16]
The main reason for increasing inequality seems to be the difference between the demand for and supply of skills.[16]
Income inequality in OECD countries is at its highest level for the past half century. The ratio between the bottom 10% and the top 10% has increased from 1:7, to 1:9 in 25 years.[16]
There are tentative signs of a possible convergence of inequality levels towards a common and higher average level across OECD countries.[16]
With very few exceptions (France, Japan, and Spain), the wages of the 10% best-paid workers have risen relative to those of the 10% lowest paid.[16]
A 2011 OECD study investigated economic inequality in Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa. It concluded that key sources of inequality in these countries include “a large, persistent informal sector, widespread regional divides (e.g. urban-rural), gaps in access to education, and barriers to employment and career progression for women.”[16]

A study by the World Institute for Development Economics Research at United Nations University reports that the richest 1% of adults alone owned 40% of global assets in the year 2000. The three richest people in the world possess more financial assets than the lowest 48 nations combined.[19] The combined wealth of the “10 million dollar millionaires” grew to nearly $41 trillion in 2008.[20] A January 2014 report by Oxfam claims that the 85 wealthiest individuals in the world have a combined wealth equal to that of the bottom 50% of the world’s population, or about 3.5 billion people.[21][22][23][24][25] According to a Los Angeles Times analysis of the report, the wealthiest 1% owns 46% of the world’s wealth; the 85 richest people, a small part of the wealthiest 1%, own about 0.7% of the human population’s wealth, which is the same as the bottom half of the population.[26] More recently, in January 2015, Oxfam reported that the wealthiest 1 percent will own more than half of the global wealth by 2016.[27][28] An October 2014 study by Credit Suisse also claims that the top 1% now own nearly half of the world’s wealth and that the accelerating disparity could trigger a recession.[29] In October 2015, Credit Suisse published a study which shows global inequality continues to increase, and that half of the world’s wealth is now in the hands of those in the top percentile, whose assets each exceed $759,900.[30] A 2016 report by Oxfam claims that the 62 wealthiest individuals own as much wealth as the poorer half of the global population combined.[31] Oxfam’s claims have however been questioned on the basis of the methodology used: by using net wealth (adding up assets and subtracting debts), the Oxfam report, for instance, finds that there are more poor people in the United States and Western Europe than in China (due to a greater tendency to take on debts).[32][33][34][unreliable source?][35][36][unreliable source?] Anthony Shorrocks, the lead author of the Credit Suisse report which is one of the sources of Oxfam’s data, considers the criticism about debt to be a “silly argument” and “a non-issue . . . a diversion.”[33]
According to PolitiFact the top 400 richest Americans “have more wealth than half of all Americans combined.”[38][39][40][41] According to the New York Times on July 22, 2014, the “richest 1 percent in the United States now own more wealth than the bottom 90 percent”.[25] Inherited wealth may help explain why many Americans who have become rich may have had a “substantial head start”.[42][43] In September 2012, according to the Institute for Policy Studies, “over 60 percent” of the Forbes richest 400 Americans “grew up in substantial privilege”.[44]

The existing data and estimates suggest a large increase in international (and more generally inter-macroregional) component between 1820 and 1960. It might have slightly decreased since that time at the expense of increasing inequality within countries.[45]

The United Nations Development Programme in 2014 asserted that greater investments in social security, jobs and laws that protect vulnerable populations are necessary to prevent widening income inequality….[46]

There is a significant difference in the measured wealth distribution and the public’s understanding of wealth distribution. Michael Norton of the Harvard Business School and Dan Ariely of the Department of Psychology at Duke University found this to be true in their research, done in 2011. The actual wealth going to the top quintile in 2011 was around 84% where as the average amount of wealth that the general public estimated to go to the top quintile was around 58%.[47]

Two researchers claim that global income inequality is decreasing, due to strong economic growth in developing countries.[48] However, the OECD reported in 2015 that income inequality is higher than it has ever been within OECD member nations and is at increased levels in many emerging economies.[49] According to a June 2015 report by the International Monetary Fund:
Widening income inequality is the defining challenge of our time. In advanced economies, the gap between the rich and poor is at its highest level in decades. Inequality trends have been more mixed in emerging markets and developing countries (EMDCs), with some countries experiencing declining inequality, but pervasive inequities in access to education, health care, and finance remain.
Countries with a left-leaning legislature have lower levels of inequality.[240][241] Many factors constrain economic inequality – they may be divided into two classes: government sponsored, and market driven. The relative merits and effectiveness of each approach is a subject of debate.

Typical government initiatives to reduce economic inequality include:

Public education: increasing the supply of skilled labor and reducing income inequality due to education differentials.[242]
Progressive taxation: the rich are taxed proportionally more than the poor, reducing the amount of income inequality in society if the change in taxation does not cause changes in income.[243]
Market forces outside of government intervention that can reduce economic inequality include:

propensity to spend: with rising wealth & income, a person may spend more. In an extreme example, if one person owned everything, they would immediately need to hire people to maintain their properties, thus reducing the wealth concentration.[244]
Research shows that since 1300, the only periods with significant declines in wealth inequality in Europe were the Black Death and the two World Wars.[245] Historian Walter Scheidel posits that, since the stone age, only extreme violence, catastrophes and upheaval in the form of total war, Communist revolution, pestilence and state collapse have significantly reduced inequality.[246][247] He has stated that “only all-out thermonuclear war might fundamentally reset the existing distribution of resources” and that “peaceful policy reform may well prove unequal to the growing challenges ahead.”[
A 2011 OECD study makes a number of suggestions to its member countries, including:[16]

Well-targeted income-support policies.
Facilitate and encourage access to employment.
Better job-related training and education for the low-skilled (on-the-job training) would help to boost their productivity potential and future earnings.
Better access to formal education.
Progressive taxation reduces absolute income inequality when the higher rates on higher-income individuals are paid and not evaded, and transfer payments and social safety nets result in progressive government spending.[229][230][231] Wage ratio legislation has also been proposed as a means of reducing income inequality. The OECD asserts that public spending is vital in reducing the ever-expanding wealth gap.[232]

The economists Emmanuel Saez and Thomas Piketty recommend much higher top marginal tax rates on the wealthy, up to 50 percent, or 70 percent or even 90 percent.[233] Ralph Nader, Jeffrey Sachs, the United Front Against Austerity, among others, call for a financial transactions tax (also known as the Robin Hood tax) to bolster the social safety net and the public sector.[234][235][236]

The Economist wrote in December 2013: “A minimum wage, providing it is not set too high, could thus boost pay with no ill effects on jobs….America’s federal minimum wage, at 38% of median income, is one of the rich world’s lowest. Some studies find no harm to employment from federal of state minimum wages, others see a small one, but none finds any serious damage.”[237]

General limitations on and taxation of rent-seeking are popular across the political spectrum.[238]

Public policy responses addressing causes and effects of income inequality in the US include: progressive tax incidence adjustments, strengthening social safety net provisions such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children, welfare, the food stamp program, Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid, organizing community interest groups, increasing and reforming higher education subsidies, increasing infrastructure spending, and placing limits on and taxing rent-seeking.

Are aware of population of health?????
May 20, 2017
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Population health has been defined as”the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group”.[1] It is an approach to health that aims to improve the health of an entire human population. This concept does not refer to animal or plant populations. It has been described as consisting of three components. These are “health outcomes, patterns of health determinants, and policies and interventions”.[2] A priority considered important in achieving the aim of Population Health is to reduce health inequities or disparities among different population groups due to, among other factors, the social determinants of health, SDOH. The SDOH include all the factors: social, environmental, cultural and physical the different populations are born into, grow up and function with throughout their lifetimes which potentially have a measurable impact on the health of human populations.[3] The Population Health concept represents a change in the focus from the individual-level, characteristic of most mainstream medicine. It also seeks to complement the classic efforts of public health agencies by addressing a broader range of factors shown to impact the health of different populations. The World Health Organization’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health, reported in 2008, that the SDOH factors were responsible for the bulk of diseases and injuries and these were the major causes of health inequities in all countries.[4] In the US, SDOH were estimated to account for 70% of avoidable mortality.[5]

From a population health perspective, health has been defined not simply as a state free from disease but as “the capacity of people to adapt to, respond to, or control life’s challenges and changes”.[6] The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Healthy People 2020 is a web site sponsored by the US Department of Health and Human Services, representing the cumulative effort of 34 years of interest by the Surgeon General’s office and others. It identifies 42 topics considered social determinants of health and approximately 1200 specific goals considered to improve population health. It provides links to the current research available for selected topics and identifies and supports the need for community involvement considered essential to address these problems realistically.[
Recently, human role has been encouraged by the influence of population growth there has been increasing interest from epidemiologists on the subject of economic inequality and its relation to the health of populations. There is a very robust correlation between socioeconomic status and health. This correlation suggests that it is not only the poor who tend to be sick when everyone else is healthy, heart disease, ulcers, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, certain types of cancer, and premature aging. Despite the reality of the SES Gradient, there is debate as to its cause. A number of researchers (A. Leigh, C. Jencks, A. Clarkwest—see also Russell Sage working papers) see a definite link between economic status and mortality due to the greater economic resources of the better-off, but they find little correlation due to social status differences.

Other researchers such as Richard G. Wilkinson, J. Lynch, and G.A. Kaplan have found that socioeconomic status strongly affects health even when controlling for economic resources and access to health care. Most famous for linking social status with health are the Whitehall studies—a series of studies conducted on civil servants in London. The studies found that, despite the fact that all civil servants in England have the same access to health care, there was a strong correlation between social status and health. The studies found that this relationship stayed strong even when controlling for health-affecting habits such as exercise, smoking and drinking. Furthermore, it has been noted that no amount of medical attention will help decrease the likelihood of someone getting type 1 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis—yet both are more common among populations with lower socioeconomic status. Lastly, it has been found that amongst the wealthiest quarter of countries on earth (a set stretching from Luxembourg to Slovakia) there is no relation between a country’s wealth and general population health[1]—suggesting that past a certain level, absolute levels of wealth have little impact on population health, but relative levels within a country do. The concept of psychosocial stress attempts to explain how psychosocial phenomenon such as status and social stratification can lead to the many diseases associated with the SES gradient. Higher levels of economic inequality tend to intensify social hierarchies and generally degrades the quality of social relations—leading to greater levels of stress and stress related diseases. Richard Wilkinson found this to be true not only for the poorest members of society, but also for the wealthiest. Economic inequality is bad for everyone’s health. Inequality does not only affect the health of human populations. David H. Abbott at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center found that among many primate species, less egalitarian social structures correlated with higher levels of stress hormones among socially subordinate individuals. Research by Robert Sapolsky of Stanford University provides similar findings.
There is well-documented variation in health outcomes and health care utilization & costs by geographic variation in the U.S., down to the level of Hospital Referral Regions (defined as a regional health care market, which may cross state boundaries, of which there are 306 in the U.S.).[10][11] There is ongoing debate as to the relative contributions of race, gender, poverty, education level and place to these variations. The Office of Epidemiology of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau recommends using an analytic approach (Fixed Effects or hybrid Fixed Effects) to research on health disparities to reduce the confounding effects of neighborhood (geographic) variables on the outcomes.[
Family planning programs (including contraceptives, sexuality education, and promotion of safe sex) play a major role in population health. Family planning is one of the most highly cost-effective interventions in medicine.[13] Family planning saves lives and money by reducing unintended pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections.[13]

For example, the United States Agency for International Development lists as benefits of its international family planning program:[14]

“Protecting the health of women by reducing high-risk pregnancies”
“Protecting the health of children by allowing sufficient time between pregnancies”
“Fighting HIV/AIDS through providing information, counseling, and access to male and female condoms”
“Reducing abortions”
“Supporting women’s rights and opportunities for education, employment, and full participation in society”
“Protecting the environment by stabilizing population growth”
One method to improve population health is population health management (PHM), which has been defined as “the technical field of endeavor which utilizes a variety of individual, organizational and cultural interventions to help improve the morbidity patterns (i.e., the illness and injury burden) and the health care use behavior of defined populations”.[15] PHM is distinguished from disease management by including more chronic conditions and diseases, by use of “a single point of contact and coordination”, and by “predictive modeling across multiple clinical conditions”.[16] PHM is considered broader than disease management in that it also includes “intensive care management for individuals at the highest level of risk” and “personal health management… for those at lower levels of predicted health risk”.[17] Many PHM-related articles are published in Population Health Management, the official journal of DMAA: The Care Continuum Alliance.[18]

The following road map has been suggested for helping healthcare organizations navigate the path toward implementing effective population health management:[19]

Establish precise patient registries
Determine patient-provider attribution
Define precise numerators in the patient registries
Monitor and measure clinical and cost metrics
Adhere to basic clinical practice guidelines
Engage in risk-management outreach
Acquire external data
Communicate with patients
Educate patients and engage with them
Establish and adhere to complex clinical practice guidelines
Coordinate effectively between care team and patient
Track specific outcomes.
Healthcare reform is driving change to traditional hospital reimbursement models. Prior to the introduction of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), hospitals were reimbursed based on the volume of procedures through fee-for-service models. Under the PPACA, reimbursement models are shifting from volume to value. New reimbursement models are built around pay for performance, a value-based reimbursement approach, which places financial incentives around patient outcomes and has drastically changed the way US hospitals must conduct business to remain financially viable.[20] In addition to focusing on improving patient experience of care and reducing costs, hospitals must also focus on improving the health of populations (IHI Triple Aim[21]).

As participation in value-based reimbursement models such as accountable care organizations (ACOs) increases, these initiatives will help drive population health.[22] Within the ACO model, hospitals have to meet specific quality benchmarks, focus on prevention, and carefully manage patients with chronic diseases.[23] Providers get paid more for keeping their patients healthy and out of the hospital.[23] Studies have shown that inpatient admission rates have dropped over the past ten years in communities that were early adopters of the ACO model and implemented population health measures to treat “less sick” patients in the outpatient setting.[24] A study conducted in the Chicago area showed a decline in inpatient utilization rates across all age groups, which was an average of a 5% overall drop in inpatient admissions.[25]

Hospitals are finding it financially advantageous to focus on population health management and keeping people in the community well.[26] The goal of population health management is to improve patient outcomes and increase health capital. Other goals include preventing disease, closing care gaps, and cost savings for providers.[27] In the last few years, more effort has been directed towards developing telehealth services, community-based clinics in areas with high proportion of residents using the emergency department as primary care, and patient care coordinator roles to coordinate healthcare services across the care continuum.[26]

Health can be considered a capital good; health capital is part of human capital as defined by the Grossman model.[28] Health can be considered both an investment good and consumption good.[29] Factors such as obesity and smoking have negative effects on health capital, while education, wage rate, and age may also impact health capital.[29] When people are healthier through preventative care, they have the potential to live a longer and healthier life, work more and participate in the economy, and produce more based on the work done. These factors all have the potential to increase earnings. Some states, like New York, have implemented statewide initiatives to address population health. In New York state there are 11 such programs. One example is the Mohawk Valley Population Health Improvement Program (http://www.mvphip.org/). These programs work to address the needs of the people in their region, as well as assist their local community based organizations and social services to gather data, address health disparities, and explore evidence-based interventions that will ultimately lead to better health for everyone.