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How bloggers get to earn money from their blogging website.

f you have joined the blogging revolution that is sweeping the net, and you think you might want to make a little revenue – or a lot of revenue – from your blogging efforts, you need AdSense tips for bloggers. Blogging has opened up an entirely new way of how non-technical people interact with the Internet, and now, anyone can publish anything about any topic – without having a website – and anyone can profit without even having a product!

Adsense for blogs make perfect sense. Google’s advertising programs are designed to work with sites related to the keywords for the ads that are being presented. Each time you add content to your blog, the Google spiders gobble it up. The more you update, the more the Google spider visits your page. Ultimately, you move up in the SERPs (Search Engine Results Pages) for the topics that you write about. You see where this is going. The higher your search ranking, the more traffic you receive, which ultimately leads to higher revenue from AdSense ads.

The beauty of blogs is their potential for rapid growth. If you become known as an expert in your area of expertise, word of mouth spreads quickly and your blog can become very popular. So it is vital that you always teach something with every blog entry. You want your readers to come back frequently and they will if they know they will learn something. Not only will your readers bookmark your blog and return often, but they will link to your blog enthusiastically as well. People in forums will refer to your blogs and discuss what they learned. Websites will link to you as a valuable resource. In short, an informative blog can grow very quickly if the information it provides is valuable.

It is important to write about specific topics, and sprinkle your blog entries with specific keywords to get the best results – and the highest revenue – with your Google AdSense ads. There is a method to the madness. Start your revenue generating blog by testing the waters.

Decide what area you would like to write about and then do some keyword research. Research is easy if you use Google’s keyword tools found at https://adwords.google.com/select/KeywordSandbox. The keyword tools are located in your Google AdWords account. Yes, you need a free AdWords account to be successful but you don’t have to fund it to use the keyword tools. Look for keywords related to your subject that are high paying. These are keywords where the bid amounts are high. Make a list of the top paying keywords, and use that list to determine what topics you will write about.

Remember, you want people to visit your blog time and time again, and build up a readership, make sure that your blog is well written and informative. Don’t just target keywords for the sake of targeting keywords – the writing needs to make sense! Writing valuable content is the first step to generating traffic to your blog, and traffic is needed to profit from AdSense ads!

You are allowed to use the AdSense ad units in two different places on each page. You can accomplish this in a couple of different ways. First, you can add the AdSense ad code to the template for your blog. This is done through the control panel for your blog, and some knowledge of HTML is needed. The other option is to paste the AdSense code directly in your blog post each time you submit a new post. You can use it once at the top and once at the bottom, or once after a few paragraphs of the post, and again after a few more paragraphs.

Get that code in there however you see fit – but then pay close attention to the results so you can see what is working and what isn’t. Tracking is everything if you want to make real money!

Of course, you need to advertise your blog as much as possible as well. Make sure that you provide Trackbacks to other people’s blogs as often as possible, and that you visit blogs, leave comments – and leave a link for your blog as well!

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How to build a plotter with Arduino

Back in school, there was an HP plotter well hidden in a closet in the science department. I got to play with it for a while and always wanted to have one of my own. Fast forward many, many years. Stepper motors are easily available, I am back into doing stuff with electronics and micro-controllers, and I recently saw someone creating displays with engraved acrylic. This triggered me to finally build my own plotter.

As an old-school 5V guy, I really like the original Arduino Uno. Here’s a list of the other components I used (fyi, I am not affiliated with any of these companies):

  • FabScan shield: Physically hosts the stepper motor drivers.
  • SilentStepSticks: Motor drivers, as the Arduino on its own can’t handle the voltage and current that a stepper motor needs. I am using ones with a Trinamic TMC2130 chip, but in standalone mode for now. Those are replacements for the Pololu 4988, but allow for much quieter operation.
  • SilentStepStick protectors: Diodes that prevent the turning motor from frying your motor drivers (you want them, believe me).
  • Stepper motors: I selected NEMA 17 motors with 12V (e.g., models from Watterott and SparkFun).
  • Linear guide rails
  • Wooden base plate
  • Wood screws
  • GT2 belt
  • GT2 timing pulley


Hardware setup

As you can see here, I started out much too large. This plotter can’t comfortably sit on my desk, but it’s okay, as I did it for learning purposes (and, as I have to re-do some things, next time I’ll use smaller beams).

The belt is mounted on both sides of the rail and then slung around the motor with some helper wheels:

I’ve stacked several components on top of the Arduino. The Arduino is on the bottom, above that is the FabScan shield, next is a StepStick protector on motor slots 1+2, and the SilentStepStick is on top. Note that the SCK and SDI pins are not connected.

Be careful to correctly attach the wires to the motor. When in doubt, look at the data sheet or an ohmmeter to figure out which wires belong together.

Software setup

While software like grbl can interpret so-called G-codes for tool movement and other things, and I could have just flashed it to the Arduino, I am curious and wanted to better understand things. (My X-Y plotter software is available at GitHub and comes without any warranty.)

The basics

To drive a stepper motor with the StepStick (or compatible) driver, you basically need to send a high and then a low signal to the respective pin. Or in Arduino terms:

digitalWrite(stepPin, HIGH);
digitalWrite(stepPin, LOW);

Where stepPin is the pin number for the stepper: 3 for motor 1 and 6 for motor 2.

Before the stepper does any work, it must be enabled.

digitalWrite(enPin, LOW);

Actually, the StepStick knows three states for the pin:

  • Low: Motor is enabled
  • High: Motor is disabled
  • Pin not connected: Motor is enabled but goes into an energy-saving mode after a while

When a motor is enabled, its coils are powered and it keeps its position. It is almost impossible to manually turn its axis. This is good for precision purposes, but it also means that both motors and driver chips are “flooded” with power and will warm up.

And last, but not least, we need a way to determine the plotter’s direction:

digitalWrite(dirPin, direction);

The following table lists the functions and the pins

Function Motor1 Motor2
Enable 2 5
Direction 4 7
Step 3 6

Before we can use the pins, we need to set them to OUTPUT mode in the setup() section of the code

pinMode(enPin1, OUTPUT);
pinMode(stepPin1, OUTPUT);
pinMode(dirPin1, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(enPin1, LOW);

With this knowledge, we can easily get the stepper to move around:

    totalRounds = …
for (int rounds =0 ; rounds < 2*totalRounds; rounds++) {
if (dir==0){ // set direction
digitalWrite(dirPin2, LOW);
} else {
digitalWrite(dirPin2, HIGH);
delay(1); // give motors some breathing time
dir = 1-dir; // reverse direction
for (int i=0; i < 6400; i++) {
int t = abs(3200-i) / 200;
digitalWrite(stepPin2, HIGH);
delayMicroseconds(70 + t);
digitalWrite(stepPin2, LOW);
delayMicroseconds(70 + t);

This will make the slider move left and right. This code deals with one stepper, but for an X-Y plotter, we have two axes to consider.

Command interpreter

I started to implement a simple command interpreter to use path specifications, such as:

"X30|Y30|X-30 Y-30|X-20|Y-20|X20|Y20|X-40|Y-25|X40 Y25

to describe relative movements in millimeters (1mm equals 80 steps).

The plotter software implements a continuous mode, which allows a PC to feed large paths (in chunks) to the plotter. (This how I plotted the Hilbert curve in this video.)

Building a better pen holder

In the first image above, the pen was tied to the Y-axis with some metal string. This was not precise and also did not enable the software to raise and lower the hand (this explains the big black dots).

I have since created a better, more precise pen holder that uses a servo to raise and lower the pen. This new, improved holder can be seen in this picture and in the Hilbert curve video linked above.

The pen is attached with a little clamp (the one shown is a size 8 clamp typically used to attach cables to walls). The servo arm can raise the pen; when the arm goes down, gravity will lower the pen.

Driving the servo

Driving the servo is relatively straightforward: Just provide the position and the servo does all the work.

#include <Servo.h>

// Servo pin
#define servoData PIN_A1

// Positions
#define PEN_UP 10
#define PEN_DOWN 50

Servo penServo;

void setup() {
// Attach to servo and raise pen

I am using the servo headers on the Motor 4 place of the FabScan shield, so I’ve used analog pin 1.

Lowering the pen is as easy as:


Next steps

One of my next steps will be to add some end detectors, but I may skip them and use the StallGuard mode of the TMC2130 instead. Those detectors can also be used to implement a home command.

And perhaps in the future I’ll add a real Z-axis that can hold an engraver to do wood milling, or PCB drilling, or acrylic engraving, or … (a laser comes to mind as well).

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Online Shopping: 10 Tips For Safe Online Shopping
e-commerce-Problems with Online Shopping

Have you ever bought a product or service from the internet?

Me too.

Some of the reasons why most people are shopping online are: they can buy anything at anytime because Internet shopping is available 24 hours, all the time. 

You can shop from the convenience of your home. You can avoid traffic and crowding at the malls. 

Online shopping is one of the best ways to locate hard-to-find items not available in your local stores.

Whatever you buy can be delivered by mail to your house.

Most online stores and companies provide excellent values and discount prices because they do not have to pay the overhead of owning a physical business that will cost them insurance, employee pay, taxes and more.

VeriSign, Inc. says that online sales recorded during the prime holidays shopping season was about $2.2 billion dollars.

According to a study by Forrester Research Company, by 2010, online sales will reach $331 billion dollars.

More consumers are shopping online today than a year ago. The range of products they buy are many: software, hardware, electronics, digital products, music, toys, e-books, books, programs, DVD, flowers, pets, jewelry, clothes, air tickets, insurance, cars, prescription drugs, comic books, games, gifts and more. 

They are flocking to buy from online bookstores, software stores, online computer stores, target stores, pet stores, liquor stores, drug stores, music stores, furniture stores, fabric stores, the Disney store, outlet stores, surplus stores, discount stores, thrift stores, gift stores, candy stores, lingerie stores, sports stores, video stores, sex stores, department stores, game stores, clothing stores and others.

Be a smart and savvy online shopper. Shop wisely and safely.

Here are a few tips to help you do your online shopping safely.

(1) Shop at the websites of companies that you know and are popular offline.

If you’re not sure of the company, request their catalog or brochure first. 

Be sure they have a physical address and phone, as well as an e-mail address. Call them and speak to a human being first. 

Check with the yellow pages and the Better Business Bureaus to be sure the company is legitimate. 

Read all the fine print and the refund policy before you place an order.

You may read about product reviews and what other shoppers have to say about a company at: 
http://www.epinions.com, http://www.consumersearch.com , http://www.productopia.com, http://www.deja.com 

Here are some internet shopping agents’ sites:
http://www.comparenet.com , http://vo.infospace.com , http://bottomdollar.com 

To read about reviews on shopping stores, regarding ease of use, pricing, selection and service go to:
http://www.gomez.com, http://www.bizrate.com , http://www.ratingwonders.com 

To read about web business frauds and get help to avoid being a victim, go to:
http://www.fraud.org , http://www.bbbonline.org , http://www.webassured.com 

(2) Keep a record of all your purchases.

Most people are by nature disorganized and unable to keep records. Learn to keep records of all your online purchases. This will help you keep track of your spending and shopping. 

Print all receipts or save them on your computer in a folder named “receipts”. 

This will help you locate orders that you placed but were never delivered. 

The more organized you are the less negative online shopping experience you’ll have.

(3) Keep all your important personal information safe. 

Don’t give them to strangers who may call you over the phone or request them by e-mail.

Personal information includes: your address, e-mail address, phone number, social security number, drivers license, age, information about your family. 

Don’t give them to any stranger and, also, teach your children not to do so.

(4) Keep your passwords private. 

When creating a password, avoid using phone numbers, birth dates or social security numbers. 

Be creative. Use a password that is not easy for others to guess, and yet not easy for you to forget. 

Change your passwords often. Use phrases to help you remember them.

Don’t disclose passwords to anyone. 

(5) Use a credit (but never debit) card to make your payment.

Be sure to keep all credit card payment receipts. Check your credit card account statements to be able to spot any unauthorized charges. 

When you buy certain goods and services from some companies, sometimes they will keep billing you thereafter. So scrutinize your statements. If you see a charge you’re not sure of, call the billing merchant and check it out. 

Keep your credit cards secure. 

Avoid making a payment using your credit card on a public computer.

Report any lost credit cards immediately and have them cancelled. Don’t give anyone that you don’t know your credit card number.

(6) Read the return policy before placing an order.

Be sure that you read and understand the return policy and warranty.

(7) Read and understand the company’s privacy statement (or policy).

A privacy statement tells you how and why a business is collecting your information, and how that information may be used. 
You may find the company’s privacy statement (or policy) at the very bottom of the home page or inside their “Terms & Conditions” or “Terms of Service” (TOS).

(8) Use a secure browser and server.

Be sure whatever browser you’re using complies with the industry’s security standards, such as secure sockets layer (SSL). 

This security protocol scrambles or encrypts the personal information you send over the Internet to ensure your transaction is secured.

How do you know if the server is secure where you’re making a payment?

If a Web site is using secure technology, its Web address begins with https and a tiny locked padlock appears at the bottom right corner of the screen. 

(9) Check out a few stores and compare prices before buying.
Look for hidden costs such as shipping and handling.

(10) Use Yahoo Search Engine for all your searches.

Yahoo continues to be, not only the largest online company, but also, the best Search Engine. 

Unlike the other popular Search engine, which keeps companies in a sandbox for many months and refuses to give them rankings for many months, Yahoo is pro business and gives immediate rankings to companies and business.

Their search result is also excellent. That may be one reason why 60% of people online (including me) love Yahoo. 

Also, they have the most reliable and the best hosting service in the world. 

For these reasons, I strongly recommend you use Yahoo to do all your searches.

Happy and safe online shopping.

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A Brief History of Cell Phones in Nigeria

Back in 1995, when I wanted to call my family in the U.S., I had to go a couple miles to the main telephone office, enter a booth, and shout a few sentences to my family while listening to other people shouting to their loved ones.

Around 1997, we paid about $200 to get a landline installed in our house. We still couldn’t call outside the country, but at least we could receive calls from abroad. Our line often went dead–especially in the rainy season. In 2005, our phone went down, and we didn’t feel like paying to repair it. After 6 months, I just unplugged it and packed it away. I don’t know anyone who uses a landline these days. I doubt that even 1% of the homes in Jos ever had a landline.

I don’t remember when cell phones entered the scene, maybe around 2000 or so, in a limited way. I finally broke down and got one in 2004.

Now in 2009, I can pretty confidently say that 95% of the adults in Jos have cell phones. It’s just assumed that everyone has one. Even people who earn less than $50 a month have a phone.

Phones can be as cheap as $15. Of course, there are also very expensive models available. You can buy a $2 SIM card for any of the four major networks. Just put the SIM card in the phone and then buy a card worth of “credit.” Load the pin code into your phone and you’re all set. Phone credit comes in increments as small as 70 cents up to about $10.

As long as you have even 1 cent of credit on your phone, you can ‘flash’ someone you want to talk to. If they feel like it (and if they have credit), they may call back. You can still receive calls even if you have no credit.

If your phone is lost or stolen, you can fairly easily reclaim your old number. A few years ago I had a phone stolen from inside my zipped purse while at church on Dec. 24th. I guess someone really needed a last minute Christmas present! Almost everyone can tell one or two stories of how a phone was stolen.

Perhaps one of the biggest challenges is keeping your phone battery charged since the electricity can be so erratic. I have often said to someone: I couldn’t reach you! Their reply: my battery was dead.

Many people carry two phones (and sometimes three!) with different SIM network cards. That way, if one network is down, you can try another. I prefer to use my MTN network phone throughout the day, but the problem is, I can’t receive or make calls on it inside my house. It’s a common occurrence to see my neighbors outside, looking for higher ground, so they can hear their caller. I also have a phone that uses the Zain network. This allows me to take calls inside my house.

I primarily use my phones for texting which costs about 10 cents per text. Dialling a call within Nigeria is approx. 20-30 cents per minute. I don’t call the U.S. that often, but it’s very easy, and I think it costs about 50 cents per minute. (I could be way off on that–if you know, feel free to correct me.)

These phones won’t work in the U.S. Thankfully, my parents always loan us one of theirs when we travel. Somehow, I think it’s a little more complex to get started with a phone and a plan in the U.S.–especially when we’re only there such a short time.

I’m quite sure it’s against the law to use your phone while driving, but unfortunately, many people still do–and the vast majority of our cars are manual transmission–so figure out how to do that!

Having cell phones during the 2008 Jos crisis made it much easier to get information and to check on friends and relatives than it was during the 2001 crisis. In fact, before I stepped out of my house on the seemingly calm morning of the 2008 crisis, I had information from two different parts of Jos and from Bayo in the capital city that I should stay home. If we didn’t have this communication network, we all just would have ventured out that day.

I bought phone credit today and asked Tobi to fill my phones. I figured it was a good exercise in following directions and achieving accuracy. He had a bit of frustration with punching in all 16 numbers just right, but he figured it out. What kid doesn’t love messing around with a phone?

As I understand it, it is far cheaper to put up cell towers than string land lines, so many countries that didn’t have the infrastructure have cell phone networks.

We were amazed when we were in Uganda in 2007 to hear cell phones ringing. Same ring as my husband’s work phone…that was an irritant because he didn’t want to think about work. But for the purposes of our travel group and for our hosts, the cell phones were invaluable. Some of our travel group could call the US on their own phones that they brought along.

I had to conclude that cell phones in Uganda, as you mention for your country, must be far cheaper than they are in the US. In the US,it is hard to find a contract for less that $60 or $50/month. Signing up for 2 years usually gets a person a free phone, but if you want a better phone or no contract, you might pay $100 – $300 for a phone. Yikes!

I’m way past my contractual obligation and I have no interest in a new contract or a new phone, but the company is pushing this with every bill and I get phone calls and emails about it as well.

One fly in the ointment is that in a number of locations a certain cell company might work, but not other companies. They don’t cooperate enough. My AT&T phone doesn’t work at half of my relative’s homes.

My friend finally got a Track phone. This costs more per minute, but there is no contract and it cooperates with the various companies, so it is better for traveling. I guess you have to buy a phone initially, but then just the minutes, like you are used to. I’ve heard that if you let your minutes run out, they can sell your phone number to somebody else.

There are so many cell phone stores all over, multiple stores in the malls. I figure that much of the cost of using cell phones must go to support these stores rather than to the actual cost of the phone service.

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INTRO TO COMPUTER: In this our technolgy age everyone should read this


  • A computer can be described as an electronic calculating device that accepts raw data as input, processes it and produces meaningful information i.e. output as result.
  • A computer system is made up of both hardware and software components.
  • Hardware consists of the physical components of a computer system like input devices, output devices, processing device (CPU) and the storage device.
  • Software represents the set of programs and instructions that govern the operation of a computer system.
  • A computer is fast, accurate, versatile, reliable, diligent, and has high speed.
  •  The need for counting and simple computations has led to the development of several computing devices like Abacus, Napier’s Bones, Slide Rule, Blaise Pascal’s Adding Machine, Stepped Reckoner, Punch Card System, Hollerith’s Machine etc.
  • The evolution of computers can be divided into five generations. Each generation represents technological evolutions over the period of time.
  • A computer has four functional units Input unit, output unit, central processing unit (CPU) and secondary storage unit.
  • Input unit is used to provide data, information and instructions to the computer so that it can perform processing on data/information according to the instructions given by the user.
  • Examples of input devices are include keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanner etc.
  • Output devices are used to display the result of the processing done by CPU on the input provided by the user.
  • Examples of output devices are monitor, printer, plotter, speaker etc.
  • Printer is an output device that is used to get the hard copy of the output in the form of printed papers.
  • Printers are of two types – impact printers and non-impact printers.
  • Impact use electromechanical mechanism which makes mark on the paper by physically striking a head or a needle against an ink ribbon.
  • Dot matrix printers, Daisy wheel printers and Drum printers are examples of impact printers.
  • Non-impact printers do not make a striking or hitting action on a ribbon to print. They use thermal, electrostatic chemical, laser beam and ink jet technologies for printing on paper.
  • Inkjet and laser printers are examples of non-impact printers.
  • They are used to create high resolution graphs, images charts, blueprints, maps, circuit diagram and other line based diagrams.
  • There are two kinds of plotter- Drum plotter and Flat-bed plotter.
  • CPU is referred to as the brain and heart of the computer system which is responsible for all the processing done on the data entered by using input device.
  • CPU consists of three units Control Unit (CU), Arithmetic & Logical Unit (ALU) and Main/Primary storage unit.
  • Control Unit is responsible for interpreting the instructions provided by the user and directing the sequence of operations accordingly.
  • ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations on the data. It performs four basic mathematical operations i.e., addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, three comparative or logical operations i.e., ‘greater than’, ‘less than’, ‘equals to’ to compare numbers, letters or special characters between data items.
  • Main memory holds instructions and data currently being processed by the CPU, the intermediate results produced during the course of calculations and recently processed data.
  • Main memory is of two kinds Random Access Memory (RAM) & Read Only Memory (ROM).
  • Random Access Memory is a volatile memory and temporarily holds software, programs and instructions before and after processing.
  • Read Only Memory is non-volatile memory whose contents are not lost even after the loss of electric power. It contains startup instructions.
  • Secondary memory is also known as external memory or auxiliary memory, and is required to supplement the limited capacity and volatile characteristics of primary memory.
  • A Computer has few limitations like they don’t have IQ, they don’t have emotions, they lack decision making power etc.
  • Computers play a vital role in every sphere of our life like education, home, entertainment, communication, research, banking, medicine and health and so on.
  • On the basis of purpose computers can be divided into two categories – General Purpose Computers and Special Purpose Computers.
  • On the basis of technology used by them, computers can be divided into three categories i.e. Analog, Digital and Hybrid computer.
  • On the basis of size and capacity, computers are of four kinds – super computers, mainframe computer, minicomputer and microcomputer.

this is just a summary to boost your interest in computer studies..

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Quality of service Depending on the installation requirements, network performance is usually measured

Network performance

Quality of service
Depending on the installation requirements, network performance is usually measured by the quality of service of a telecommunications product. The parameters that affect this typically can include throughput, jitter, bit error rate and latency.

The following list gives examples of network performance measures for a circuit-switched network and one type of packet-switched network, viz. ATM:

Circuit-switched networks: In circuit switched networks, network performance is synonymous with the grade of service. The number of rejected calls is a measure of how well the network is performing under heavy traffic loads.[32] Other types of performance measures can include the level of noise and echo.
ATM: In an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network, performance can be measured by line rate, quality of service (QoS), data throughput, connect time, stability, technology, modulation technique and modem enhancements.[33]
There are many ways to measure the performance of a network, as each network is different in nature and design. Performance can also be modelled instead of measured. For example, state transition diagrams are often used to model queuing performance in a circuit-switched network. The network planner uses these diagrams to analyze how the network performs in each state, ensuring that the network is optimally designed.[34]

Network congestion Edit
Network congestion occurs when a link or node is carrying so much data that its quality of service deteriorates. Typical effects include queueing delay, packet loss or the blocking of new connections. A consequence of these latter two is that incremental increases in offered load lead either only to small increase in network throughput, or to an actual reduction in network throughput.

Network protocols that use aggressive retransmissions to compensate for packet loss tend to keep systems in a state of network congestion—even after the initial load is reduced to a level that would not normally induce network congestion. Thus, networks using these protocols can exhibit two stable states under the same level of load. The stable state with low throughput is known as congestive collapse.

Modern networks use congestion control, congestion avoidance and traffic control techniques to try to avoid congestion collapse. These include: exponential backoff in protocols such as 802.11’s CSMA/CA and the original Ethernet, window reduction in TCP, and fair queueing in devices such as routers. Another method to avoid the negative effects of network congestion is implementing priority schemes, so that some packets are transmitted with higher priority than others. Priority schemes do not solve network congestion by themselves, but they help to alleviate the effects of congestion for some services. An example of this is 802.1p. A third method to avoid network congestion is the explicit allocation of network resources to specific flows. One example of this is the use of Contention-Free Transmission Opportunities (CFTXOPs) in the ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) Local area networking over existing home wires (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables).

For the Internet RFC 2914 addresses the subject of congestion control in detail.

Network resilience Edit
Network resilience is “the ability to provide and maintain an acceptable level of service in the face of faults and challenges to normal operation.”[35]

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Networks are typically managed by the organizations that own them.

Networks are typically managed by the organizations that own them. Private enterprise networks may use a combination of intranets and extranets. They may also provide network access to the Internet, which has no single owner and permits virtually unlimited global connectivity.

Intranet Edit
An intranet is a set of networks that are under the control of a single administrative entity. The intranet uses the IP protocol and IP-based tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications. The administrative entity limits use of the intranet to its authorized users. Most commonly, an intranet is the internal LAN of an organization. A large intranet typically has at least one web server to provide users with organizational information. An intranet is also anything behind the router on a local area network.

Extranet Edit
An extranet is a network that is also under the administrative control of a single organization, but supports a limited connection to a specific external network. For example, an organization may provide access to some aspects of its intranet to share data with its business partners or customers. These other entities are not necessarily trusted from a security standpoint. Network connection to an extranet is often, but not always, implemented via WAN technology.

Internetwork Edit
An internetwork is the connection of multiple computer networks via a common routing technology using routers.

Internet Edit

Partial map of the Internet based on the January 15, 2005 data found on opte.org. Each line is drawn between two nodes, representing two IP addresses. The length of the lines are indicative of the delay between those two nodes. This graph represents less than 30% of the Class C networks reachable.
The Internet is the largest example of an internetwork. It is a global system of interconnected governmental, academic, corporate, public, and private computer networks. It is based on the networking technologies of the Internet Protocol Suite. It is the successor of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) developed by DARPA of the United States Department of Defense. The Internet is also the communications backbone underlying the World Wide Web (WWW).

Participants in the Internet use a diverse array of methods of several hundred documented, and often standardized, protocols compatible with the Internet Protocol Suite and an addressing system (IP addresses) administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and address registries. Service providers and large enterprises exchange information about the reachability of their address spaces through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), forming a redundant worldwide mesh of transmission paths.

Darknet Edit
A darknet is an overlay network, typically running on the internet, that is only accessible through specialized software. A darknet is an anonymizing network where connections are made only between trusted peers — sometimes called “friends” (F2F)[27] — using non-standard protocols and ports.

Darknets are distinct from other distributed peer-to-peer networks as sharing is anonymous (that is, IP addresses are not publicly shared), and therefore users can communicate with little fear of governmental or corporate interference.[28]

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Internet This article is about the worldwide computer network.

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This article is about the worldwide computer network. For other uses, see Internet (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with the World Wide Web.

Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks.[1] The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. The funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks.[2] The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marks the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet,[3] and generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was widely used by academia since the 1980s, the commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into virtually every aspect of modern life.

Most traditional communications media, including telephony, radio, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or even bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, and video streaming websites. Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their “brick and mortar” presence to serve a larger market or even sell goods and services entirely online. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.

The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies.[4] Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address (IP address) space and the Domain Name System (DNS), are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.[5]


The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
See also: Capitalization of “Internet”
When the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol (IP) networks, the word is a proper noun[6] that should be written with an initial capital letter. In common use and the media, it is often erro

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Rwanda:Airtel Tigo Dismisses About 50 Workers, Cites Redundancy
April 24, 2018

Rwanda:Airtel Tigo Dismisses About 50 Workers, Cites Redundancy
Barely three months after the formalisation of acquisition of Tigo Rwanda Ltd by Bharti Airtel Limited – the parent company for Airtel Rwanda – and the consequent merger of the two telecommunication companies, Airtel last week terminated employment of 49 employees.
The termination of the contracts was as a result of a restructuring exercise aimed at right-sizing the current workforce to avoid duplication of roles.
This is said to have rendered a section of employees redundant, thus their laying off.
“The exercise, which is focused on aligning the company’s structure with its operating model, also entailed a right-sizing of the current workforce to avoid duplication of roles. One of the key objectives is to create an agile organisation which satisfies the needs of all of the stakeholders, especially our customers, as we step into the next growth phase of the operation. As a result, 49 positions have been declared redundant,” a statement from the firm reads in part.
The company said all affected employees will be compensated in compliance with country’s labour laws. In addition to their legal dues, the firm promised to add to their termination package two months’ gross salary and three months medical cover.
“All affected employees will be compensated in line with prevailing laws and company policy. Each impacted employee will, in addition to their legal dues, receive 2 months’ gross salary, 3 months extended medical cover, and 3 months free air-time entitlement,” the statement noted.
The New Times, however, understands that the restructuring could have affected persons who were subcontracted by the firm in the various roles and responsibilities.
Bharti Airtel Limited acquired Tigo Rwanda formerly owned by Millicom International Cellular S.A in December last year while the approval was given in January by the Rwanda Utilities and Regulatory Authority.
Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Authority (RURA), the sector regulator, sanctioned the merger of Tigo and Airtel saying it was likely to lead to industry stability and also benefit consumers in terms of improved quality of services, scalability of services and innovation of product.
The merge saw Airtel have the largest customer base in Rwanda with 5.05 million subscribers, according to RURA mobile phone user figures for November 2017.
Rwanda’s mobile telecom market boasts about 8.7 subscribers as at November 30, 2017. MTN Rwanda has about 3.65 million users currently.

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You Can Now Recover Deleted Files And Images From WhatsApp…This Is How WhatsApp
April 21, 2018

WhatsApp users on Android can now recover media that they have deleted. Any pictures, videos , GIFs, documents or voice notes that were sent and subsequently deleted can be recovered.
The update is available now to Android users worldwide but WhatsApp has not revealed whether it will release the feature to iPhone users. With the ability to recover deleted information, concerns have arisen over the storage of personal information on the WhatsApp servers.
Parent company Facebook has been under intense scrutiny in recent weeks as it was revealed 87 million of its users had their personal information harvested and used by the political consultancy firm Cambridge Analytica.
Facebook has issued a series of apologies for the privacy breach and incorporated drastic changes to its privacy policies to stem the flow of thousands of users leaving the platform.
According to a report on WABetaInfo, the latest version of WhatsApp for Android (2.8.113) will allow users to re-download older media files.
It used to be the case that WhatsApp would store undownloaded media on its servers for 30 days before deleting.
This appears to have changed with the latest update. The re-downloading option is only available for files from WhatsApp chats that have not been deleted by either user.
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To re-download media, open WhatsApp and go to the Chats page to find the thread that contains the file you’re after. Once you’ve tracked it down, just tap on it to save it to your phone.
Under new laws coming into force next month, WhatsApp will be required to comply with data retention guidelines that state it shouldn’t hold onto personal data longer than is proportional to its service.
WhatsApp claims that the end-to-end encryption service that it employs protects the messages from being read by anyone – including WhatsApp and Facebook.
It claims that this encryption means that although information and media is saved for longer on the servers, it is completely secure.
WhatsApp already lets users delete text messages within 68 minutes of sending them.
WhatsApp’s FAQ page explains how sent messages can be deleted.
It says: ‘Deleting messages for everyone allows you to delete specific messages you have sent to either a group or an individual chat.
‘This is particularly useful if you sent a message to the wrong chat or if the message you sent contains a mistake.’
To delete a message, open WhatsApp and go to the chat containing the message you want to delete.
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Tap and hold the message, then choose Delete from the menu.
Tap ‘Delete for everyone‘ and the message will disappear.
Messages you successfully delete for everyone will be replaced with ‘This message was deleted’ in your recipients’ chats.
After that deadline, WhatsApp users are only able to delete the message from their own device.
Other recipients in the chat will still be able to see the message.
During the Cambridge Analytica debacle, 87 million Facebook users had their personal information harvested by to influence voting patterns.
Cambridge Analytica, run by former White House senior adviser Steve Bannon and billionaire campaign benefactor Robert Mercer, was hired by the Trump campaign during the 2016 president election.
It is believed that the data taken from people via the app was used to assist in the propaganda and electing of Donald Trump to president of the US.
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Mark Zuckerberg, founder and CEO of Facebook, admitted that his own information was taken in the scandal.
The admission came in front of US congress as he was quizzed about his role in the pilfering of information from his social media site.
Recently, the social media conglomerate has implemented a variety of updated privacy controls and settings.
Last week, Facebook launched a new tool that lets you check whether your data was harvested by Cambridge Analytica.
As a result, Facebook’s 2.2 billion users began to receive a notification on their newsfeed.
Titled ‘Protecting Your Information,’ it contains a link to let you see what apps you use and what information you have shared with them.
A separate tool lets you manually check whether you or your friends logged into the ‘This Is Your Digital Life’ quiz responsible for the data grab.
As well as the information provided on a person’s Facebook profile, there were concerns that personal messages were also jeopardised.
Cambridge Analytica has denied the claims that it accessed private message data.

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