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The Advantages of Advertising on the Internet

The internet has made it possible for just about any company to run an ad campaign, target its customers, and determine where advertising efforts are most successful. The advertising platforms available on the internet include social media, search engine, and website sponsorships ads. Business owners should research their target customer and determine where that customer is online to maximize advertising returns on investment.

Targeting Desired Consumers

Online advertising can put ads where a business owner’s target market spends its time. Search engine ads target specific types of websites where consumers might be. For example, a dog sitter who places a search engine ad could find their ad on pet supply and pet food websites or pet rescue websites. Facebook has created a platform that helps a business hypertarget an ad to include geographic area, age, marital status, income and hobbies of potential customers.

Advertising for Any Budget

Many small-business owners can’t afford huge magazine layouts that function as a shotgun approach to advertising. When every dollar counts, online advertising allows business owners to set a specific budget over time. Some platforms allow advertisers to spend as little as $5 per day to test a campaign.

It is important to note that larger budgets often receive preferential listings and see consumer action quicker than smaller budgets, but the concept of being able to target an audience for a small amount of money and track the success is unbeatable.

Tracking and Analytics

Traditional advertising methods such as television commercials and magazine ads have no way to track the success of your ad. This is not an efficient model for business owners. Internet ads allow tracking from start to finish. Analytics tell business owners how many times the ad was placed and the number of people who saw it. It gives business owners a click-through rate (CTR) that tells them how many times the ad was opened. From there, website analytics can tell you how long a person stayed on the website and track the number of sales.

Business owners can consider both the CTR and the sales conversions to fine-tune advertising. If a lot of people click the ad but don’t buy, there is a problem with the website language, look or pricing. If there aren’t a lot of clicks on the ad but everyone who clicks buys, then the business owner wants to consider testing other ads to see if they can drive more traffic that results in sales.

Cost-Effective Split Testing Campaigns

Split testing takes two different ad strategies and compares the results. This process is also called an A/B test where you compare results from ad A to ad B. The difference in the two ads might be a simple style version of the ad to see which one gets more attention. The test could also look at the slightly different demographic information or slightly narrowed or expanded target consumer information.

For example, one ad might target married couples between the ages of 35 and 45. This ad could be tested against a target audience of married couples ages 35 to 50. The differences are usually subtle, but when advertisers follow analytics, they can see where they can maximize their ad dollars

The Advantages & Disadvantages of Advertising on the Internet

More than 4 billion people use the internet. If you want to build your business brand, reach prospective customers, and make more sales, you can no longer ignore digital advertising. But beware: There are ineffective strategies that can eat your ad dollars in record time, leaving you with little to show for your advertising efforts. However, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.

Advantage: Your Customers Are on the Internet

Do you know anyone who doesn’t use the internet? The fact that it is so ubiquitous is probably the most compelling reason to get on board. Platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and LinkedIn give you ample opportunities to put your products or services in front of potential customers. The Google Display Network is a true advertising behemoth with more than 2 million publisher sites on which you can advertise.

Advantage: You Can Target Effectively

Imagine you could take a snapshot of your best customer and duplicate him a hundred times. With look-alike audiences on social media platforms, you almost can. Facebook and similar networking channels have troves of demographics they share with advertisers, so you can hone in on users who are most likely to purchase your products. Target prospective customers or clients by job title on LinkedIn, connections on Facebook, or interests and behaviors on Instagram. Unlike the wide net approach of traditional television and radio advertising, internet advertising lets you find the right prospects at the right time and show them an ad they may care about.

Advantage: You Can Closely Monitor Spending

You can spend thousands of dollars on a 30-second television ad that might reach someone who might be interested in what you have to sell someday. You can also spend thousands of dollars on internet ads, and only pay when people who are interested in your products click on your ad. With digital ads, you can set a spending cap and limit the number of times a prospective customer sees an ad in a given period.

Advantage: You Can Track Your Results

Digital advertising allows you to monitor and track the results of all your campaigns. You can find out when a lead converted into a sale, note the platform where it happened, and determine what kinds of ads are working best for your particular demographic. The internet with all its minute tracking abilities allows you to measure the return on investment of your marketing dollars.

Disadvantage: It’s Complicated

There are lots of choices when it comes to advertising on the internet. You can choose search advertising, so your ads show up when a target audience is looking for just what you offer or display ads that appear where your most likely prospects roam on the internet. There are even native ads that show up on publisher sites and blend in so well that they appear not to be ads at all. Then there are remarketing ads that target someone who’s visited your website with a customized message that appears in front of them somewhere else on the internet. Add to those choices the way you pay. With pay-per-click ads, you pay when someone clicks, but how much are you willing to pay? For those search ads, you’ll need to identify key search terms and decide how much to bid on each word. There are lots of levers to pull.

Disadvantage: Mistakes Can Be Costly

Because digital advertising is complicated, it’s not uncommon for businesses to make mistakes. Choose the wrong keywords, neglect a bidding cap, target ineffectively, or leave a campaign running when you thought it was off, and you can spend a fortune without turning a single lead into a sale. For example, if you run a campaign on Facebook but your customers are more likely to be LinkedIn users, you’re unlikely to convert a lead. If you don’t cap your bids, you could blow through the money you thought would last months in a matter of days.

Disadvantage: Competition Is Fierce

It depends on your products and market, but internet advertising competition can make ads prohibitively expensive. Those keyword bids? If you can only afford 10 cents a word, but your competitor can pay $10, you don’t stand much of a chance. For some businesses, it makes sense to build a good website and then rely on traditional advertising methods that have always worked in the past.

Disadvantage: Ad Fatigue Is Common

Have you ever been on a site and seen an ad for a product on which you recently ran a search? That’s internet advertising at its most typical, but have you also noticed that after a while, those ads don’t even register on your radar? It’s like they’re invisible. It’s a common and pervasive problem with running ads on the internet. If the campaigns aren’t run correctly, your brand and its products suffer from ad fatigue.

You have lots of marketing choices, and the internet should probably be one of them. Do your research to ensure that you reap all the benefits and avoid the pitfalls.

What Are the Advantages of Advertising on TV

The advent of digital computer marketing models made it cheaper and easier for businesses to target customers. It sometimes seems like television advertising is left only for the big brands with large budgets. However, there are still many advantages for a small business to produce commercials for television broadcast and capture its market share.

Mass Marketing

Television commercials are seen and heard by anyone tuned into the television channel at the time of airing. While many call this a shotgun approach, there is a strong branding message that happens when you have a good commercial seen by tens of thousands of people. You don’t need to advertise on the national platform, but instead keep to local markets where your products and services will benefit from strong brand recognition.

For example, a personal injury attorney advertising in his local market isn’t needed by everyone who sees his commercial. But when someone is searching for an injury attorney, his name may come up as a recommendation even if the family member or friend making the recommendation never used him.

Cable Targeting

Television has expanded, with cable markets that not only help target specific demographics but also help reduce the cost of commercial advertising. A local comic-book and gaming store might benefit from commercials on the Syfy network. Those who watch this channel are likely to be the ideal customers for the store. Some of the smaller networks have smaller audiences and thus are cheaper to advertise on. Doing research about your target market and the types of television shows they watch can help you cost effectively hit that group.

Fewer Small Businesses

Because everyone is advertising online, media outlets are desperate to sell more commercial packages. If you pay attention to TV commercials, you will see the same companies in the advertising rotation constantly. There are two reasons for this: The first is to enhance branding by constant advertising. The second is because packages are purchased to help sell more airtime for commercial buyers.

A smart business owner can research the stations and times he wants to advertise and then contact advertising distributors to see what packages are available. This means a business owner can gain a captive audience compared to competing against the noise in digital formats.

Cross-Promote on Digital Platforms

There is a secondary benefit to commercial advertising. The production value of a professional commercial is generally much higher than the commercial videos put together for digital media. This means you can use your television commercial in digital formats and likely stand out because the production value is higher than that of other online commercials. This increases the bang for your advertising buck – you can use two very strong platforms for marketing and sales.

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Best website for watching Bollywood movies online

Best to Watch Movies – Watching movies is one of the best ways to get rid of boredom. Especially for those who like to stay up for a movie marathon or favorite drama on TV abroad. That said, in the outcome there many free apps in the Play Store where we can watch full movies and TV shows full episodes are also on Android.iphone & pc..

watch/donwnload here: tv show in HD

MOVIES & TV SHOW is the goal to watch free TV, movies and exclusive series. All for free, anytime, anywhere and on any device. So escape the everyday and recharge with your favorite comedy, drama and entertainment acts. Crackle … escape.

• Streaming Crackle on all your Android devices along with Roku, Apple TV, PlayStation, Xbox and many more.

• Make a list of your favorite movies and TV shows to watch later.

• Create a free account to save your place and pick up where you left off on any device.

• No authentication is required or cable subscription.

• Watch your favorite program Crackle original: Jerry Seinfeld’s Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee, Joe Dirt 2, Sports Jeopardy !, SuperMansion and more.

Awesome watch free movies, TV Shows and Anime directly on your Android device! Our rapidly expanding selection of anime shows, both simulcasts and classic, making us the first-stop app for anime lovers around the world. All our content is officially licensed available absolutely free. There are no sign-ups or fees, just instant access to the full-length content.

ANIME – Classics & simulcasts

Choose from the classic anime simulcasts or discover fresh new brand from Japan and available in a wide selection of multi-language immersion. Anime new shows and episodes added each week, so download the app now to explore the titles currently available in your country.


Exploring some of the most original thriller, horror movies and documentaries tense around. We have a wide range of hidden gems that you will not find anywhere else!


• Watch full length movies, TV shows and Anime

• Free instant access to all our content is officially licensed

• New Movies, TV Shows & Anime weekly upload

• Create a watch-list to watch as you like

• Chromecast support

Pursuing the latest action from the world of sports in Hotstar. Be it cricket, football, badminton, hockey, kabaddi; Hotstar has it all. Hotstar provide live scores and updates, free streaming video and more video highlights. Moreover? See the live cricket score on-the-go and never miss any moment of the game of cricket.

Watch the latest TV series, movies and sports LIVE on your Android device for free! Watch full episodes of your favorite show, full of Hindi / Bollywood, English, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Telugu and Bengali movies in addition to live cricket.

In Hotstar, you can watch full episodes of your favorite TV series of popular channels like Star Plus, Life OK, Channel V, Star Vijay, Asianet, Suvarna, Star Jalsha, Star Pravah, Asianet Plus, Star Utsav, Star World, MAA TV and etc

Watch & Download full Hindi, English, Tamil, Telugu, Punjabi, Bengali, Malayalam and Marathi movies and your favorite TV shows online for free only on application BoxTV.

BoxTV is a premium video service that brings you the latest movie from Bollywood, Hollywood, Regional, TV shows and premium video content in one place. BoxTV application provides a way to access content from your favorite studios and channels in a highly optimized and with a world-class user experience.

Simply set up a new account or register for free via Facebook or Google+, and watch over 5000 hours of movies and TV shows absolutely free.

You can also optionally upgrade your collection by subscribing to BoxTV Monthly Subscription Plan and open up some of the best films and TV shows to watch at any time on various devices.

Most Popular Content:

More than 17,000 hours of video entertainment from Bollywood, Hollywood, TV Shows and Content of Local Language (Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Marathi, Oriya, Urdu, Bhojpuri and more …

Search moves from leading Hollywood talent, including Oscar winners and films featuring Ryan Reynolds, Curtis 50 Cent Jackson, Charlize Theron, Russell Crowe, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, and Kevin Spacey, among many Hollywood royalty, other elite.

We recently added new anime series that are in the air in Japan (and available on a subscription-based application other popular anime) and will be available on TV Tubi next day or a few weeks after their original airing, all for free. It’s just part of growing TV Tubi way to you!

Einthusan.com is a good website for watching Bollywood movies. It doesn’t have all of them, but it does have many popular ones with English subtitles. However, it does have ads, which can disrupt your movie-watching experience.

You can also find Bollywood movies on paid sites like Netflix and Amazon Prime, but there’s not much to choose from.

Another way to watch Bollywood movies online, if you have a specific one in mind, is simply to search for it on Google. “[Insert name] full movie online english subs” should do it.

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How to Protect Your Identity Online
Protect Your Identity. Text on tablet device on a wooden table

The internet opens up new opportunities for everyone. Young and old alike benefit from the wide range of information available.

Unfortunately, sometimes those people that “benefit” from the information available are people trying to steal your identity. There are endless things a hacker can do with the private information that can they can find online.

The scary thing about the online world is small interactions can give up too much personal information. This can allow people to take over your life.

Read on to learn a few tips on how to protect your identity online.

Social Media

Social media is fantastic for keeping in touch with old friends and family members. It is also a great place to meet new contacts and network for business.

Ever-popular games and quizzes that need access to your account are a big warning. Often these sites tell you they only have access to a small amount of information. They trust you’ll allow this in exchange for game lives or quiz results.

Another thing to consider is who you accept as a friend or connection on social media. When learning how to protect your identity online, the last thing you want is a stranger seeing posts from 6 years ago.

These posts may include your kids’ names, birthdays, or anniversaries. Oftentimes, this is the type of information used for passwords.

When doing business with retailers or anyone that requires sensitive data, consider asking if they have an Identity and Access Management (IAM) like Simeio. This type of programming limits the number of employees who have access to your private information.

Speaking of Passwords

How many online accounts do you have? Can you answer off the top of your head? Probably not, because the average person has 25 accounts that require a username and password!

Worse yet, most people have 6 or 7 passwords between the 25 accounts which means they’re being reused. This makes it extremely easy to obtain personal information

It also means that if someone gets one of your passwords, they could have access to your social media (bad,) sites you shop on (worse,) and bank information (worst.)

A fairly easy fix to this is to use a password manager. They can seem complicated, but you just need one password to access all your accounts. Your accounts are protected by a super password that is close to impossible to hack.

Public Wi-Fi

The problem is in the name: public. To someone untrained, it’s not a big deal. You can’t see other people’s information so they can’t see yours, right?

This isn’t the case as hackers or people who are trained can actually see and capture the bits of information seen on a public connection.

As much of a pain as it can be, either opt out of using public wi-fi, or carry a device that allows for a personal connection.

How to Protect Your Identity Online

This comes down to common sense. Do as much as you can to protect yourself with up-to-date virus protection and updates to your browser.

Create strong passwords, delete old posts that give too much information, and if you HAVE to use public wi-fi, do so only for browsing. Don’t log into any site that requires a password on a public connection.

The last item worth mentioning is to keep up with the news and what cybersecurity breaches happen, to what companies. It also may help to pay attention to any news regarding issues with your own technology and the patches for it.

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The 3 Easiest Solutions for How to Improve a Website
Business, Technology, Internet and network concept. Young businessman breaks the virtual future of the screen on which the inscription: improve

Not too long ago mobilegeddon swept the face of the internet, and websites that didn’t keep up were left in the dark. Every day, sites are finding the need to upgrade, but knowing how to improve a website often requires some intense coding knowledge.

You’ve got a site, and you’re looking to beef it up a bit, but you’re not an I.T. expert. So what do you do? Thankfully we’ve got all the answers! So, keep reading and we’ll give you some simple website improvement ideas even your sweet Granny could do.

How to Improve a Website

Say Thanks

Putting in simple thank-you page after a visitor has taken something you offered on your site is a great way to keep them around. These are easy to draw up and easy to implement, but they go a long way for your customer.

Be Quick

One of the biggest reasons people leave a site is because it takes too long to load. Visitors expect pages to load in less than two seconds. Three or more seconds of waiting and they’re out of there!

There are a lot of technical things you can do to help decrease your page loading time, but we don’t have time for that. Instead, here’s a couple things you can do instead that don’t require a Ph.D. in I.T.

Fix Broken Links

Quickly check your site pages and see if you have any broken links. Not only can these slow down your site, but visitors are easily turned off by the sight of a 404 error.

Turn off Unused Plugins

There are a lot of useful plugins that will help improve your site, but unused plugins running in the background will only slow down the whole process. Look at your list of plugins and power down the ones that you know you’re not using.

Use More Whitespace

As tempting as it might be to advertise your services all over your site, but too much of a good thing can be a bad thing. It may feel like having whitespace on your site is a waste of potential space, but it keeps your visitors focused.

Utilizing more whitespace is a great and easy way to improve your site. A quick declutter of your site and people will be much more engaged with the content you want them to see.


At the end of the day, the easiest way to get a website improvement is to get someone else to do it for you. Get a friend to do it for you, hire a local web agency, or go international and let a Swedish webbyra handle it for you!

Website Improvement

Putting these straightforward improvements into practice will put you one step ahead of your competition and give your site the extra boost you’ve been looking for.

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How bloggers get to earn money from their blogging website.

f you have joined the blogging revolution that is sweeping the net, and you think you might want to make a little revenue – or a lot of revenue – from your blogging efforts, you need AdSense tips for bloggers. Blogging has opened up an entirely new way of how non-technical people interact with the Internet, and now, anyone can publish anything about any topic – without having a website – and anyone can profit without even having a product!

Adsense for blogs make perfect sense. Google’s advertising programs are designed to work with sites related to the keywords for the ads that are being presented. Each time you add content to your blog, the Google spiders gobble it up. The more you update, the more the Google spider visits your page. Ultimately, you move up in the SERPs (Search Engine Results Pages) for the topics that you write about. You see where this is going. The higher your search ranking, the more traffic you receive, which ultimately leads to higher revenue from AdSense ads.

The beauty of blogs is their potential for rapid growth. If you become known as an expert in your area of expertise, word of mouth spreads quickly and your blog can become very popular. So it is vital that you always teach something with every blog entry. You want your readers to come back frequently and they will if they know they will learn something. Not only will your readers bookmark your blog and return often, but they will link to your blog enthusiastically as well. People in forums will refer to your blogs and discuss what they learned. Websites will link to you as a valuable resource. In short, an informative blog can grow very quickly if the information it provides is valuable.

It is important to write about specific topics, and sprinkle your blog entries with specific keywords to get the best results – and the highest revenue – with your Google AdSense ads. There is a method to the madness. Start your revenue generating blog by testing the waters.

Decide what area you would like to write about and then do some keyword research. Research is easy if you use Google’s keyword tools found at https://adwords.google.com/select/KeywordSandbox. The keyword tools are located in your Google AdWords account. Yes, you need a free AdWords account to be successful but you don’t have to fund it to use the keyword tools. Look for keywords related to your subject that are high paying. These are keywords where the bid amounts are high. Make a list of the top paying keywords, and use that list to determine what topics you will write about.

Remember, you want people to visit your blog time and time again, and build up a readership, make sure that your blog is well written and informative. Don’t just target keywords for the sake of targeting keywords – the writing needs to make sense! Writing valuable content is the first step to generating traffic to your blog, and traffic is needed to profit from AdSense ads!

You are allowed to use the AdSense ad units in two different places on each page. You can accomplish this in a couple of different ways. First, you can add the AdSense ad code to the template for your blog. This is done through the control panel for your blog, and some knowledge of HTML is needed. The other option is to paste the AdSense code directly in your blog post each time you submit a new post. You can use it once at the top and once at the bottom, or once after a few paragraphs of the post, and again after a few more paragraphs.

Get that code in there however you see fit – but then pay close attention to the results so you can see what is working and what isn’t. Tracking is everything if you want to make real money!

Of course, you need to advertise your blog as much as possible as well. Make sure that you provide Trackbacks to other people’s blogs as often as possible, and that you visit blogs, leave comments – and leave a link for your blog as well!

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How to build a plotter with Arduino

Back in school, there was an HP plotter well hidden in a closet in the science department. I got to play with it for a while and always wanted to have one of my own. Fast forward many, many years. Stepper motors are easily available, I am back into doing stuff with electronics and micro-controllers, and I recently saw someone creating displays with engraved acrylic. This triggered me to finally build my own plotter.

As an old-school 5V guy, I really like the original Arduino Uno. Here’s a list of the other components I used (fyi, I am not affiliated with any of these companies):

  • FabScan shield: Physically hosts the stepper motor drivers.
  • SilentStepSticks: Motor drivers, as the Arduino on its own can’t handle the voltage and current that a stepper motor needs. I am using ones with a Trinamic TMC2130 chip, but in standalone mode for now. Those are replacements for the Pololu 4988, but allow for much quieter operation.
  • SilentStepStick protectors: Diodes that prevent the turning motor from frying your motor drivers (you want them, believe me).
  • Stepper motors: I selected NEMA 17 motors with 12V (e.g., models from Watterott and SparkFun).
  • Linear guide rails
  • Wooden base plate
  • Wood screws
  • GT2 belt
  • GT2 timing pulley


Hardware setup

As you can see here, I started out much too large. This plotter can’t comfortably sit on my desk, but it’s okay, as I did it for learning purposes (and, as I have to re-do some things, next time I’ll use smaller beams).

The belt is mounted on both sides of the rail and then slung around the motor with some helper wheels:

I’ve stacked several components on top of the Arduino. The Arduino is on the bottom, above that is the FabScan shield, next is a StepStick protector on motor slots 1+2, and the SilentStepStick is on top. Note that the SCK and SDI pins are not connected.

Be careful to correctly attach the wires to the motor. When in doubt, look at the data sheet or an ohmmeter to figure out which wires belong together.

Software setup

While software like grbl can interpret so-called G-codes for tool movement and other things, and I could have just flashed it to the Arduino, I am curious and wanted to better understand things. (My X-Y plotter software is available at GitHub and comes without any warranty.)

The basics

To drive a stepper motor with the StepStick (or compatible) driver, you basically need to send a high and then a low signal to the respective pin. Or in Arduino terms:

digitalWrite(stepPin, HIGH);
digitalWrite(stepPin, LOW);

Where stepPin is the pin number for the stepper: 3 for motor 1 and 6 for motor 2.

Before the stepper does any work, it must be enabled.

digitalWrite(enPin, LOW);

Actually, the StepStick knows three states for the pin:

  • Low: Motor is enabled
  • High: Motor is disabled
  • Pin not connected: Motor is enabled but goes into an energy-saving mode after a while

When a motor is enabled, its coils are powered and it keeps its position. It is almost impossible to manually turn its axis. This is good for precision purposes, but it also means that both motors and driver chips are “flooded” with power and will warm up.

And last, but not least, we need a way to determine the plotter’s direction:

digitalWrite(dirPin, direction);

The following table lists the functions and the pins

Function Motor1 Motor2
Enable 2 5
Direction 4 7
Step 3 6

Before we can use the pins, we need to set them to OUTPUT mode in the setup() section of the code

pinMode(enPin1, OUTPUT);
pinMode(stepPin1, OUTPUT);
pinMode(dirPin1, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(enPin1, LOW);

With this knowledge, we can easily get the stepper to move around:

    totalRounds = …
for (int rounds =0 ; rounds < 2*totalRounds; rounds++) {
if (dir==0){ // set direction
digitalWrite(dirPin2, LOW);
} else {
digitalWrite(dirPin2, HIGH);
delay(1); // give motors some breathing time
dir = 1-dir; // reverse direction
for (int i=0; i < 6400; i++) {
int t = abs(3200-i) / 200;
digitalWrite(stepPin2, HIGH);
delayMicroseconds(70 + t);
digitalWrite(stepPin2, LOW);
delayMicroseconds(70 + t);

This will make the slider move left and right. This code deals with one stepper, but for an X-Y plotter, we have two axes to consider.

Command interpreter

I started to implement a simple command interpreter to use path specifications, such as:

"X30|Y30|X-30 Y-30|X-20|Y-20|X20|Y20|X-40|Y-25|X40 Y25

to describe relative movements in millimeters (1mm equals 80 steps).

The plotter software implements a continuous mode, which allows a PC to feed large paths (in chunks) to the plotter. (This how I plotted the Hilbert curve in this video.)

Building a better pen holder

In the first image above, the pen was tied to the Y-axis with some metal string. This was not precise and also did not enable the software to raise and lower the hand (this explains the big black dots).

I have since created a better, more precise pen holder that uses a servo to raise and lower the pen. This new, improved holder can be seen in this picture and in the Hilbert curve video linked above.

The pen is attached with a little clamp (the one shown is a size 8 clamp typically used to attach cables to walls). The servo arm can raise the pen; when the arm goes down, gravity will lower the pen.

Driving the servo

Driving the servo is relatively straightforward: Just provide the position and the servo does all the work.

#include <Servo.h>

// Servo pin
#define servoData PIN_A1

// Positions
#define PEN_UP 10
#define PEN_DOWN 50

Servo penServo;

void setup() {
// Attach to servo and raise pen

I am using the servo headers on the Motor 4 place of the FabScan shield, so I’ve used analog pin 1.

Lowering the pen is as easy as:


Next steps

One of my next steps will be to add some end detectors, but I may skip them and use the StallGuard mode of the TMC2130 instead. Those detectors can also be used to implement a home command.

And perhaps in the future I’ll add a real Z-axis that can hold an engraver to do wood milling, or PCB drilling, or acrylic engraving, or … (a laser comes to mind as well).

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Online Shopping: 10 Tips For Safe Online Shopping
e-commerce-Problems with Online Shopping

Have you ever bought a product or service from the internet?

Me too.

Some of the reasons why most people are shopping online are: they can buy anything at anytime because Internet shopping is available 24 hours, all the time. 

You can shop from the convenience of your home. You can avoid traffic and crowding at the malls. 

Online shopping is one of the best ways to locate hard-to-find items not available in your local stores.

Whatever you buy can be delivered by mail to your house.

Most online stores and companies provide excellent values and discount prices because they do not have to pay the overhead of owning a physical business that will cost them insurance, employee pay, taxes and more.

VeriSign, Inc. says that online sales recorded during the prime holidays shopping season was about $2.2 billion dollars.

According to a study by Forrester Research Company, by 2010, online sales will reach $331 billion dollars.

More consumers are shopping online today than a year ago. The range of products they buy are many: software, hardware, electronics, digital products, music, toys, e-books, books, programs, DVD, flowers, pets, jewelry, clothes, air tickets, insurance, cars, prescription drugs, comic books, games, gifts and more. 

They are flocking to buy from online bookstores, software stores, online computer stores, target stores, pet stores, liquor stores, drug stores, music stores, furniture stores, fabric stores, the Disney store, outlet stores, surplus stores, discount stores, thrift stores, gift stores, candy stores, lingerie stores, sports stores, video stores, sex stores, department stores, game stores, clothing stores and others.

Be a smart and savvy online shopper. Shop wisely and safely.

Here are a few tips to help you do your online shopping safely.

(1) Shop at the websites of companies that you know and are popular offline.

If you’re not sure of the company, request their catalog or brochure first. 

Be sure they have a physical address and phone, as well as an e-mail address. Call them and speak to a human being first. 

Check with the yellow pages and the Better Business Bureaus to be sure the company is legitimate. 

Read all the fine print and the refund policy before you place an order.

You may read about product reviews and what other shoppers have to say about a company at: 
http://www.epinions.com, http://www.consumersearch.com , http://www.productopia.com, http://www.deja.com 

Here are some internet shopping agents’ sites:
http://www.comparenet.com , http://vo.infospace.com , http://bottomdollar.com 

To read about reviews on shopping stores, regarding ease of use, pricing, selection and service go to:
http://www.gomez.com, http://www.bizrate.com , http://www.ratingwonders.com 

To read about web business frauds and get help to avoid being a victim, go to:
http://www.fraud.org , http://www.bbbonline.org , http://www.webassured.com 

(2) Keep a record of all your purchases.

Most people are by nature disorganized and unable to keep records. Learn to keep records of all your online purchases. This will help you keep track of your spending and shopping. 

Print all receipts or save them on your computer in a folder named “receipts”. 

This will help you locate orders that you placed but were never delivered. 

The more organized you are the less negative online shopping experience you’ll have.

(3) Keep all your important personal information safe. 

Don’t give them to strangers who may call you over the phone or request them by e-mail.

Personal information includes: your address, e-mail address, phone number, social security number, drivers license, age, information about your family. 

Don’t give them to any stranger and, also, teach your children not to do so.

(4) Keep your passwords private. 

When creating a password, avoid using phone numbers, birth dates or social security numbers. 

Be creative. Use a password that is not easy for others to guess, and yet not easy for you to forget. 

Change your passwords often. Use phrases to help you remember them.

Don’t disclose passwords to anyone. 

(5) Use a credit (but never debit) card to make your payment.

Be sure to keep all credit card payment receipts. Check your credit card account statements to be able to spot any unauthorized charges. 

When you buy certain goods and services from some companies, sometimes they will keep billing you thereafter. So scrutinize your statements. If you see a charge you’re not sure of, call the billing merchant and check it out. 

Keep your credit cards secure. 

Avoid making a payment using your credit card on a public computer.

Report any lost credit cards immediately and have them cancelled. Don’t give anyone that you don’t know your credit card number.

(6) Read the return policy before placing an order.

Be sure that you read and understand the return policy and warranty.

(7) Read and understand the company’s privacy statement (or policy).

A privacy statement tells you how and why a business is collecting your information, and how that information may be used. 
You may find the company’s privacy statement (or policy) at the very bottom of the home page or inside their “Terms & Conditions” or “Terms of Service” (TOS).

(8) Use a secure browser and server.

Be sure whatever browser you’re using complies with the industry’s security standards, such as secure sockets layer (SSL). 

This security protocol scrambles or encrypts the personal information you send over the Internet to ensure your transaction is secured.

How do you know if the server is secure where you’re making a payment?

If a Web site is using secure technology, its Web address begins with https and a tiny locked padlock appears at the bottom right corner of the screen. 

(9) Check out a few stores and compare prices before buying.
Look for hidden costs such as shipping and handling.

(10) Use Yahoo Search Engine for all your searches.

Yahoo continues to be, not only the largest online company, but also, the best Search Engine. 

Unlike the other popular Search engine, which keeps companies in a sandbox for many months and refuses to give them rankings for many months, Yahoo is pro business and gives immediate rankings to companies and business.

Their search result is also excellent. That may be one reason why 60% of people online (including me) love Yahoo. 

Also, they have the most reliable and the best hosting service in the world. 

For these reasons, I strongly recommend you use Yahoo to do all your searches.

Happy and safe online shopping.

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A Brief History of Cell Phones in Nigeria

Back in 1995, when I wanted to call my family in the U.S., I had to go a couple miles to the main telephone office, enter a booth, and shout a few sentences to my family while listening to other people shouting to their loved ones.

Around 1997, we paid about $200 to get a landline installed in our house. We still couldn’t call outside the country, but at least we could receive calls from abroad. Our line often went dead–especially in the rainy season. In 2005, our phone went down, and we didn’t feel like paying to repair it. After 6 months, I just unplugged it and packed it away. I don’t know anyone who uses a landline these days. I doubt that even 1% of the homes in Jos ever had a landline.

I don’t remember when cell phones entered the scene, maybe around 2000 or so, in a limited way. I finally broke down and got one in 2004.

Now in 2009, I can pretty confidently say that 95% of the adults in Jos have cell phones. It’s just assumed that everyone has one. Even people who earn less than $50 a month have a phone.

Phones can be as cheap as $15. Of course, there are also very expensive models available. You can buy a $2 SIM card for any of the four major networks. Just put the SIM card in the phone and then buy a card worth of “credit.” Load the pin code into your phone and you’re all set. Phone credit comes in increments as small as 70 cents up to about $10.

As long as you have even 1 cent of credit on your phone, you can ‘flash’ someone you want to talk to. If they feel like it (and if they have credit), they may call back. You can still receive calls even if you have no credit.

If your phone is lost or stolen, you can fairly easily reclaim your old number. A few years ago I had a phone stolen from inside my zipped purse while at church on Dec. 24th. I guess someone really needed a last minute Christmas present! Almost everyone can tell one or two stories of how a phone was stolen.

Perhaps one of the biggest challenges is keeping your phone battery charged since the electricity can be so erratic. I have often said to someone: I couldn’t reach you! Their reply: my battery was dead.

Many people carry two phones (and sometimes three!) with different SIM network cards. That way, if one network is down, you can try another. I prefer to use my MTN network phone throughout the day, but the problem is, I can’t receive or make calls on it inside my house. It’s a common occurrence to see my neighbors outside, looking for higher ground, so they can hear their caller. I also have a phone that uses the Zain network. This allows me to take calls inside my house.

I primarily use my phones for texting which costs about 10 cents per text. Dialling a call within Nigeria is approx. 20-30 cents per minute. I don’t call the U.S. that often, but it’s very easy, and I think it costs about 50 cents per minute. (I could be way off on that–if you know, feel free to correct me.)

These phones won’t work in the U.S. Thankfully, my parents always loan us one of theirs when we travel. Somehow, I think it’s a little more complex to get started with a phone and a plan in the U.S.–especially when we’re only there such a short time.

I’m quite sure it’s against the law to use your phone while driving, but unfortunately, many people still do–and the vast majority of our cars are manual transmission–so figure out how to do that!

Having cell phones during the 2008 Jos crisis made it much easier to get information and to check on friends and relatives than it was during the 2001 crisis. In fact, before I stepped out of my house on the seemingly calm morning of the 2008 crisis, I had information from two different parts of Jos and from Bayo in the capital city that I should stay home. If we didn’t have this communication network, we all just would have ventured out that day.

I bought phone credit today and asked Tobi to fill my phones. I figured it was a good exercise in following directions and achieving accuracy. He had a bit of frustration with punching in all 16 numbers just right, but he figured it out. What kid doesn’t love messing around with a phone?

As I understand it, it is far cheaper to put up cell towers than string land lines, so many countries that didn’t have the infrastructure have cell phone networks.

We were amazed when we were in Uganda in 2007 to hear cell phones ringing. Same ring as my husband’s work phone…that was an irritant because he didn’t want to think about work. But for the purposes of our travel group and for our hosts, the cell phones were invaluable. Some of our travel group could call the US on their own phones that they brought along.

I had to conclude that cell phones in Uganda, as you mention for your country, must be far cheaper than they are in the US. In the US,it is hard to find a contract for less that $60 or $50/month. Signing up for 2 years usually gets a person a free phone, but if you want a better phone or no contract, you might pay $100 – $300 for a phone. Yikes!

I’m way past my contractual obligation and I have no interest in a new contract or a new phone, but the company is pushing this with every bill and I get phone calls and emails about it as well.

One fly in the ointment is that in a number of locations a certain cell company might work, but not other companies. They don’t cooperate enough. My AT&T phone doesn’t work at half of my relative’s homes.

My friend finally got a Track phone. This costs more per minute, but there is no contract and it cooperates with the various companies, so it is better for traveling. I guess you have to buy a phone initially, but then just the minutes, like you are used to. I’ve heard that if you let your minutes run out, they can sell your phone number to somebody else.

There are so many cell phone stores all over, multiple stores in the malls. I figure that much of the cost of using cell phones must go to support these stores rather than to the actual cost of the phone service.

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INTRO TO COMPUTER: In this our technolgy age everyone should read this


  • A computer can be described as an electronic calculating device that accepts raw data as input, processes it and produces meaningful information i.e. output as result.
  • A computer system is made up of both hardware and software components.
  • Hardware consists of the physical components of a computer system like input devices, output devices, processing device (CPU) and the storage device.
  • Software represents the set of programs and instructions that govern the operation of a computer system.
  • A computer is fast, accurate, versatile, reliable, diligent, and has high speed.
  •  The need for counting and simple computations has led to the development of several computing devices like Abacus, Napier’s Bones, Slide Rule, Blaise Pascal’s Adding Machine, Stepped Reckoner, Punch Card System, Hollerith’s Machine etc.
  • The evolution of computers can be divided into five generations. Each generation represents technological evolutions over the period of time.
  • A computer has four functional units Input unit, output unit, central processing unit (CPU) and secondary storage unit.
  • Input unit is used to provide data, information and instructions to the computer so that it can perform processing on data/information according to the instructions given by the user.
  • Examples of input devices are include keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanner etc.
  • Output devices are used to display the result of the processing done by CPU on the input provided by the user.
  • Examples of output devices are monitor, printer, plotter, speaker etc.
  • Printer is an output device that is used to get the hard copy of the output in the form of printed papers.
  • Printers are of two types – impact printers and non-impact printers.
  • Impact use electromechanical mechanism which makes mark on the paper by physically striking a head or a needle against an ink ribbon.
  • Dot matrix printers, Daisy wheel printers and Drum printers are examples of impact printers.
  • Non-impact printers do not make a striking or hitting action on a ribbon to print. They use thermal, electrostatic chemical, laser beam and ink jet technologies for printing on paper.
  • Inkjet and laser printers are examples of non-impact printers.
  • They are used to create high resolution graphs, images charts, blueprints, maps, circuit diagram and other line based diagrams.
  • There are two kinds of plotter- Drum plotter and Flat-bed plotter.
  • CPU is referred to as the brain and heart of the computer system which is responsible for all the processing done on the data entered by using input device.
  • CPU consists of three units Control Unit (CU), Arithmetic & Logical Unit (ALU) and Main/Primary storage unit.
  • Control Unit is responsible for interpreting the instructions provided by the user and directing the sequence of operations accordingly.
  • ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations on the data. It performs four basic mathematical operations i.e., addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, three comparative or logical operations i.e., ‘greater than’, ‘less than’, ‘equals to’ to compare numbers, letters or special characters between data items.
  • Main memory holds instructions and data currently being processed by the CPU, the intermediate results produced during the course of calculations and recently processed data.
  • Main memory is of two kinds Random Access Memory (RAM) & Read Only Memory (ROM).
  • Random Access Memory is a volatile memory and temporarily holds software, programs and instructions before and after processing.
  • Read Only Memory is non-volatile memory whose contents are not lost even after the loss of electric power. It contains startup instructions.
  • Secondary memory is also known as external memory or auxiliary memory, and is required to supplement the limited capacity and volatile characteristics of primary memory.
  • A Computer has few limitations like they don’t have IQ, they don’t have emotions, they lack decision making power etc.
  • Computers play a vital role in every sphere of our life like education, home, entertainment, communication, research, banking, medicine and health and so on.
  • On the basis of purpose computers can be divided into two categories – General Purpose Computers and Special Purpose Computers.
  • On the basis of technology used by them, computers can be divided into three categories i.e. Analog, Digital and Hybrid computer.
  • On the basis of size and capacity, computers are of four kinds – super computers, mainframe computer, minicomputer and microcomputer.

this is just a summary to boost your interest in computer studies..

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Quality of service Depending on the installation requirements, network performance is usually measured

Network performance

Quality of service
Depending on the installation requirements, network performance is usually measured by the quality of service of a telecommunications product. The parameters that affect this typically can include throughput, jitter, bit error rate and latency.

The following list gives examples of network performance measures for a circuit-switched network and one type of packet-switched network, viz. ATM:

Circuit-switched networks: In circuit switched networks, network performance is synonymous with the grade of service. The number of rejected calls is a measure of how well the network is performing under heavy traffic loads.[32] Other types of performance measures can include the level of noise and echo.
ATM: In an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network, performance can be measured by line rate, quality of service (QoS), data throughput, connect time, stability, technology, modulation technique and modem enhancements.[33]
There are many ways to measure the performance of a network, as each network is different in nature and design. Performance can also be modelled instead of measured. For example, state transition diagrams are often used to model queuing performance in a circuit-switched network. The network planner uses these diagrams to analyze how the network performs in each state, ensuring that the network is optimally designed.[34]

Network congestion Edit
Network congestion occurs when a link or node is carrying so much data that its quality of service deteriorates. Typical effects include queueing delay, packet loss or the blocking of new connections. A consequence of these latter two is that incremental increases in offered load lead either only to small increase in network throughput, or to an actual reduction in network throughput.

Network protocols that use aggressive retransmissions to compensate for packet loss tend to keep systems in a state of network congestion—even after the initial load is reduced to a level that would not normally induce network congestion. Thus, networks using these protocols can exhibit two stable states under the same level of load. The stable state with low throughput is known as congestive collapse.

Modern networks use congestion control, congestion avoidance and traffic control techniques to try to avoid congestion collapse. These include: exponential backoff in protocols such as 802.11’s CSMA/CA and the original Ethernet, window reduction in TCP, and fair queueing in devices such as routers. Another method to avoid the negative effects of network congestion is implementing priority schemes, so that some packets are transmitted with higher priority than others. Priority schemes do not solve network congestion by themselves, but they help to alleviate the effects of congestion for some services. An example of this is 802.1p. A third method to avoid network congestion is the explicit allocation of network resources to specific flows. One example of this is the use of Contention-Free Transmission Opportunities (CFTXOPs) in the ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) Local area networking over existing home wires (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables).

For the Internet RFC 2914 addresses the subject of congestion control in detail.

Network resilience Edit
Network resilience is “the ability to provide and maintain an acceptable level of service in the face of faults and challenges to normal operation.”[35]

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