There are so many cultures and practices that seem unusual in the province of Kalinga. Some ethos that the local tribes molded of what they are now. It still exists and difficult to break down the beliefs despite the changes in the modern world. The old practices had been preserved and continued to pass on from one generation to another.
It was interpreted as “feeling shame.” The act of showing respect to other people as a fellow human being. It has a similar meaning to the virtue espoused by the saying of Confucius: “Do not do unto others if you would not like others to do unto you.”
It is strict adherence to taboos regarding social and economic activities. It also involves compliance with certain rituals to protect oneself and the members of the family from illness or harm. It dictates avoidance to what is offensive to “kabunyan” or Kalinga god to one’s own kind. “Mangngilin ka” means avoid doing evil is a common advice of the elders.
The Kalinga people believe in a god called “kabunyan” who is the creator of all things and the master of life and death. “Mampaniyao” is the restriction on oneself acts looked upon as degrading, immoral and punishable by the mighty “kabunyan.” The Klaingas strongly abhor wicked acts such as “Ba-ug” (the killing of a stranger in the village where he has been given food to eat or water to drink).
It is a very degrading and shameful actuation of a person. “Akaw” or theft leaves are more or less permanent stigma on the personality of the culprit and upon the repulsion of his family. A thief who stole animals such as pigs, carabaos or dogs will have bad luck and can never have it in the future. Most of the crops will never be in good quality.
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