Available Balance
April 17, 2017

Problems of Urbanisation

Urbanisation means the concentration of population in the big cities of a country.  These big cities are causing serious problems even in the very advanced countries of the world.  The big cities are growing in a very unsystematic manner due to fast industrialization.   In reality, the concentration of industries also causes the problems of urbanisation.

The population of big cities is always on the increase, because the villagers migrate in large numbers to the cities in search of employment.  In the villages, there are not many opportunities to get work due to the lack of agro industries and more so due to seasonal nature of employment in agriculture.  The people of villages also come to the cities in search of higher standard of living and better living conditions.  The cities are more glamorous.  They provide many sided entertainments through the clubs, cinema houses, hotels, etc., whereas villages lack all such facilities.

But on the other hand, due to over population the cities become the centres of all the cities.  In the big cities of U.S.A many organized criminal gangs have come into existence criminal gangs have come into existence.  In certain big cities of Europe and U.S.A people do not come out in the night due to the fear of these criminals.  Thus, big cities create many social and criminal problems. The same is true of Mumbai, India’s commercial capital and New Delhi, the capital of India where underworld mafia rules the roost.

In the big cities, there is also the serious problem of housing.  The authorities are always failing in their efforts to meet the housing demands of the people.  The shortage of houses leads to overcrowding, and insanitary conditions, which result in slums.  Jhuggi Jhompri (JJ) colonies spring up.  These people not only steal water and electricity but also spread insanitation.  They have little toilet – facilities.  They ease on roads, on rail tracks and even in streets.  These unemployed youth join the criminal world posing law and order problems.  The huge population of the cities also leads to many transport problems like traffic jams, accidents, etc., The inhabitants of the cities also become very self-seeking and self-centred.  They lack social feeling and sympathy for others.

Over-population and overcrowding in the cities create several problems for the Municipal authorities such as water shortage, electricity breakdown, etc., In certain big cities, water is not available all the twenty-four hours.  Sometimes, the water gets contaminated.  It is also a problem to keep the streets, roads, etc., properly cleaned.  The high sky scrapers which are constructed in the big cities cause many problems.  If by chance a fire breaks out in these multi-storeyed buildings, it is not easy to be extinguished.

It is also not easy to get anything pure in the big cities.  Everything is either impure or adulterated because of larger demands and lesser supplies.  One cannot get pure food, milk and even drinking water in the big cities.  Everything available here is adulterated, which leads to many diseases among the urban people.  Thus, we see that the city people do not possess good health.  Again the big cities are also very costly and the standard of living is very high there.

Instead of following the ideals of simple living and high thinking, the people in big cities follow the ideal of high living and simple thinking.  The urban people lead a very fast and busy life so as to maintain their high standard of living.  They lead a very expensive and artificial life.  On the other hand, the people of the villages lead a natural life.

Of course, there are certain merits of the city life also.  The urban people do not believe in superstitions.  They work hard to lead a higher standard of living.  There is no doubt, that most of the achievements of the modern world like scientific and technological inventions and discoveries, have inventions and discoveries, have been made in the cities.  There are also many means of the entertainment in the cities as also wider employment opportunities

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Environmental Jurisprudence– what is to be done to save future problems
April 13, 2017

Environmental Jurisprudence


If one wants to indulge in any discourse on environment, one should not forget to mention that almost all the countries of the world are unanimous in their view that centuries of invention driven development has brought the existence on the earth to a crossroads and the people have before them only two options left—to live reasonably or face the gradual extinction.  In fact, scientific achievements, one after another, made people very complacent and they did not think even for a while that more development would mean more adoption of faster but unscrupulous means that will some day lead to a very dangerous situation.  Let alone laymen, even the knowledgeable people with scientific approach to the advancement of society forgot that hasty development efforts made for a long time would result in catastrophic climate change or global warming.  Now, almost everyone agrees that global warming should be retarded and finally stopped in a phasewise manner.  People have been compelled to think so because scientists all over the world no think that steps need to be taken to limit the temperature rises across the world to 2oC.  The exigency of the aim will require global emissions to peak and begin falling within the next five years.  A bigger rise of 3oC to 4oC—the seemingly insignificant increase as a delayed action would ravage the earth, i.e. the continents would run short of water.   It would mean farmland changing into desert; almost fifty percent of all species becoming extinct; displacing millions of people, a number of nations submerging under water.


The world is quite aware that development means consumption of energy-producing materials which is not possible without carbon emission in most of the cases.  It was the worry of the scientific community all over the world that forced all the major nations of the world to sit together and adopt on December 11, 1977 a Protocol in Kyoto Protocol.  In November 2009, 187 nations signed and ratified it.  Under the Protocol, 37 industrialised countries (called Annexe I countries) commit themselves to a reduction of four greenhouse gases (GHG)—carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and sulphurhexafluoride—and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) produced by them, and all member countries give general commitments.  The Annexe I countries agreed to reduce their collective greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2 percent from the 1990 level.  Emission limits do not include emissions by international aviation and shipping.  Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are dealt with under the1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.  The benchmark 1990 emission levels accepted by Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) were the values of global warming potential calculated for the Nobel Prize-winning Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC)’s Second Assessment Report.

As far as India is concerned, it has taken the Kyoto Protocol very seriously.  In fact, India started serious legislative attempts several years (almost two decades) prior to the Kyoto Protocol’s coming into effect in 2005.  The 42nd Amendment in 1976 to the Constitution introduced new provisions.  A provision added to the Directive Principle of state policy reads that the state shall endeavor to protect and improve environment and to safeguard the forests and the wildlife of the country.  Among the Fundamental Duties, prominent is the duty to protect environment.  Every citizen shall have a fundamental duty to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and have a compassion for living creatures.  The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, referred to as Water Act 1974, was passed, as its name indicates, for the purpose of prevention and control of pollution.  Water being a State subject, Parliament passed the law on the request of some of the States.  The Act envisages not only to control pollution of water but to also restore and maintain the wholesomeness of water.  The philosophy behind it is that water is ‘jeevan’, the life-giving force for every living organism and man has a bounden duty to preserve it.  The Act defines pollution as “contamination of water, alteration of the physical, chemical or biological properties of water or discharge of any sewage or trade effluent or any other liquid, gaseous or solid substance into water.  Prohibition of disposal of pollution matter to a stream or well or sewer or on land is key to the regulatory system under the Act.


Besides the Water Act, the Environmental Protection Act passed in 1986, referred to as EPA, also contains provisions for control of pollution of water.  EPA defines environment as including water, air and land and the inter-relationship which exists among and between water, air and land and human beings and other living creatures, plants, micro-organisms and properties.  Subject to the provisions of the Act, the Central Government shall have the power to take measures necessary for protecting the environment.  It can constitute authorities, appoint officers, issue directions for the purpose of the Act air(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, hereinafter referred to as Air Act was passed by the Parliament under Article 253 of the Constitution.  This Act is an extension of Water Act 1974 and entrusts powers and functions to the boards which are constituted under the Water Act for their exercise and discharge.  Under the Act, air pollution means any solid, liquid or gaseous substance, present in atmosphere in such concentration as may be injurious to human beings or living creatures, plant, property or environment.  State government is authorized to notify ‘air pollution control areas; to prohibit use of such fuels in the said areas which in the opinion of the State government are likely to cause pollution.  In such areas no person shall establish or operate industrial unit without permission and no person operating industrial unit shall discharge or cause emission of any air pollutant in excess of the prescribed standard.  Failure to comply with provisions of the Act will attract penal consequences.  The Air Act operates in tandem with the Environmental Protection Act.  The boards constituted under the Act will be empowered to control soil pollution.


Every legislation carries within it the aspirations of social well-being.  Out of the widespread concerns for large-scale deforestation, resulting in ecological imbalance and environmental degradation, the Forest (Conservation) Act 1980 was passed.  Restriction on de-reservation of forests or use of forests, or forest lands for non-forest purpose is the crux of the Act.  The expression ‘Non-forest Purpose’ is significant.  It means breaking up or clearing of any forest land for the cultivation of tea, coffee, spices, rubber, palms, oil-bearing plants, horticulture corps or medicinal plants.  The law enables the Central Government to appoint a committee, to advise it on the grant of prior approval and matters connected with the conservation of forests.  The 9th Five-year Plan proposed legislations in the field of conservation of energy.  Considering the vast potential of energy savings and benefits of energy efficiency, the Parliament enacted the Energy Conservation Act 2001.  The Act provides for the legal framework, institutional arrangement and a regulatory mechanism at the Central and State levels to embark upon energy efficiency drive in the country.  Under the Act, “energy” means any form of energy derived from fossil fuels, nuclear substances or materials, hydro-electricity and includes electrical energy of electricity generated from renewable sources of energy or bio-mass connected to the grid.  The Act led to the establishment of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE).  The primary objective of the BEE is to reduce the energy intensity through institutionalizing and strengthening of delivery mechanisms for energy efficiency services.  The thrust areas identified for implementation are: Indian industries energy programme for energy conservation, designated consumer, standards and labeling programmes for equipments, certification and accreditation of energy managers, energy auditors, etc.  The Act notifies 15 energy-intensive industries as designated consumers, to comply with benchmark energy consumption, to carry out energy audit and to appoint energy managers.


The key environmental challenges that the country faces relate to the nexus of environmental degradation with poverty in its many dimensions.  The proximate drivers of environmental degradation are population growth, and subsequent scarcity of resources.  This is connected with the state of environmental resources, such as land, water, air and their flora and fauna.  It is said that population grows geometrically and production increases arithmetically.  The rapid and uncontrolled growth of population is the greatest danger to the environment.  Vast population causes overburden on the natural resources.  Population explosion gave birth to poverty and that in turn generated pollution and environmental degradation.    When such degradation impacts soil fertility, quantity and quality of water, air quality, forest, wildlife and fisheries, it enhances and perpetuates poverty.  Thus it becomes a vicious circle of degradation of both human life and nature.  Poor people have limited access to resources. Poor communities suffer most, when the environment deteriorates, as they are not capable of taking necessary measures to prevent degradation.  In addition, mighty legislation with effective implementation strategy has become inevitable to control plastic pollution.  The future legislation need to take into consideration the prohibition of use of disposable plastics, irresponsible throwing away of plastic, etc.  While prohibiting plastic, the possible alternatives and their ecology impact need to be scientifically studied.  It is suggested that the future legislation should bring forth an institutional mechanism which will simultaneously take serious actions (including penalties) against plastic pollution and encourage and establish scientific research in this area.


Noise is also a major pollutant of the environment.  In 1976, loss of hearing due to noise was included in the Factories Act.  But in the Air Act, noise was not included as air pollutant when drafted originally.  The term emission includes only solid, liquid or gaseous substance.  It does not include noise.  Therefore, the noise blown out from an industrial unit will not be a noise.  Vehicles are also potential makers of noise pollution.  The statutory rules framed under the Motor Vehicles Act 1989 mandate that vehicles should have electric horns of approved standard.  In 1993, by amendment, it was substituted by noise standard indicated by the rules.  These rules have a very limited scope to deal with a particular type of noise.  The EPA authorized the Central Government to frame rules to cover noise pollution of every kind.  Similarly, the Water Act does not deal with groundwater pollution which needs a serious consideration.  Groundwater is available from underground aquifers.  Aquifers near surface are subject to annual discharge from precipitation, which can be affected by human interference.  Contamination and depletion of groundwater is caused by improper use of agricultural chemicals and other industrial and urban uses.  Since it is a major source of drinking water, immediate efforts are required to protect and preserve groundwater by law.  Definition of the term ‘stream’ in the Act can be interpreted to include subterranean water.  Thus wider interpretation of the provision may bring groundwater pollution under the Act.  But the overburdened Pollution Control Boards are normally reluctant to go for such wider interpretation of law and to assume powers.  It is advisable to enact comprehensive legislation exclusively deal with groundwater pollution.  Water Act does not provide for public participation and impact study, before a decision is taken to grant the consent.  This defect needs to be cured by apt amendments.  Number of people dying in urban India due to deteriorating air quality is increasing day by day.  The Air Act does not empower the Pollution Control Boards to prosecute polluters outside the limits of air pollution control areas’.  This provision also requires a revisit.


Promotion of public transport in urban areas can reduce energy consumption, especially that of fossil fuels.  Right to travel is also a part of right to life as it includes all comfortable living conditions.  Therefore, legal attempts are necessary to accelerate a drive for effective and mass transport, such as underground and elevated trains or dedicated bus lanes to serve the future population.  As a result of the initiative taken by BEE under the Energy Conservation Act, CFL bulbs are widely advertised and largely used.  It is reported that they carry a significant mercury hazard, if allowed to enter our landfills through mishandled disposal cycle.  There are suggestions about BEE taking initiatives to compel manufacturers to take back the CFL waste for recycling.  Conservation can be promoted by making them available at economical rates.  Renewable energy sources like wind, solar, biomass, and biogas are available locally and are environment-friendly.  Promotion of various non-conventional energy sources will play a central role in protection of natural resources and reduction of greenhouse gas emission.  Article 21 of the Constitution deals with a fundamental right which reads as follows, “no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law.”  Though this Article does not explicitly mention environment, the Supreme Court and High Courts have given a wider interpretation to the word ‘life’ Article.  According to them, right to life includes the right to living in an environment congenial to human existence.


Taking environment seriously, the 12th Five-Year Plan document clearly says that India faces the twin challenges of adaptation and mitigation.  As a country with many critical sectors and regions that are highly climate-sensitive, there are significant costs in addressing the impact of climate variability and change.  At the same time, as a signatory to the UNFCCC, India is expected to undertake mitigation actions consistent with the multilateral framework.  India has already taken decisive steps in this regard.  Over the 11th Plan Period, it initiated the National Action Plan on Climate Change, which is monitored by a body no less than the Prime Minister’s Council for Climate Change. It has set up an Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment for making periodic assessment of climate variability and change.  It has also set up an Expert Group to evolve Low Carbon Strategies for Inclusive Growth, which has made important recommendations for power, industry, transport, buildings and forestry sectors.

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Managing tooth aches — it is a big problem
April 12, 2017
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Hello friends

This is a topic on which many of us may have some views to share.   Yes,  This topic is about tooth ache.  I am now 67 and thank  God I have had tooth ache issues only for countable number of occasions.

It is true one cannot bear any pain or ache whether it may be head ache or stomach ache or leg pain or ears pain etc.  The pain or ache causes enormous extent of discomfort and one cannot concentrate on his duties.  Even small things may appear BIG.

My experience with dentists is like this —  they are good — but the treatment they give results in more pain at least for one or two days after the treatment.  In the earlier years whenever one complains of tooth ache the first thing the doctor will do is to remove the tooth.  Nowadays they resort to tooth removal as a last step–that is initially they try root canal treatment.

We have to agree that this process results in delay in treatment and also involves spending more money.  In India treatment is relatively not costly as compared to the western countries.  The one reason for this can be that the population is less in western countries and hence more charges are levied.  Or it may be the cost of instruments used are more costly and doctors have to recover this from the patients.  OR  it can be since many patients are covered by insurance doctors find it easy to claim more and more from insurance.

Whatever it may be — it is the patient who is put into a lot of suffering.  Temporary medication suggested is taking antibiotic MOX for three days and mostly the pain will subside as infection will be cured.  Along with this pain killers can also be taken for two or three days.  Oralgel is also prescribed for being applied on gems.


I am not getting suitable images for being used from literacy base,  How others manage is a big doubt?

I want to know the experience of friends with dentists and how they managed such situations.   good day


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Pleasure Of Reading

According to Francis Bacon, “Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man, and writing an exact man”.  There is no doubt that reading has many advantages.  By reading only a person can become a complete man, because by reading he acquires knowledge and wisdom.  Books widen our outlook and place the treasure of knowledge before us.  By reading good books we can also acquire noble virtues.


Reading of books is also a great pleasure.  It gives us peace of mind and satisfaction.  It is also a great source of recreation.  Of course, a person who has developed the hobby of reading only can enjoy all the benefits of reading.  In reality, every person should develop the good habit of reading. When we feel tired and dull, the books of great writers give us peace of mind and make us optimists.  These books contain  many valuable ideas which guide our life.  Books also inspire us to work hard and achieve success in our life.


By reading books, even our natural talents are also developed, because we get inspiration from them.  Reading is an intellectual food for mind.  Just as we need the food for our body to work properly, similarly, we also require food for our mind and soul.  Thus, we are that there are many pleasures of reading.  But these pleasures also depend upon the type of books which we read.  Good and inspiring books can lead us to a noble and successful career in life.  On other  hand, bad books can adversely affect our tastes and lead us to ruination in life.


Bacon has rightly said that some books are to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.   Thus a good book has to be chewed and digested.  Such a book may have a lifelong influence on the life of the reader.  For example, reading of Gita, the sacred book of the Hindus, has a lifelong influence on the readers.  It teaches many good and moral principles to the reader.  It also teaches a person the theory of `Karma Yoga’, which means that we should do our duty sincerely and should not bother about the fruit (result).


There is doubt that different persons choose different books according to their tastes.  But it is necessary that the young boys and girls should choose the books for reading very carefully.  They should not waste their time in reading should not waste their time in reading very sensational type of novels, because it has been noticed that the students of today only enjoy reading cheap romantic novels.  They do not take any pleasure in reading serious type of books or their own text books.  In reality, they lose all the interest in their own studies and waste their in reading useless books.


The fact is that there is nobody to guide the students as to what they should study.  The students should study the newspapers and popular magazines.  These increase their general knowledge and acquaint them with current national and international events.  They should also read the biographies of great men like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, etc., By reading the life stories of great men they will be inspired to follow in their foot steps.

Of course, reading for pleasure is quite different from reading under compulsion.  When we are reading something under compulsion, definitely our joy is killed.  On the other hand, we enjoy a lot when we read just for the sake of pleasure.  But we must make an intelligent selection of books which we want to read.  We must separate the chaff from the grain if we want to enhance our pleasure of reading.


The habit of reading should be developed in the children from the very beginning.  Thus, when they grow up, they can learn a lot and increase their knowledge.  But the young boys and girls should not read bad books which only pollute their minds.  Of course, books are the best companions of the youth, these can save them from falling in bad company.



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In India State Bank of India recruitment of Probationary Officers is a more sought after one.  The reasons are —salary is good  or more than the market.  also job security is there,  Job security is considered more important nowadays in the light of Information Technology companies sending a lot of people home due to business loss or for reducing the costs.  Companies like CTS, TCS, Infosys, Wipro also send hundreds of people every few months home.  This causes a lot of mental agony for the youngsters.


In the light of this I am giving below a few details about SBI probationary officer recruitment which may be found useful by many youngsters.


Minimum qualification :  Graduation in Commerce/Arts/Science.Engineering etc.   (Only candidates who are bright can clear this test because it is really tough and the competition is very acute)


SBI PO (2017) Pattern

Selection Procedure –

Phase I – Preliminary Examination consisting of online objective tests of 1 hour duration for 100 marks. Candidates equivalent to approximately 20 times the number of posts would be shortlisted after the Phase – I preliminary examination for further selection process. The marks obtained in the Phase – I is only for shortlisting the candidates for the next step and shall not be considered for final selection.

Phase II – Mains Examination consisting of online objective and descriptive tests of 3 hours duration for 250 marks. Adequate number of candidates under various categories would be shortlisted for further process on the basis of their performance in Mains Examination

Phase III – Group Exercises (20 marks) & Interview (30 marks) – Candidates would need to score minimum qualifying marks (decided by bank) in order to be considered for final selection

Final Selection – Marks scored by candidates in Phase – II (Mains exam) would be converted to 75 marks and Marks scored in Group Exercise and Interview would be converted to 25 marks. The final merit list is arrived at after aggregating converted marks of Written Test and Group Discussion &Interview out of 100 for each category. The selection will be made from the top merit ranked candidates in each category.

Paper Pattern (SBI PO – 2017 Preliminary Examination)

Preliminary Examination consisting of Objective Tests for 100 marks will be conducted online. This test would be of 1 hour duration consisting of 3 Sections as follows:

Sr. No. Name of Test No. of questions Marks Duration
1. English Language 30 30 Composite time of 1 hour
2. Quantitative Aptitude 35 35
3. Reasoning Ability 35 35
  Total 100 100

Candidates have to qualify in each of the three tests by securing passing marks to be decided by the Bank.


I hope the above information will be found useful by youngsters in India.  For further details I suggest you visit the website of state bank of India.  good day

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Luck is important for one to succeed in life… do you agree or disagree?

I was thinking about the topic on which I can write.  I have visited USA from India and I reached this place on 3rd.  I initially thought whether I can write on the trip experience.


Later I thought I must write on a common topic in which many members of our forum will be interested and more people may comment upon.


I thought this topic is more relevant– I have seen in my life many who were very rich have lost all their fortunes on account of loss in business and the main result for that happened to be one or two wrong decision made by them.  I will call it misfortune.  They have arrived at wrong decisions due to their bad luck.


On the other hand I have also seen many who have come up very well in life thanks to the good luck that has helped them shape their life in a proper way.  We have seen the rise of mahy small time actors rising considerably high on account of success of one or two movies of theirs.

In Tamil we have a phrase which says like this:

“Whenever I go for selling salt , I get rain.

Whenever I go for selling flour I get harsh wind”.

Instead if a person is lucky he will get positive experiences in his life.  It is true hard work is needed.  But in many cases hard work alone doesn’t bring success and it is the luck plays an important role in bringing success of a person or a group or a company.

I will quote the experience of Infosys a successful IT company from India.  When the promoters wanted to start the company leaving their employment many commented –“Why are you leaving a good job and are taking an uncertain proposal on hand?”  Of course Infosys succeeded so also other companies like Wipro, TCS, CTS etc.


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Tolerance is the key for success in life–Tolerance is practiced more in India

Hello friends,


I want to share an experience I had yesterday.  In Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Mylapore, Chennai a Tamil drama titled “Washingtonil Thirumanam” (meaning marriage in Washington) was arranged by Tamil Nadu government free of charge.

This drama was written roughly forty years back and was very well received in those days,  I was in my twenties when that drama was staged and I could not see it then but I have heard very good review about this drama,

The story revolves like this:

A Tamil middle class brahmin arranges for the marriage of his daughter with a person working in Central Government in Delhi.  (Government job is regards very precious even nowadays).  Mrs Rockfeller and Mr. Rockfeller wanted to see a south Indian marriage in person and they agreed to bear the cost of the marriage fully,  The families of bride and bridegroom go over to Washington.  The fun in the remarks made by brahmin priests, not so literate grand mother etc, are detailed in this drama.


NOW LET ME COME TO THE POINT —  I wanted to see this drama. So I reached the marriage hall at 6.00 pm itself for a show to start at 6.30 p.m.  The ground floor of auditorium was full.  I rushed to the balcony.(upstairs).  I got a seat in the front row itself and was feeling very happy and relived.  Happiness lasted only for a few minutes.   A group of people started bringing plastic chairs and sat before us.  This was ok,  The crowd increased.  a number of people started sitting just before our leg in front of us.  I could not move my legs.  Still the crowd increased and a number of people started standing in the stairs of the balcony auditorium.

There was continuous provocation for fifteen minutes after the start of the drama and crowd swelled.  But a number of people stood and watched the drama and I also tolerated the inconvenience of having to sit (similar to travel in flights to USA/Canada) with tight legs.

I enjoyed the drama for nearly 2 hours and then came out.  Outside the hall the streets were all crowded with cars and bikes and it took a lot of time to reach home.  All the while I was appreciating the tolerance of people .

I am sure this sort of tolerance is more in India only and it may not be there in western countries.  I am not sure.  It is because I have not been to any such programs in western countries,

good day,


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Hello friends


I stay in Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu.  Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 States of India.  I have an Airtel Broadband connection.  I have subscribed for 40 mbps speed connection.  I am able to access easily gmail.com, facebook, youtube and many other websites.

Today when I tried to log on to www.literacybase.com I find that it takes an unduly long time.  Yes more than a minute or so for getting access and then further time to get to the place we want to.

Further more a few minutes back I was posting directly in our website but suddenly after two minutes it vanished and I am forced to retype again.   This time I am cautious.  I am typing in Microsoft word.  I will store/save this so that there is no need for me to repeat typing again.

I do not know the experience of other members in India and other countries.  Senior members will be able to tell that whether they are able to access easily nowadays –is it a temporary phenomenon.  It is because if the access is good one can post easily more blogs, also comment on the blogs of others on different topics.

At one stage it took me to hostgator.com and suggesting having a site for ourselves.  I know such things are not uncommon in internet in view of number of members accessing and the complexities of various softwares, programs involved in the maintenance of any website.


I wish the literacybase team will take note of this and take immediate steps for redressing the same so that accessing the site will be smooth and enjoyable one.  Just as if the roads are good the traffic can be faster and people can access longer distance in shorter time—here also if the access is smooth and easy more members will be able to log on every day.  More blogs will be posted.  More members will comment. More traffic will be there.  More advertisements will come for our site.  More revenue will come for our site and the site will also be able to share more to its members.


Good day


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Foreign Exchange Money changers give competitive rates than Banks in India

Recently I wanted to purchase a few United States dollars.  I will be visiting my son in USA.  I visited a private sector bank and asked for the rates.  The staff member said it will be Rs.67.25 per US dollar and Service tax of Rs100+ will be charged.  She said if you tell us now we will get these dollars from the money changers and you can take them from us the next day.


I said I want the foreign exchange that day itself and took the phone number of money changers.  On the way I enquired another money changer and he also quoted 1 US dollar = Rs.67.25 plus service tax.  This dealer wanted me to bring passport copy, visa copy, aadhar card etc.  I said I will bring them and reached my home.


Then I contacted the FX money changer’s phone number.  Immediately the staff said “Sir please give me your cell number.  I will call in another five minutes”.   I gave my number.   I received a phone call from them and they quoted 1 US dollar = Rs.66.10 plus service tax.  This suited me because I can save nearly Rs.1.15 per dollar.  The agent also offered to bring the currency to home but wanted credit in his account at the time of delivery of foreign exchange currencies.

I agreed for that.  I took the details of account no. I waited for the money changer.  Prompt came their representative.  He had brought a few small denomination currencies also.   I checked the currencies.  He gave the bill and I got the money credited to their account through online NEFT.

With this transaction was over and I saved a good amount of Indian rupees.  In case I had bought more dollars on that day I could have save more Indian rupees also.

My point is that nowadays Banks are not offering competitive rates for money changing transactions because they are not holding over night balance in currencies and they rely on money changers for such transactions.  Obviously they have to load their profit margin also and that is why Banks quote such high rates.

May be the situation is same in other countries like USA, Canada, UK, Germany, Philipines, China, Indonesia, Russia also.


good day.

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Federal Reserve to raise interest rates — Will this help the economy?

I read a news report stating that the Federal Reserve (The Central Bank of USA) will be increasing the interest rate soon.  It is also mentioned that this is the third time since 2015 that the interest rates are being revised and this may not be the last revision…that is further revision may also be coming soon.

In a way it is a news that is very relevant not only for USA economy but also for other countries.   If the Federal Reserve raises the interest rates, it will help retired people to some extent.  Yes they may be able to get higher return on their investments.   This may bring smile in the faces of retired people.

At the same time this may result in borrowing costs of companies to go up because they will have to pay a higher rate of interest for their borrowings.  This will help Banks to some extent.  This in turn may help the economy which has not been improving considerably.

It is good to have an inflation which is not high.  This will bring interest in people to work, produce more and sell more  This may also increase the share price and market will move higher.

This move in turn strengthens USA dollar and it will help people visiting other countries with their US dollars.  They may be able to buy more in other countries using their dollars.

This may also result in other countries’ central banks revising their interest rate higher.  This will improve the economy of other coutries also to move faster and expect a higher growth.   Yes. I am from India.  We are facing a situation where the deposit interest rates have been steadily coming down.  Now though the deposit nterest rates may not rise considerably, this will crtainly check the downward trend.   If the rates rise and fixed deposit holders like me get a higher interest rate –in turn higher returns this may help us to some extent to beat against the rising inflation  It is true that the pensioners like me get increase but that is not matching the increase in inflation and prices

In India also the share prices will be going up.  Again tis trend will be followed by China economy.  They will also see increase in interest rates and since that country has a higher population consisting of retired people this will help them get more interest.


good day.

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