Tissue bank is an institution that collects and stores human tissues for medical research or therapeutic purposes. In the tissue bank, depending on what and how is saved, can be stored living or deceased donor tissues or cells. Human organs for transplantation should be used quickly enough, while the tissues and cells can be stored for a long time.
Tissue transplantation started since 1900. Few years later was established Navy Tissue Bank, where has been prepared and stored bones and since 1970, with all medical advances, began the era of tissue banking establishment. There is in the world established different associations, accreditation institutions, released a series of legal documents governing how tissue banks should work. Tissue bank processing and protecting tissues must ensure that these tissues are suitable for transplantation. Today in the storages are stored and used for transplantation bones and bone derivatives, skin, cornea, heart valves, blood vessels, the amniotic membrane, tendons, ligaments, and various stem cells and gametes.
What does the tissue banks? They search the donors of tissues and cells and check the donor, whether they meet the criteria: questionnaire surveys, disease and social history, physical examination. They collect tissues and cells. From the live donors they take cells, femoral head, and the blood. From the deceased donors: the bones, heart and vascular tissues, skin, cornea, etc. Tissue banks processes and prepare tissue and cells for the storage and perform quality – analysis whether tissue and cells meet the quality requirements, control of infection transmission. Prepare tissues and cells for the transplantation (thawing) and assign them for the medical institutions.
Most tissue banks are involved in scientific works. For example, a bone bank can prepare the bone as needed – can be used for transplantation all the bone or part of bone, bone powder or specific shape bone fragment. Cell banks are involved in researches related to the therapeutic cell application possibilities. Cardiovascular banks are exploring whether for the transplantation is better to use vessels with or without cells. Constantly improved technology leads to tissue transplantation and tissue banking development.
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