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history of Nigeria senate president
May 26, 2017
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Senator (Dr.) Abubakar Bukola Saraki, Senator
of Kwara Central, has experienced great
success in both the private sector and public
service of Nigeria.
Born on 19 December 1962, Senator Saraki
was educated in both Nigeria and the UK,
qualified and practiced as a medical doctor at
Rush Green Hospital in London. A young Dr.
Saraki decided to return to Nigeria in 1989
where he worked in the financial sector for
nearly a decade until he rose to the position of
Executive Director where he oversaw corporate
development and expansion programmes within
the financial industry.
In recognition of his experience and
professionalism, the Federal Government of
Nigeria appointed him as Special Assistant to
the President on Budget in 2000 where he was
responsible for preparing the 2000/2001
National Budget. Dr. Saraki equally initiated the
Fiscal Responsibility Bill and served on the
Economic Policy Co-ordination Committee,
where he was responsible for the formulation
and implementation of key economic policies
for Nigeria.
With a vision to translate his experiences into
progress and development for the people of his
home state, Dr. Saraki was called upon by his
people to contest for the position of Executive
Governor of Kwara State. He was elected and
sworn into office in 2003. Based on his
performances and achievements witnessed by
his people, and in demonstration of their
overwhelming support for him, the people of
Kwara State re-elected him in 2007 general
election for second term in office. As Governor,
Dr. Saraki garnered national and international
acclaim for his innovative approaches to
agriculture, health, education, fiscal policy and
environmental reforms. His spirit of team work
endeared him to his colleagues where he was
appointed as Chairman of the Nigeria
Governors Forum. In that capacity, he
championed a peer review mechanism among
the Governors of Nigerian states. He also used
the platform to create a harmonious working
relationship between the executive and the
legislative arm of government at the national
level. He was the first Nigerian Governor to be
awarded the National Honor of Commander of
the Order of the Niger (CON). As a man of the
people coupled with his level of achievements
in the political arena, he was conferred and
turbaned as a nobleman of high rank with a
traditional title of Turaki of Ilorin Emirate.
His transformational programs have been
praised and emulated within and outside
Nigeria, such as his community health
insurance scheme, environmental ‘Clean and
Green’ scheme, agricultural transformation by
turning Kwara State from a net importer to a
net exporter of food through the Zimbabwean
farmer’s project. Senator Saraki has worked
tirelessly to bring progress and greater
opportunity to Kwara State and the nation as a
whole.
In furtherance of his passion to serve the
people of Kwara State and in particular, Kwara
Central Senatorial District where he hails from.
Dr. Bukola Saraki was elected as a Senator in
2001 with overwhelming electoral votes. On his
assumption as a Senator of the Federal
Republic of Nigeria, he was appointed as the
Chairman, Senate Committee on Environment
and Ecology. His legislative interest also
includes the area of Health, Agriculture,
Education, National economy and
Environmental policy. Senator Saraki is also a
member of the Senate Committees on Capital
markets and Finance.
Out of his vision to ensure good governance,
Senator Saraki sponsored a motion on the floor
of the Senate on the need to end the fuel
subsidy regime in Nigeria which has been a
source of conduit pipe and wastages of national
resources. Amongst other motions and private
member bills, he has sponsored includes: the
National Oil Spill Detection and Response
Agency Amendment Bill 2012 which is aimed at
putting a halt to oil spills in the Niger Delta, the
Gas Flaring Prohibition Bill 2012, and a strong
supporter of the Climate Change Commission
Bill 2013.
As the Senate Committee Chairman on
Environment and Ecology, ubukola Abubakar “Bukola” Saraki (born
December 19, 1962) is a Nigerian politician who
has been President of the Senate of Nigeria
since 2015. Previously he was Governor of
Kwara State from 2003 to 2011. He was first
elected to the Senate in April 2011, representing
the Kwara Central senatorial district, and re-
elected in the March 2015 elections.
He is a current member of the All Progressives
Congress (APC) and previous member of the
People’s Democratic Party (PDP).
Early life and education
Abubakar Bukola Saraki was born on 19
December 1962 to the family of Olusola Saraki,
a senator (1979–1983) and a one time Senate
Leader of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and
his mother Florence Morenike Saraki. He
attended King’s College, Lagos , from 1973 to
1978, and Cheltenham College, Cheltenham ,
London from 1979 to 1981 for his High School
Certificate. He then studied at the London
Hospital Medical College of the University of
London from 1982 to 1987, when he obtained
his M.B.B.S (London).
Career
He worked as a medical officer at Rush Green
Hospital , Essex , from 1988 to 1989. He was a
director of Société Générale Bank (Nig) Ltd from
1990 to 2000. [1]
In 2000, President Olusegun Obasanjo
appointed Saraki as Special Assistant to the
President on Budget. [2] During his tenure,
Saraki initiated the Fiscal Responsibility Bill.
Saraki also served on the Economic Policy
Coordination Committee, where he was
responsible for the formulation and
implementation of several key economic
policies for Nigeria.
Governor of Kwara State
In 2003, he ran for the office of governor of
Kwara State on the platform of the People’s
Democratic Party (PDP) , and won. He was
sworn into office in May 2003. He ran again for
re-election in 2007 and won his second term.
As governor of Kwara, he led reforms in
agriculture, health, education, finance and
environment policy. One of his major
achievements was inviting displaced white
farmers from Zimbabwe to Kwara State and
offering them an opportunity to farm. This led
to the establishment of Shonga Farms
programme, which is now being replicated
across Nigeria. His charisma among his fellow
governors got him appointed chairman of the
Nigeria Governors Forum.
Power generation and electricity
Under Saraki, Kwara became the first state to
complete the Nigeria Independent Power
Project. In collaboration with the Power Holding
Company of Nigeria , Saraki re-energised the
Ganmo Power Station at Ilorin, and connected
over 375 rural communities to the national grid
through the development and installation of 725
transformers and 7 substations. [3] Kwara also
completed 4 electrification projects which meant
power became stable 18–22 hours a day. 90%
of people living in Kwara have access to
electricity, compared to a national average in
Nigeria of 30%. [4]
Primary health care
While in office, Saraki introduced new health
programmes, including a statewide campaign in
2008 to reduce maternal and child mortality
from malaria. This included distribution of
insecticide-treated nets and free malaria drugs
to pregnant mothers and to children under the
age of five. [5] A statewide programme of
hospital development was also implemented,
leading to the redevelopment of hospitals in
Afon , Patigi and Lafiagi. Other measures
included improved training and re-training for
medical staff; refurbishment of hospitals and
staff living quarters; and employment of
qualified medical doctors and other health
workers. Many of the primary care programmes
were sponsored by international agencies such
as WHO and UNICEF . [6]
Agriculture and farming
Saraki introduced agricultural policy reforms to
increase the commercial viability of farming, and
also the volume of exports to international
markets. The New Nigerian Farmers Initiative
was designed to improve the technical
capability of farmers and to ensure farmers had
a significant financial stake in new investment in
agriculture. The scheme utilised the under-used
agricultural expertise in the Zimba

welcoming of the most important month!!!!!
May 26, 2017
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The month of Ramadan holds a special place in
Islam and among Muslims because of two major
reasons:
Firstly, the book of eternal guidance the Holy
Quran was revealed upon Prophet Muhammad
(PBUH) in this month.
Secondly, the 30days of fasting in this month
lead to the glorious and auspicious occasion of Eid
ul Fitr for Muslims.
Observance:
The month is given great importance by Muslims
and Muslims in each part of the world welcome
and observe this month with all the reverence,
prestige and dedication it deserves. The mosques
are filled with people, the recitation of Quran takes
place and people become charitable. In this month
Muslims make special preparations to ask of
forgiveness from Allah Almighty and plead for His
blessings and mercy.Ramadan?
Find the dates for Ramadan 2014 in the multifaith
calendar
What is Ramadan?
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic
calendar, when Muslims fast during daylight hours.
There are several reasons why Ramadan is
considered important:
The Qur’an was first revealed during this month
The gates of Heaven are open
The gates of Hell are closed and the devils are
chained up in Hell.
The Qur’an revealed
The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the
Qur’an, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs
for the guidance and the criterion (between right
and wrong)
[al-Baqarah 2:185]
The actual night that the Qur’an was revealed to
the Prophet Muhammad is called Lailat ul Qadr,
and to stand in prayer on this one night is said to
be better than a thousand months of worship.
Ramadan is often called ‘month of the Qur’an’
because of this, and Muslims attempt to recite as
much of the Qur’an as they can during the month.
Most mosques will recite one thirtieth of the Qur’an
each night during the Taraweeh prayers.
No one knows on which particular night the Qur’an
was first revealed, but it is said to be one of the
last ten nights of Ramadan.
The gates of Heaven are open and the gates of Hell
are closed
It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be
pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah
(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:
“When Ramadan comes, the gates of Paradise are
opened and the gates of Hell are closed, and the
devils are put in chains.”
(Agreed upon)
Muslims believe that their good actions bring a
greater reward during this month than at any other
time of year, because this month has been blessed
by Allah.
They also believe that it is easier to do good in
this month because the devils have been chained
in Hell, and so can’t tempt believers. This doesn’t
mean that Muslims will not behave badly, but that
any evil that they do comes from within
themselves, without additional encouragement from
Satan.
Almost all Muslims try to give up bad habits
during Ramadan, and some will try to become
better Muslims by praying more or reading the
Qur’an.
Muslims believe that this is one way that the
chaining up of the devils is manifested, since there
is no other reason for them to do so.
Top
Special practices
There are a number of special practices which are
only done during Ramadan.
Fasting the whole month long
Although Muslims fast during other times of the
year, Ramadan is the only time when fasting, or
sawm , is obligatory during the entire month for
every able Muslim.
Ramadan is intended to increase self-control in all
areas, including food, sleeping, sex and the use of
time.
Taraweeh Prayers
These are long night prayers, which are not
obligatory, but highly recommended.
Mosques are filled with worshippers who go to
attend these prayers, which usually last for one
and a half to two hours.
These prayers also give Muslims a chance to meet
at the mosque every day, and so they also help to
improve relationships in the Muslim community.
I’tikaf
I’tikaf refers to going into seclusion during the last
ten nights of Ramadan, in order to seek Lailat ul
Qadr by praying and reading the Qur’an. Some
people live in the mosque during this time for
serious reflection and worship. Others spend a few
hours at the mosque or home.
Top
The date of Ramadan
Find the dates for Ramadan 2014 in the multifaith
calendar
Confusion
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic
calendar and as with all months in the Islamic
calendar, its start is based on the sighting of the
new moon.
There can be confusion and disagreement over the
starting date of this month. Since the month is full
of blessings and marks the beginning of fasting, or
sawm , accuracy is very important.
Since Muslims live all over the world, but Islam
started in what is now known as Saudi Arabia, they
may not agree as to which country’s first moon
sighting marks the start of the month.
But although Muslims do often start and end
Ramadan on slightly different days, there is little
real ill.

Life history of Nigerian president,Muhammadu Buhari
May 20, 2017
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Muhammadu Buhari was born on December 17,
1942, in Daura, Katsina State, to his father Adamu
and his mother, Zulaihat. He’s the twenty-third
child of his father. Buhari was raised by his mom,
after his father died.
General Muhammadu Buhari is one of the most
notorious figures in Nigeria because of his past.
Even though he is most widely recognized for
being Head of State of Nigeria between 1983 and
1985, this has been long ago and since then he
has changed significantly.
Now General Mohammed Buhari is a new man that
ran for president once again. However, unlike the
last times when his efforts proved to be generally
unsuccessful, this time Muhammadu Buhari finally
managed to achieve his dream and be elected as a
president of Nigeria through a public vote.
According to the schedule, he will take office on
the 29th of May 2015. This is the first time since
Nigeria gained independence in 1960 that an
incumbent elected government will peacefully
transfer its power to an elected member of the
opposition. This just shows how much the times
have changed for the country and for this person.
The 29th of May will truly be a historical date for
Nigeria that one day might even be celebrated as a
national holiday. Nobody knows what the future
holds for this man and the whole country.
If you are interested in this intriguing person that isvision, April 1967 to July 1967.
Northern counter-coup of 28 July
1966
In July 1966 Lieutenant Muhammadu Buhari
was one of the participants in the “July
Rematch” or so called “Counter-Coup” , led by
Lt-Col Murtala Muhammed , that overthrew and
assassinated Nigeria’s first self-appointed
military Head of State General Aguiyi Ironsi , who
had assumed leadership of the Nigerian
government after a failed coup attempt on 15
January 1966 , which overthrew the elected
parliamentary government of Nigeria (also
known as first republic). Other participants in
the coup on 28 July 1966 included 2nd
Lieutenant Sani Abacha, Lieutenant Ibrahim
Babangida, Major Theophilus Danjuma ,
Lieutenant Ibrahim Bako among others. The
coup was a reaction to the January coup where
a group of mostly Igbo officers led by Major
Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu overthrew the
democratically elected government of Prime
Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa . Many
Northern soldiers were aggrieved by the murder
of senior politicians, Prime Minister Abubakar
Tafawa Balewa , northern regional premier,
Ahmadu Bello, and four senior officers from
northern Nigeria: Brigadier Zakariya Maimalari,
Colonel Kur Mohammed, Lt-Cols Abogo
Largema and James Pam. [16] The counter-
coup was very bloody leading to the murder of
mostly Igbo officers. Among the casualties were
the first military head of state General Aguiyi
Ironsi and Lt Colonel Adekunle Fajuyi , the
military governor of the Western Region.
Civil war
Buhari was assigned to the 1st Division under
the command of Lt. Col Mohammed Shuwa , [17]
the division had temporarily moved from
Kaduna to Makurdi at the onset of the Nigerian
Civil War . The 1st division was divided into
sectors and then battalions [18] with Shuwa
assisted by sector commanders Martin Adamu
and Sule Apollo who was later replaced by
Theophilus Danjuma . Buhari’s initial assignment
was as Adjutant and Company Commander 2
battalion unit, Second Sector Infantry of the 1st
Division. The 2 battalion was one of the units
that participated in the first actions of the war,
they started from Gakem near Afikpo and moved
towards Ogoja with support from Gado Nasko’s
artillery squad. [19] They reached and captured
Ogoja within a week with the intention of
advancing through the flanks to Enugu, the rebel
capital. [20] Buhari was briefly the 2 battalion’s
Commander and led the battalion to Afikpo to
link with the 3rd Marine Commando and
advance towards Enugu through Nkalagu and
Abakaliki . However, before the move to Enugu,
he was posted to Nsukka as Brigade Major of
the 3rd Infantry Brigade under Joshua Gin who
would later become battle fatigued and replaced
by Isa Bukar. [21] Buhari stayed with the infantry
for a few months has the Nigerian army began
to adjust tactics learnt from early battle
experiences. Instead of swift advances, the new
tactics involved securing and holding on to the
lines of communications and using captured
towns as training ground to train new recruits
brought in from the army depots in Abeokuta
and Zaria. [21] In 1968, he was posted to the 4
Sector also called the Awka sector which was
charged to take over the capture of Onitsha
from Division 2. The sector’s operations was
within the Awka- Abagana-Onitsha region which
was important to Biafran forces because it was
a major source of food supply. It was in the
sector that Buhari’s group suffered a lot of
casualties trying to protect food supplies route
of the rebels along Oji River and Abagana. [22]
After the war
From 1970 to 1971, Buhari was Brigade Major/
Commandant, Thirty-first Infantry Brigade. He
then served as the Assistant Adjutant-General,
First Infantry Division Headquarters, from 1971
to 1972. He also attended the Defence Services
Staff College, Wellington, India, in 1973. [23]
From 1974 to 1975 Buhari was Acting Director
of Transport and Supply at the Nigerian Army
Corps of Supply and Transport
Headquarters. [24]
Buhari’s participation in July
1975 coup
Then Lieutenant Colonel Buhari was among a
Muhammadu Buhari, now you can read the
Muhammadu Buhari biography which is made
available to NaijaGists.com .
There is a lot of new information in there, and as a
matter of fact you will find much more than you
think. Even the Muhammadu Buhari Wikipedia page
has some very significant facts that have been
missed out, however, this biography aims to tell
the full story of the general that was once a Head
of State and is now going to be the next Nigerian
president. It is a must read for all people
interested in Nigerian politics.
Muhammadu Buhari Writes Nigerians, States
Covenant
Previously few months that I’ve travelled spherical
this country on campaigns, I’ve skilled the sheer
great thing about our diversity. From Port Harcourt
to Kano, from Abeokuta to Gusau, I experienced
first-hand the everyday sufferings and struggles of
our folks. I also experienced the overwhelming
need of our folks for change.
After I arrived in Port Harcourt on the 5th of
January to start out my campaigns, I was met by
our teeming supporters, who stayed till late in the
night to welcome us. Amongst them were many
younger men and women, who within the few
minutes that I shared with them on the airport,
made me to mirror on what kind of future awaits
them in our nation.
Current an in depth strategy for protecting the
fundamental rights and freedoms provided for in
our Constitution. There will probably be emphasis
on the rights of susceptible individuals together
with girls, youngsters and individuals dwelling with
disabilities in addition to access to justice and
prisons reforms.
Battle for you, and alongside you. We’ll struggle
collectively to defeat terrorism. But I can be
sincere with you about our challenges and I’ll bear
the duties of my cost. I cannot lie to you or
exaggerate our triumphs. My administration will be
completely clear in each step of our day by day
struggle and together we will win the struggle.
Healthcare in Nigeria is in crises. Too many
individuals don’t get any treatment. For those who
do get handled, all too often, the care they receive
is poor. Far too many die from easily treatable
diseases and what must be routine therapy
typically finish in loss of life. Moreover, Nigeria is
about to overlook our MDG targets. The statistics
communicate for themselves.
Embark on a program of mass mobilisation to
ensure that all children of college age, regardless
of the place they may reside in our country, and
no matter the social conditions of their mother and
father, are in school. Working in co-operation with
the State Governments, we shall make the required
investments in infrastructure, learning facilities.

the biography of a richest businessman in Africa
May 20, 2017
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Aliko Dangote GCON (born 10 April 1957) is a
Nigerian billionaire, [2] who owns the Dangote
Group , which has interests in commodities. The
company operates in Nigeria and other African
countries, including Benin, Ethiopia, Senegal,
Cameroon, Ghana, South Africa, Togo, Tanzania,
and Zambia. [3] As of February 2017, he had an
estimated net worth of US$12.5 billion. [2]
Dangote is ranked by Forbes magazine as the
67th richest person in the world and the richest
in Africa; [4] he peaked on the list as the 23rd
richest person in the world in 2014. [5] He
surpassed Saudi-Ethiopian billionaire
Mohammed Hussein Al Amoudi in 2013 by over
$2.6 billion to become the world’s richest
person of African descent. [6]
Early life
Dangote hails from a very prominent business
family that lived in Nigeria for many years. He
is the great grand son of Alhaji Alhassan
Dantata , the richest African at the time of his
death in 1955. Aliko Dangote, an ethnic Hausa
Muslim[7] from Kano State , was born on 10
April 1957 into a wealthy Muslim family. [8][9]
Dangote said, “I can remember when I was in
primary school, I would go and buy cartons of
sweets [sugar boxes] and I would start selling
them just to make money. I was so interested
in business, even at that time.” [10]
Business career
Business in Nigeria
The Dangote Group was established as a small
trading firm in 1977, the same year Dangote
relocated to Lagos to expand the company. [9]
Today, it is a multi-trillion naira conglomerate
with many of its operations in Benin, Ghana,
Nigeria, and Togo. Dangote has expanded to
cover food processing, cement manufacturing,
and freight. The Dangote Group also dominates
the sugar market in Nigeria and is a major
supplier to the country’s soft drink companies,
breweries, and confectioners. The Dangote
Group has moved from being a trading
company to being the largest industrial group in
Nigeria including Dangote Sugar Refinery,
Dangote Cement , and Dangote Flour.
In July 2012, Dangote approached the Nigerian
Ports Authorities to lease an abandoned piece
of land at the Apapa Port, which was
approved. [11] He later built facilities for his
flour company there. In the 1990s, he
approached the Central Bank of Nigeria with the
idea that it would be cheaper for the bank to
allow his transport company to manage their
fleet of staff buses, a proposal which was also
approved.
In Nigeria today, Dangote Group with its
dominance in the sugar market and refinery
business is the main supplier (70% of the
market) to the country’s soft drinks companies,
breweries and confectioners. [ citation needed ] It
is the largest refinery in Africa and the third
largest in the world, producing 800,000 tonnes
of sugar annually. Dangote Group owns salt
factories and flour mills and is a major importer
of rice, fish, pasta, cement and fertiliser. The
company exports cotton, cashew nuts, cocoa,
sesame seed and ginger to several countries. It
also has major investments in real estate,
banking, transport, textiles and oil and gas. The
company employs over 11,000 people and is
the largest industrial conglomerate in West
Africa.
Dangote has diversified into telecommunications
and has started building 14,000 kilometres of
fibre optic cables to supply the whole of Nigeria.
As a result, Dangote was honoured in January
2009 as the leading provider of employment in
the Nigerian construction industry.
He said, “Let me tell you this and I want to
really emphasize it…nothing is going to help
Nigeria like Nigerians bringing back their
money. If you give me $5 billion today, I will
invest everything here in Nigeria. Let us put our
heads together and work.” [12]
Other activities
Dangote played a prominent role in the funding
of Olusegun Obasanjo ‘s re-election bid in 2003,
to which he gave over N200 million (US$1M).
He contributed N50 million (US$0.25M) to the
National Mosque under the aegis of “Friends of
Obasanjo and Atiku”. He contributed N200
million to the Presidential Library. he book is titled – Aliko Dangote: The biography
of the richest black person in the world. And has
been accepted for publication by a publishing
company based in New York, USA will be
released to the market in June, 2012. This is the
first and only biography of this exceptional
Nigerian, and African. Written by Moshood
Ademola Fayemiwo and Margie Marie Neal.
Continue to read more about the book from the
publishers and more about the authors…
It is our pleasure to introduce to you the
biography of the richest black person in the world,
Aliko Mohammad Dangote. We were in Nigeria
for fourteen months for field work on this
important book. We visited the ancient city of
Kano in Northern Nigeria where Aliko was born,
Abuja, Lagos, Kaduna, Wudil and other important
places tracing the many paths of Aliko Dangote
and his successful career as Nigeria’s foremost
industrialist and Africa’s richest person.
You will agree with us that the achievement of
Mr. Dangote as the richest black person in the
world, according to the New York-based Forbes
magazine should be celebrated by all Africans
and the black race. In the book, we traced the
paternal family backgrounds of Mr. Dangote to
four generations beginning with Mr. Alhassan
Abdullah Dantata to Mr. Sanusi Dantata and Mrs.
Mariya Dantata-Dangote and Aliko Dangote. We
were able to secure rare photographs from the
family album in Kano, including the paternal
family of the richest black person in the world.
Our narrative included the political circumstances
that led to the death of Mr. Mohammad Dangote,
Aliko’s father in 1965 and the unrest ignited by
the removal of Mr. Mohammadu Sanusi, the Emir
of Kano and the grandfather of Dr Lamido Sanusi,
the current governor of the Central Bank of
Nigeria. We had rare interviews with many
Nigerians in Kano on how young Aliko grew up in
Kano and his formative years in the ancient city.
Next, we followed Aliko Dangote’s journey to
Lagos as a 15-year old young man under the
business wing of the late Mr. Usman Amaka
Dantata, Aliko’s uncle born in 1950 and the last
born of his maternal grandfather, who was the
younger brother of Aliko’s mother. We revealed
how Aliko Dangote had his first break in the
business world during the celebration of Festac’
77 and the first business relationship with then
35-year old Lt-Gen Olusegun Obasanjo and the
late Major-General Shehu Musa Yar’Adua. We
unearthed the secret of Mr. Dagote’s wealth
unknown to millions of people and his
contribution to the economic development of
Nigeria and Africa. In our book, we present the
“complete” Aliko Mohammad Dangote and his
private life; the actual number of children he has,
his wives and the many women in the life of the
richest black person in the world. For the first
time, we revealed the “secrets” of the business
success of Aliko Mohammad Dangote and draw
certain commonalities with other billionaires of
the world. Our searchlight did not escape the
philanthropic activities of Nigeria’s private
employer of labor as well, including his political
cum business connections with all Nigerian
leaders, beginning with Mr. Olusegun Obasanjo,
Shehu Shagari, the late Umaru Musa Yar’Adua
and the current Nigerian president, Mr. Goodluck
Jonathan.

does farmer has more benefits than doctor
May 20, 2017
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at a person’s value
depends on what they do for a living.
We are all equally important. I don’t
think I am “better than” anyone else,
but my life’s experiences give me a
unique perspective – just as do the life
experiences of everyone else.
BTW, I think I would have liked to be
a farmer – My Scandinavian
forefathers farmed in Sweden and
Norway, then moved to Kansas, where
they farmed for decades more. We all
have to make decisions about what
we do with our lives to benefit society
the most. Practicing medicine gave me
the opportunity to raise and educate
children who are all contributing to
the betterment of society as a whole –
probably not something I could have
accomplished while farming – but –
based on the experience I had with
my grandfather – it certainly seems
like a more serene lifestyle. (And –
although my father was an engineer
by trade, I could tell he was really
happy when we visited my my
grandfather and spent time fixing the
tractors, etc.)
Normally not a question I would
address, but your elitism seems to
have pushed my button today.
If you are interested in “No Nonsense”
answers to serious medical questions,
please follow me. (>200 answers on
cancer, medicine and human
behavior.)
14.2k Views · 21 Upvotes
Updated 30 May 2016
Gary
Larson Gary Larson, Medical
Director – Procure Proton
Therapy Center, OklahomaFarmers’ vs. Doctors?
Do you believe farmers are more important
than Doctors? Well, If you do not believe
you should. Farmers plant trees and grow
fruits whilst Doctors work in hospital to
save lives. Nonetheless they are both doing
the same job.
Firstly, It is believable to say that there are
farmers everywhere in the world and there
are also Doctors everywhere in the world
but why should they both be compared and
what do they have in common?
Farmers as we all know grow trees and
plant and these trees take in Carbon dioxide
(CO2) which reduces the carbon foot prints
for us humans in the world. Carbon dioxide
is produce by cars and it’s agreeable to say
that there are millions of cars in this world,
meaning there are a lot of CO2 being
produced daily, monthly year which isFarmers’ vs. Doctors?
Do you believe farmers are more important
than Doctors? Well, If you do not believe
you should. Farmers plant trees and grow
fruits whilst Doctors work in hospital to
save lives. Nonetheless they are both doing
the same job.
Firstly, It is believable to say that there are
farmers everywhere in the world and there
are also Doctors everywhere in the world
but why should they both be compared and
what do they have in common?
Farmers as we all know grow trees and
plant and these trees take in Carbon dioxide
(CO2) which reduces the carbon foot prints
for us humans in the world. Carbon dioxide
is produce by cars and it’s agreeable to say
that there are millions of cars in this world,
meaning there are a lot of CO2 being
produced daily, monthly year which isFarmers’ vs. Doctors?
Do you believe farmers are more important
than Doctors? Well, If you do not believe
you should. Farmers plant trees and grow
fruits whilst Doctors work in hospital to
save lives. Nonetheless they are both doing
the same job.
Firstly, It is believable to say that there are
farmers everywhere in the world and there
are also Doctors everywhere in the world
but why should they both be compared and
what do they have in common?
Farmers as we all know grow trees and
plant and these trees take in Carbon dioxide
(CO2) which reduces the carbon foot prints
for us humans in the world. Carbon dioxide
is produce by cars and it’s agreeable to say
that there are millions of cars in this world,
meaning there are a lot of CO2 being
produced daily, monthly year which isFarmers’ vs. Doctors?
Do you believe farmers are more important
than Doctors? Well, If you do not believe
you should. Farmers plant trees and grow
fruits whilst Doctors work in hospital to
save lives. Nonetheless they are both doing
the same job.
Firstly, It is believable to say that there are
farmers everywhere in the world and there
are also Doctors everywhere in the world
but why should they both be compared and
what do they have in common?
Farmers as we all know grow trees and
plant and these trees take in Carbon dioxide
(CO2) which reduces the carbon foot prints
for us humans in the world. Carbon dioxide
is produce by cars and it’s agreeable to say
that there are millions of cars in this world,
meaning there are a lot of CO2 being
produced daily, monthly year which is
endangering our lives more and more.
If you look at farmers from another
perspective, they are saving us, the
environments and our surroundings; they
are playing a role to protect us and by
these farmers are growing crops as well for
us to eat and grow. So it is right to say that
farmers and kind of doctors because a life
without trees in the world would be a
‘poisonous life’ for us and our next
generations to come.
Doctors on the other hands we need them
in our lives to make sure we are healthy and
to treat us when we are not healthy. Without
doctors a lot of people will be dead and
there will not be 7.6 billion people in the
world but about half that amount. Without
doctors there will be more tears in the
world (more people will be crying and
morning due to their relative dying), there
will be more fighting(people will be going
through extreme length and measures to get
drugs to heal themselves and others around
them) which could involve killing, bombing
and so on. So to conclude Doctors are
essential to our life and that is an
unchangeable fact. Period!
Finally, With all due respect to doctors,
Farmers are playing a stronger roll although
it does not seem so when compared to
doctors. The trees farmers’ plant helps the
whole world and everyone benefits from it
and when farmers do harvest, we all benefit
from the food which helps us nourish our
bodies. Doctors do help our lives so we
should be grateful to them but they are not
available all the time (24/7). On the other
hand cars will always be used around the
world and new & faster cars which will be
produced (more Carbon dioxide) and the
trees will always be there to ‘soak’ in and
absorb the C02 which helps us, daily
monthly, yearly. It’s also important for us
(humans) to remember that when trees are
burnt they are used as ‘fuels’ because we
are running out of fossil fuels and this helps
to keep our generations going.

does farmer has more benefits than doctor
May 20, 2017
0
A z

at a person’s value
depends on what they do for a living.
We are all equally important. I don’t
think I am “better than” anyone else,
but my life’s experiences give me a
unique perspective – just as do the life
experiences of everyone else.
BTW, I think I would have liked to be
a farmer – My Scandinavian
forefathers farmed in Sweden and
Norway, then moved to Kansas, where
they farmed for decades more. We all
have to make decisions about what
we do with our lives to benefit society
the most. Practicing medicine gave me
the opportunity to raise and educate
children who are all contributing to
the betterment of society as a whole –
probably not something I could have
accomplished while farming – but –
based on the experience I had with
my grandfather – it certainly seems
like a more serene lifestyle. (And –
although my father was an engineer
by trade, I could tell he was really
happy when we visited my my
grandfather and spent time fixing the
tractors, etc.)
Normally not a question I would
address, but your elitism seems to
have pushed my button today.
If you are interested in “No Nonsense”
answers to serious medical questions,
please follow me. (>200 answers on
cancer, medicine and human
behavior.)
14.2k Views · 21 Upvotes
Updated 30 May 2016
Gary
Larson Gary Larson, Medical
Director – Procure Proton
Therapy Center, OklahomaFarmers’ vs. Doctors?
Do you believe farmers are more important
than Doctors? Well, If you do not believe
you should. Farmers plant trees and grow
fruits whilst Doctors work in hospital to
save lives. Nonetheless they are both doing
the same job.
Firstly, It is believable to say that there are
farmers everywhere in the world and there
are also Doctors everywhere in the world
but why should they both be compared and
what do they have in common?
Farmers as we all know grow trees and
plant and these trees take in Carbon dioxide
(CO2) which reduces the carbon foot prints
for us humans in the world. Carbon dioxide
is produce by cars and it’s agreeable to say
that there are millions of cars in this world,
meaning there are a lot of CO2 being
produced daily, monthly year which isFarmers’ vs. Doctors?
Do you believe farmers are more important
than Doctors? Well, If you do not believe
you should. Farmers plant trees and grow
fruits whilst Doctors work in hospital to
save lives. Nonetheless they are both doing
the same job.
Firstly, It is believable to say that there are
farmers everywhere in the world and there
are also Doctors everywhere in the world
but why should they both be compared and
what do they have in common?
Farmers as we all know grow trees and
plant and these trees take in Carbon dioxide
(CO2) which reduces the carbon foot prints
for us humans in the world. Carbon dioxide
is produce by cars and it’s agreeable to say
that there are millions of cars in this world,
meaning there are a lot of CO2 being
produced daily, monthly year which isFarmers’ vs. Doctors?
Do you believe farmers are more important
than Doctors? Well, If you do not believe
you should. Farmers plant trees and grow
fruits whilst Doctors work in hospital to
save lives. Nonetheless they are both doing
the same job.
Firstly, It is believable to say that there are
farmers everywhere in the world and there
are also Doctors everywhere in the world
but why should they both be compared and
what do they have in common?
Farmers as we all know grow trees and
plant and these trees take in Carbon dioxide
(CO2) which reduces the carbon foot prints
for us humans in the world. Carbon dioxide
is produce by cars and it’s agreeable to say
that there are millions of cars in this world,
meaning there are a lot of CO2 being
produced daily, monthly year which isFarmers’ vs. Doctors?
Do you believe farmers are more important
than Doctors? Well, If you do not believe
you should. Farmers plant trees and grow
fruits whilst Doctors work in hospital to
save lives. Nonetheless they are both doing
the same job.
Firstly, It is believable to say that there are
farmers everywhere in the world and there
are also Doctors everywhere in the world
but why should they both be compared and
what do they have in common?
Farmers as we all know grow trees and
plant and these trees take in Carbon dioxide
(CO2) which reduces the carbon foot prints
for us humans in the world. Carbon dioxide
is produce by cars and it’s agreeable to say
that there are millions of cars in this world,
meaning there are a lot of CO2 being
produced daily, monthly year which is
endangering our lives more and more.
If you look at farmers from another
perspective, they are saving us, the
environments and our surroundings; they
are playing a role to protect us and by
these farmers are growing crops as well for
us to eat and grow. So it is right to say that
farmers and kind of doctors because a life
without trees in the world would be a
‘poisonous life’ for us and our next
generations to come.
Doctors on the other hands we need them
in our lives to make sure we are healthy and
to treat us when we are not healthy. Without
doctors a lot of people will be dead and
there will not be 7.6 billion people in the
world but about half that amount. Without
doctors there will be more tears in the
world (more people will be crying and
morning due to their relative dying), there
will be more fighting(people will be going
through extreme length and measures to get
drugs to heal themselves and others around
them) which could involve killing, bombing
and so on. So to conclude Doctors are
essential to our life and that is an
unchangeable fact. Period!
Finally, With all due respect to doctors,
Farmers are playing a stronger roll although
it does not seem so when compared to
doctors. The trees farmers’ plant helps the
whole world and everyone benefits from it
and when farmers do harvest, we all benefit
from the food which helps us nourish our
bodies. Doctors do help our lives so we
should be grateful to them but they are not
available all the time (24/7). On the other
hand cars will always be used around the
world and new & faster cars which will be
produced (more Carbon dioxide) and the
trees will always be there to ‘soak’ in and
absorb the C02 which helps us, daily
monthly, yearly. It’s also important for us
(humans) to remember that when trees are
burnt they are used as ‘fuels’ because we
are running out of fossil fuels and this helps
to keep our generations going.

month of ramadan and its blessings
May 20, 2017
1
sun set

uits of Ramadhan Fasting (Fasting Benefits):
Fasting teaches you many things. It helps you
become a better Muslim. It’s not easy! You feel
hungry, thirsty, sleepy and so on. But these are
seeds you plant in the Garden of Ramadhan. You
will harvest the beautiful tasty fruits of Jannah.
In each of the fruits below, write one benefit you
will get from fasting. You can choose some from
the list at the bottom.
Taqwa, Self-control, Goodness, Charity, Kindness,
Nearness to Allah (SWT), Strength, Sympathy,
Sincerity, Forgiveness, Blessings.
Ramadhan Fasting Stories: Mum, read this story
to your kids ( Ramadan Story )
“But, Mum, I do not want to eat. I am a big
boy and I can fast,” Thabit told his mother.
“But you are fasting, Thabit. 7-year-old
children eat in the morning and a little in the
afternoon and then they don’t eat anything
else till evening.”
“But you do not fast like that, Mum,” the little
boy insisted.
“I am older, Thabit. Grownups fast that way.”
The young gentleman sat deep in thought and then
asked, “Mum, why do we fast?”
“That’s a good question, Thabit.” She got up and
went to the kitchen cupboard. She removed
something from it.
“Do you know what this is, Thabit?”
“It’s a blender.”
“Do you know what it is supposed to do?”
“It blends passion fruit for juice.” His mother
laughed. “Yes, it does blend. Our body does the
same thing. It grinds the food we eat; it takes what
it needs and removes the rest. It does this
everyday, day in day out.”
“Doesn’t the body get tired, Mum?”
“It does. Just like the blender. When we have
blended juice for too long, it refuses to work. Then
it needs fixing. So we have to give our body a rest
so it can work better for us. That’s why we fast in
Ramadan and some other days in the year.”
“Does everybody fast, Mummy?”
“Not everybody. If you are ill or expecting a baby
or if you are old and weak like Daddy’s grandpa or
if you are 7 years old then you don’t fast.
The little boy thought some more. He ate the food
his mother had set before him without much fuss.
“What if you don’t want to fast?”
“What is your sister Nur’s favorite
color?” “Pink”.
“And what is the color of her
uniform for Madrassa (School)?”
“Blue”.
But she says she’d like to wear her
pink hijab when she goes.”
“And why doesn’t she?”
“She is afraid Ustaadh (Teacher) will punish her.”
“You see, she was afraid Ustaadh would punish
her. Ustaadh will punish her because she has
broken the rule of the madrassa by wearing pink.
You see, Thabit, Allah knows what is good for us
and so we have to do as He commands, because
He sees and knows everything. We love Him and
fear Him and we don’t want Him to be displeased
with us.”
“But don’t you get hungry, Mum?”
“Of course we do. But we keep ourselves busy on
other important things to take our mind away from
the food. We read the Qur’an, or we visit the sick
people or we go to the mosque and listen to dars.
You see there’s plenty to do and before you know
it, it’s time to eat!”
“Is there another reason why Muslims fast?”
“Yes. You are lucky, Thabit, because you have food
everyday. Not everyone has food to eat.”
“Like the poor people at Baroda Road?”
“Yes, like them. If we go hungry like them, we will
be able to understand that they need help.”
The little boy seemed satisfied with the answers,
his mother had given him. “Mum, can I go with
you and Daddy to help the poor?” “By the Grace of
Allah, you can.”
Frequently asked Questions (FAQ) about Ramadan:
What is Ramadan?
Ramadan is the 9th month of the Islamic calendar,
which is based on the orbiting of the moon (lunar
calendar), rather than the orbiting of the earth
(solar calendar). It was in the month of Ramadan in
which the Quran (Holy Book for Muslims) was first
revealed.
What is Fasting?
Muslims should refrain from eating, drinking,
smoking and conjugal relations. This means that
no substitute should be introduced into the body,
which could be considered as providing
nourishment to the body (e.g., a nutritional
injection). Fasting also involves all good characters

the important use of microscope
May 20, 2017
0
TMPDOODLE1495223779166

The importance of
Microscopes
Microscopes help the scientists to study the
microorganisms , the cells , the crystalline
structures and the molecular structures , They are
one of the most important diagnostic tools when
the doctors examine the tissue samples .
Microscopes has opened up a whole new
dimension in science , By using Microscopes
scientists were able to discover the existence of
the microorganisms , study the structure of cells ,
and see the smallest parts of plants , animals , and
fungi .
Electron microscopes help create the very tiny
electrical circuits found on Silicon microchips ,
Scanning microscopes are much more
sophisticated , and they have higher magnifications
than light-refracting microscopes .
Microscopes are used to diagnosis the illness in
the hospitals and the clinics all over the world ,
Microscopes magnify the blood samples , so , The
doctors can see the malaria parasites attacking the
red blood cells .
Microscope
Microscope
Microscopic examination confirms the laboratory
tests that may be positive for the disease ,
Technicians count the number of red blood cells
infected with malaria to give the doctors an idea of
how advanced the disease is in a patient .
Microscopes use the simple visible light refracting
lenses , Electrons , x-rays , and infrared rays ,
They are to detect the smaller and smaller
structures , Scanning electron microscopes are
able to resolve the viruses which are far smaller
than any cell , They enlarge the view of tiny viruses
, which allows scientists to develop the vaccines
and cures for infectious diseases in the humans
and the animals .
Scanning electron microscopes have the
magnifications up to several million times to view
the molecules , the viruses and the nano-particles ,
They use the corrective software to increase the
magnification and the resolution of images , The
computers help the nano-technologists use high-
powered electron microscopes to view the objects
only a few molecules thick .
Electron microscopes help prepare the small
surfaces for sectioning into small slices ,
Microscopes enlarge the images of silicon chips to
help the engineers create more efficient electronic
devices , When more circuits are fitted onto a
small chip , the computational power of silicon
microchips increases.
The optical or light microscopes are the most
commonly used and the oldest type of
Microscopes , Where the light is passed through
the machine and through the specimen being
viewed to magnify it , They use a specialized
camera to produce a film or even digital image ,
The stains are used on the glass slide to make the
cells or the structures more easily seen .
Electron microscopes use the beams of electrons
rather than the light to create an image , They are
used to visualize the objects such as the
microorganisms and the crystal structures which
are too small to be imaged with an optical
microscope .
Probe scanning microscopes are used to create
the images of objects that are rather flat , They use
a probe that scans the object’s surface and then
the software is used to render the results into a
viewable image .
The virtual microscopy uses the computer
technology to convert the images on the glass
slides into the electronic data that has a resolution
similar to that achieved with the use of an optical
microscope , This technique enables the electronic
transport and the storage of data from the slides
and also it allows the slides to be reviewed
remotely .
Microscopes are used in viewing the specimens
that are relatively very small in size , they are
used to view the cellular structures of organs ,
germs and bacteria , They play a very important
role in laboratory for the tissues and organisms
which are too small to be seen clearly with the
naked eye .
All branches of biology uses Microscopes
especially in Molecular Biology and Histology
( study of cells ) , Microscopes are the backbone of
studying biology , The biologists use it to view the
details that cannot be seen by the naked

the idea of gender inequality
May 20, 2017
0
333

directs here. For
demographics, see Sex-selective abortion.
Gender inequality is the idea that women and
men are not equal. Gender inequality refers to
unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals
wholly or partly due to their gender . It arises
from differences in socially constructed gender
roles. [1] Gender systems are often dichotomous
and hierarchical; gender binary systems may
reflect the inequalities that manifest in
numerous dimensions of daily life. Gender
inequality stems from distinctions, whether
empirically grounded or socially constructed.
(On differences between the sexes, see Sex and
psychology .)
Natural sex differences
Main article: Sex differences in humans
Natural differences exist between the sexes
based on biological and anatomic factors, most
notably differing reproductive roles. Biological
differences include chromosomes and hormonal
differences. [1] There is a natural difference also
in the relative physical strengths (on average) of
the sexes, both in the lower body and more
pronouncedly in the upper-body, though this
does not mean that any given man is stronger
than any given woman. [2][3] Men, on average,
are taller, which provides both advantages and
disadvantages. [4] Women live significantly
longer than men, [5] though it is not clear to
what extent this is a biological difference – see
Life expectancy . Men have larger lung volumes
and more circulating blood cells and clotting
factors, while females have more circulating
white blood cells and produce antibodies
faster. [6] Differences such as these are
hypothesized to be an adaption allowing for
sexual specialization. [7]
Psychology
Prenatal hormone exposure influences to what
extent one exhibits traditional masculine or
feminine behavior. [8][9] No differences between
males and females exist in general
intelligence. [10] Men are significantly more
likely to take risks than women. [11] Men are
also more likely to be aggressive, a trait
influenced by prenatal and possibly current
androgen exposure. [12][13] It has been
theorized that these differences combined with
physical differences are an adaption
representing sexual division of labor . [7] A
second theory proposes sex differences in
intergroup aggression represent adaptions in
male aggression to allow for territory, resource
and mate acquisition. [6] Females are more
empathetic than males. [14] Men and females
have better visuospatial and verbal memory,
respectively. These changes are influenced by
the male sex hormone testosterone , which
increases visuospatial memory in both genders
when administered. [15]
From birth males and females are raised
differently and experience different environments
throughout their lives. In the eyes of society,
gender has a huge role to play in many major
milestones or characteristics in life; like
personality. [16] Males and females are lead on
different paths before they are able to choose
their own. The color blue is most commonly
associated with boys and they get toys like
monster trucks or more sport related things to
play with from the time that they are babies.
Girls are more commonly introduced to the
color pink, dolls, dresses, and playing house
where they are taking care of the dolls as if
they were children. The norm of blue is for
boys and pink is for girls is cultural and has
not always historically been around. These
paths set by parents or other adult figures in
the child’s life set them on certain paths. [17]
This leads to a difference in personality, career
paths, or relationships. Throughout life males
and females are seen as two very different
species who have very different personalities
and should stay on separate paths. [18]
In the workplace
Deaths
93% of workplace deaths (fatal occupational
injuries) in the US between 1980 and 1997 were
men (97,053 deaths). The male fatality rate (8.6
per 100,000 workers) was 11 times greater than
the female death rate of the 1980-97 time range
(0.8). This accounts for the other 7% of work
place deat

Do you know that wole soyinka is an African poet?????
May 19, 2017
0
18486337_1473352136061535_5545396256882869149_n.jpg

[wɔlé ʃójĩŋká] ; born 13
July 1934) is a Nigerian playwright and poet.
He was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in
Literature , [2] the first African to be honored in
that category.
Soyinka was born into a Yoruba family in
Abeokuta . After studying in Nigeria and the UK,
he worked with the Royal Court Theatre in
London. He went on to write plays that were
produced in both countries, in theatres and on
radio. He took an active role in Nigeria ‘s
political history and its struggle for
independence from Great Britain. In 1965, he
seized the Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service
studio and broadcast a demand for the
cancellation of the Western Nigeria Regional
Elections. In 1967 during the Nigerian Civil War ,
he was arrested by the federal government of
General Yakubu Gowon and put in solitary
confinement for two years. [3]
Soyinka has been a strong critic of successive
Nigerian governments, especially the country’s
many military dictators, as well as other
political tyrannies, including the Mugabe regime
in Zimbabwe. Much of his writing has been
concerned with “the oppressive boot and the
irrelevance of the colour of the foot that wears
it”. [4] During the regime of General Sani Abacha
(1993–98), Soyinka escaped from Nigeria on a
motorcycle via the “NADECO Route.” Abacha
later proclaimed a death sentence against him
“in absentia.” [4] With civilian rule restored to
Nigeria in 1999, Soyinka returned to his nation.
In Nigeria, Soyinka was a Professor of
Comparative Literature (1975 to 1999) at the
Obafemi Awolowo University , then called the
University of Ife. [5] With civilian rule restored to
Nigeria in 1999, he was made professor
emeritus. [3] While in the United States, he first
taught at Cornell University and then at Emory
University where in 1996 he was appointed
Robert W. Woodruff Professor of the Arts.
Soyinka has been a Professor of Creative
Writing at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas
and has served as scholar-in-residence at
NYU ’s Institute of African American Affairs and
at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles,
California , US. [3][6] He has also taught at the
universities of Oxford, Harvard and Yale . [7][8]
Life and work
A descendant of a Remo family of Isara-Remo ,
Soyinka was born the second of six children, in
the city of Abẹokuta, Ogun State in Nigeria, at
that time a British dominion. His father, Samuel
Ayodele Soyinka (whom he called S.A. or
“Essay”), was an Anglican minister and the
headmaster of St. Peters School in Abẹokuta.
Soyinka’s mother, Grace Eniola Soyinka (whom
he dubbed the “Wild Christian”), owned a shop
in the nearby market. She was a political
activist within the women’s movement in the
local community. She was also Anglican. As
much of the community followed indigenous
Yorùbá religious tradition, Soyinka grew up in a
religious atmosphere syncretism, with
influences from both cultures. He was raised in
a religious family, attending church services and
singing in the choir from an early age; however
Soyinka himself became an atheist later in
life. [9][10] His father’s position enabled him to
get electricity and radio at home. He writes
extensively about his childhood in one of his
memoirs, Aké: The Years of Childhood
(1981). [11]
His mother was one of the most prominent
members of the influential Ransome-Kuti family :
she was the daughter of Rev. Canon J. J.
Ransome-Kuti , and sister to Olusegun Azariah
Ransome-Kuti, Oludotun Ransome-Kuti and
sister in-law to Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti .
Among Soyinka’s cousins were the musician
Fela Kuti , the human rights activist Beko
Ransome-Kuti , politician Olikoye Ransome-Kuti
and activist Yemisi Ransome-Kuti . [12]
In 1940, after attending St. Peters Primary
School in Abeokuta, Soyinka went to Abeokuta
Grammar School , where he won several prizes
for literary composition. In 1946 he was
accepted by Government College in Ibadan , at
that time one of Nigeria’s elite secondary
schools.

After finishing his course at Government College
in 1952, he began studies at University College
Ibadan (1952–54), affiliated with the University
of London. He studied English literature , Greek ,
and Western history . Among his lecturers was
Molly Mahood, a British literary scholar. [13] In
the year 1953–54, his second and last at
University College, Soyinka began work on
“Keffi’s Birthday Treat”, a short radio play for
Nigerian Broadcasting Service that was
broadcast in July 1954. [14] While at university,
Soyinka and six others founded the Pyrates
Confraternity, an anti-corruption and justice-
seeking student organisation, the first
confraternity in Nigeria .
Later in 1954, Soyinka relocated to England,
where he continued his studies in English
literature, under the supervision of his mentor
Wilson Knight at the University of Leeds (1954–
57). He met numerous young, gifted British
writers. Before defending his B.A., Soyinka
began publishing and worked as an editor for
the satirical magazine The Eagle. He wrote a
column on academic life, often criticising his
university peers.
Early career
After graduating, he remained in Leeds with the
intention of earning an M.A. Soyinka intended
to write new work combining European
theatrical traditions with those of his Yorùbá
cultural heritage. His first major play, The
Swamp Dwellers (1958), was followed a year
later by The Lion and the Jewel , a comedy that
attracted interest from several members of
London’s Royal Court Theatre . Encouraged,
Soyinka moved to London, where he worked as
a play reader for the Royal Court Theatre.
During the same period, both of his plays were
performed in Ibadan. They dealt with the uneasy
relationship between progress and tradition in
Nigeria. [15]
In 1957, his play The Invention was the first of
his works to be produced at the Royal Court
Theatre. At that time his only published works
were poems such as “The Immigrant” and “My
Next Door Neighbour”, which were published in
the Nigerian magazine Black Orpheus. [16] This
was founded in 1957 by the German scholar Ulli
Beier , who had been teaching at the University
of Ibadan since 1950. [17]
Soyinka received a Rockefeller Research
Fellowship from University College in Ibadan,
his alma mater, for research on African theatre ,
and he returned to Nigeria. After its fifth issue
(November 1959), Soyinka replaced Jahnheinz
Jahn to become coeditor for the literary
periodical Black Orpheus (its name derived from
a 1948 essay by Jean-Paul Sartre , “Orphée
Noir”, published as a preface to Anthologie de
la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache , edited by
Léopold Senghor). [18] He produced his new
satire, The Trials of Brother Jero. His work A
Dance of The Forest (1960), a biting criticism of
Nigeria’s political elites, won a contest that year
as the official play for Nigerian Independence
Day . On 1 October 1960, it premiered in Lagos
as Nigeria celebrated its sovereignty. The play
satirizes the fledgling nation by showing that
the present is no more a golden age than was
the past. Also in 1960, Soyinka established the
“Nineteen-Sixty Masks”, an amateur acting
ensemble to which he devoted considerable
time over the next few years.
Soyinka wrote the first full-length play produced
on Nigerian television. Entitled My Father’s
Burden and directed by Segun Olusola, the play
was featured on the Western Nigeria Television
(WNTV) on 6 August 1960. [19][20] Soyinka
published works satirising the ” Emergency” in
the Western Region of Nigeria, as his Yorùbá
homeland was increasingly occupied and
controlled by the federal government. The
political tensions arising from recent post-
colonial independence eventually led to a
military coup and civil war (1967–70).
With the Rockefeller grant, Soyinka bought a
Land Rover , and he began travelling throughout
the country as a researcher with the
Department of English Language of the
University College in Ibadan. In an essay of the
time, he criticised Leopold Senghor’s Négritude
movement